TRIPOLI

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TRIPOLI ; the most easterly of the Barbary states, in Africa, bounded north by the Mediterranean, east by Barca, south by Fezzan and the Desert, and west by Tunis. It consists chiefly of a line of coast extending about 800 miles in length, from Ion. 11° 38' E. to Ion. 32° 30' E.; square miles, about 190,000; population differently stated at from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000. (See Barhary States.) The pacha exercises despotic authority. He is nominally subject to the Porte; but the authority of that power is little regarded. The principal officers of state are the bey or generalissimo; the aga, who commands the Turkish troops; thekaya, or grand judge; the kadi, or religious judge; the kaids, or governors of provinces; and the first and viceadmiral. The naval force is small; the armed vessels not being supposed te. exceed six, mounting from six to sixteen guns. There is no regular army; not more than five or six thousand men are often called out; but on emergencies, fifteen thousand have been assembled. Tripoli, the capital, lies on the Mediterranean, 300 miles southeast of Tunis ; Ion. 13° 18' E.; lat. 32° 54' N.; population stated from 20,000 to 25,000. It is built in a low situation, on a neck of land extending into the sea. It is of great extent, but a large portion of the space included within the walls is unoccupied. The caravansaries, mosques, houses of foreign consuls, and of the higher ranks of the natives, are mostly built of stone. The lower ranks construct their houses of earth, small stones and mortar: they never exceed one story, and have flat roofs, which serve as a promenade. With the exception of those belonging to the foreign consuls, they have no windows to the street. Bazars occupy a considerable portion of the city, and are kept in excellent order. The chief monument of antiquity is a superb triumphal arch of marble, erected in the reign of Pius Antoninus. The harbor, though not very spacious, is safe, and will admit small frigates not drawing more than eighteen feet. The castle is an irregular square pile. The town is surrounded by a wall, flanked with six bastions: there are two gates: the batteries are mounted with about fifty pieces of cannon. The trade is chiefly confined to Malta, Tunis and the Levant. The city has a considerable portion of the caravan trade with the interior of Africa; and the exports consist of the productions of the country and articles from the interior. TRIPOLI, or TARABOLUS (anciently Tripolis); a city of Syria, and capital of a pachalic of the same name, seventyfive miles northwest of Damascus; Ion. 35° 44' E.; lat.34° 26' N.; population estimated at 16,000. It is situated at the foot of the branches of mount Lebanon, and along,the edge of a small triangular plain, which extends between them and the sea. There is no harbor, but a mere road, defended against the action of the sea by small islands or shoals. The anchorage is neither safe nor convenient. The only fortification consists of an old citadel, a Saracen building, now useless. The plain is covered with mulberry trees, serving for the production of silk, the staple of Tripoli. The pachalic of Tripoli comprises a great part of the ancient Phoenicia, and consists of the declivity of Lebanon, with the plain jetween it and the Mediterranean. (See %?7a, and Turkey in Asia ^