TITLE

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TITLE ; one of the various significations of this word is a term by which the rank or office of an individual is denoted. In the articles Counsellor, Majesty, and Ceremonial, the extreme to which the Germans have gone in attaching titles to every office, and even extending the same to the wife of the officer, is treated, and several curious examples are given. In England and the U. States, no title is given to civil officers, except as a matter of courtesy or of convenience, to distinguish between individuals of the same name. In some parts of the XL States, some such means of distinction are required by the commonness of particular names, many more individuals being to be found with the same surname, than, usually, in European countries. Bi; <; the cases in which an individual, holding a civil office, are addressed by an official designation, are very few. With military titles, however, the case is different. Having little of the reality of military distinction, we seem disposed to make the most of the semblance, and generals, colonels, and captains, swarm throughout the land. Every traveller has his fling at the military dignitaries whom he meets behind me bar of a tavern, or on the box of a stagecoach. In some places, it is even an ordinary vulgarism to give the title of captain to strangers. There are also certain terms of courtesy used in the superscription of letters, the principal of which (to say nothing of the chivalric term of esquire) are the reverend, addressed to clergymen, and the honorable, to judges, members of congress, and the higher branch of the state legislatures. These will, probably, before long, share the fate of other antirepublican distinctions. The governor and lieutenantgovernor of Massachusetts are the only public functionaries in this country who are provided by law with titles of honor, the constitution of that state having given to the former the title of his excellency, to the latter that of his honor. The Germans, having so enormous a mass of titles, have divided them into titles of xmik (Standestitel), e. g. those of princes, nobles, &c, by which they are distinguished from commoners; titles of honor, as excellency, grace, highness ; and titles of office, as professor, counsellor, superintendent. The holders of this latter class of titles are subdivided into real (as real counsellor, &c), when actually possessed of the office denoted, and iihdar, when they have merely the title of an office, as, for example, so many counsellors of legation, courtcounsellors, &c. Almost all monarchs assume titles taken from countries over which they have no sway. In some cases, this originates from a real or supposed claim of the crown upon the country in question in some, the sovereignty asserted may be actually exercised, under certain circumstances, e. g. the king of Prussia calls himself duke of Mecklenburg, because, under certain circumstances, the government of that country would devolve upon him. In some cases, it is a mere pompous form ; for instance, the emperor of Austria calls himself king of Jerusalem, and the king of Portugal king of the navigation, conquest and commerce of ^Ethiopia, Arabia and India. Generally, monarchs have a less and a great or full title, just as they have two coats of arms. That epithet which is added to the word majesty, in the case of the different sovereigns of Europe, is generally called the predicate. These epithets are, Most Christian (q. v.), for France ; Catholic (q. v.), for Spain ; Most Faithful, for Portugal; Apostolic \q. v.), for Hungary. 2. Title signifies the right of a person to some particular thing. 3 The heads of the various chapters in the corpus juris (q. v.), and other law books, &c, are called titles.