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SPAIN (Espana). The physical features of the Spanish peninsula have exercised a most important influence on the character and histoiy of its inhabitants. The whole surface of the peninsula comprises 225,600 square miles, of which 187,110 belong to Spain, and the rest to Portugal and the republic of Andorra (110 square miles). It is separated from France and the rest of Europe by the .Pyrenean chain of mountains, and is surrounded by three seas, the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the bay of Biscay. Spain lies between lat. 36° and 43° 47' N., and between Ion. 9° 13' W. and 3° 15' E., and is the sixth in extent of territory among the European powers. The bay of Biscay gives great facilities for northera commerce; the gulfs of Alicant and Rosas offer secure harbors and roads to the merchants of Italy, the Levant, and Northern Africa, whilst the hays of Corunna and Cadiz open to her mariners the path to the Indies. One hundred passages lead over the Pyrenees to France; but only three of these are passable for carriages. (See Pyrenees.) From this frontier ridge rise the Cantabrian mountains, which traverse Asturia and Galicia, and terminate at cape Finisterre. To the southeast extends the Sierra d'Occa, live ridges of which, running nearly east and west, separate the basins of the Minho, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir ; and two others, to the southwest, form the southern point of Spain, the island Tarifa. The valleys of the Xucar and the Ebro have a southerly direction. These sierras, among which the Somo Sierra, the Guadarrama, the Sierra Morena, the Alpuxarras, the Sierra Nevada, and the Sierra de Ronda, are the principal, surroundthe plains of Castile and La Mancha (the highest of such extent in Europe) with strong bulwarks, and even constitute distinct moral divisions of the inhabitants. The whole country thus appears to be formed of several great intrenched camps, and is admirably adapted ?or a war of posts, and particularly for guerilla warfare. Although Spain contains 150 considerable streams, very few of which, however, are navigable, thereis a deficiency of water. Except the Albufera, in Valencia, there is no lake of much extent; and there are no marshes except m the valley of the Guadiana. The marshy islands in the Guadalquivir have been drained and planted since 1819. The dry and pure mountain air renders the inhabitants vigorous and healthy: the sea breezes have the same effect upon the coasts; hot in the southern parts the scorching solano, from the shores of Africa, is felt during some seasons. Snow lies upon the summits of some of the mountains till July; and the capital is situated in a region fifteen times more elevated than the site of Paris. The fertile soil, wherever it is well watered, produces abundance of plants with little cultivation. The finest wines are exported in great quantities (Alicant, Sherry, Malaga), and other kinds are consumed at home. Since the expulsion of the Moors, agriculture has been in a low state, in spite of the patriotic exertions of numerous societies; hardly two thirds of the productive soil is under cultivation. Wheat, in Valencia, yields from twenty to forty fold. The Andalusian wheat commands a higher price in the Spanish market than the northern. Among the principal productions are olives, saffron,, anise, cumin, cork, esparto or Spanish hroom, soda, &c. In the warmer parts of the country, the sugarcane and the banana thrive; and even the heaths, or landaSf are covered with fragrant herbs and shrubs. But neither the wood (except in the maritime districts), which is sold by weight in Madrid, nor the corn (with the exception of barley), is produced in sufficient quantity to supply the wants of the inhabitants. The breeding of Merinos is profitable for the mesla (a society composed of owners of the flocks), but is injurious to agriculture. The whole number of migrating sheep is about ten millions ; that of the stationary flocks, about eight millions. Valencia produces much silk: Andalusia breeds excellent horses; but the Andalusian studs have lost their importance. The mules are also of excellent quality. The gold mine s of Spain have long ceased to be worked ; but iron, copper, tin and lead are obtained. Silver mines are worked on the Sierra Morena, and the quicksilver mines of Alriaden, in La Mancha, are rich, but do not yield enough for the mining operations of America. Sea and mineral sail are abundant, and there are mineral springs at Salcedon tmd other places. The Spanish people are descended fiom sion, at later periods, of Teutonic (Gothic) and Moorish blood. The population of Spain was estimated by Minafio, in 1826, at about 1.3,900,000; and that of the Spanish colonies at 4,088,000, making the total population of the monarchy 17,988,000. The kingdom is politically divided into fourteen principal parts, each of which has its separate authorities and administration, and several of which are subdivided into smaller provinces, forming, in all, fortyone provinces. The division into fiftyone provinces by the cortes, in 1822, was abolished on the restoration of absolute power. The general divisions are as follows: 1. the kingdom of Navarre ; % the Vascongades, or Biscay; 3. the principality of the Asturias; 4. the kingdom of Galicia; 5. the kingdom of Arragon ; 6. the principality of Catalonia; 7. the kingdom of Leon ; 8. Old Castile ; 9. Estremadura; 1.0. New Castile; 11. the kingdom of Valencia ; 12. Andalusia (including the kingdoms of Cordova, Seville, and Grenada); 13. the kingdom of Murcia; 14. the Balearic isles. The Spaniard is, in general, temperate, persevering, reserved, honest and pious. The Spanish gravity is more observable in the higher than in the lower classes, or among women. The Spaniard of the lower order has more gayety, wit, vivacity, and, though frugal, is so indifferent to outward goods, that, were he less courteous and goodhumored, he might pass for a practical philosopher of the school of Diogenes. His pride of birth, rank and faith appears, however, on every occasion ; and he is suspicious, irritable and vindictive. This pride also manifests itself in the contempt with which the northern Spaniard, the inhabitant of Biscay or the Asturias, looks down upon the native of the south, whose darker complexion and smaller frame betray his Moorish blood. The nobles are distinguished into the titulados, grandees who have the right to cover themselves in presence of the king fill 1787, their number was 129), marquises, counts, and viscounts (in 1787, their number was 535); and the lower nobilit}7, jCavalleros, escude?*os, and hidalgos (q. v.), the number of whom, in 1797, was 484,131. Music, singing and dancing are national amusements. The two former are simple, often monotonous, hut full of feeling ; the latter is extremely voluptuous. The bolero is popular on the stage: the fcmdango and seguidilla are favorite VOL. xi. 43 music of the cithern, which the nlayer accompanies with his voice. An etic sports, as the barra (throwing an iron bar at a mark) and balloon (a game at ball) are common. The favorite popular amusement is the bullfights (q. v.), which was prohibited in 1805, but lias been revived by Ferdinand VII. The Spaniard, in general, is of the middle size, and wTell built, with an expressive countenance, brilliant eyes, white teeth and black hair. The men of the higher classes are much less rohust than those of the lower. The Spanish women are distinguished for beauty of person and dignity of manner. Their complexion is neither white nor delicate, but healthy : they dress with taste, and move with ease and grace: they are unaffected, and have often, particularly among the lower classes, a ready vein of wit. In general, they are characterized by intelligence, deep feeling, fidelity and constancy; but they are almost entirely uneducated. Their courage and patriotism have often been .displayed even in the field of battle. l*he strictness with which the female sex was formerly treated, and the formal stiffness which prevailed in society, have been much diminished ; and the Oriental Moorish traits are gradually disappearing. The most important element in Spanish society is religion: the ecclesiastics form the most privileged order, and every family endeavors to find a place in the church for some of its members. Religion, however, consists merely in the outward observances of the church, in the practice of penances, and in the reverence of priests and monks. The apostle James is the tutelary saint of the kingdom ; but he has lost reputation, since Charles III, with the estates, in 1760, took an oath of their belief in the immaculate conception of the virgin Mary, who was declared the patroness of the Spanish monarchy. The invocation of the virgin is, therefore, the chief act of divine service ; and there are saints for all orders and degrees, whose festivals occupy a great, portion of the time. The clergy, particularly the inquisition, has hitherto usurped (lie direction of education and literature ; and the Spanish church has thus obtained possession of the supreme power, although it has had the prudence to conceal its exercise of it. The most enlightened ecclesiastical college is that of the chapter of San Isidore, which has been exposed to persecution on a charge of Jansenism The edict of March 2d, 1819, divided the prohibited books into two classes: 1. books which are forbidden even to those who have received a license from the Holy Office for reading prohibited books in general; and 2. books which contain revolutionary principles, are directed against the inquisition, the clergy, true religion, the king and monarchical power, or which ridicule the sacrament of marriage, or jealous men. The importation of Spanish books, printed out of the country, is punished by four years' confinement to the galleys. (See Inquisition.) The number of the clergy, before the wars with France, was 256,000; in 1826, 146,696, among whom were sixtyone archbishops and bishops, 61,327 monks,and 31,400 nuns. According to an estimate of a member of the cortes, the income of the clergy and convents in Spain, in 1808, from their real estate alone,was $51,000,000; and, according to the statement of Arguelles, minister of finance in the time of the cortes, the property of the church exceeded, by one third, the domains of the state. The inaction of the Spaniard arises less from indolence than from his frugality and fondness for religious festivals, the fertility of the soil, and the ease with which his few wants are supplied. The system of taxationfounded not upon the land, but upon productionand the privileges and monopolies of particular classes and societies, also contribute to discourage industry. The greatest activity prevails in the maritime towns and provinces, where industry is sure of its reward. The woollen manufactures are the most important; but they do not. furnish more than one twentieth of the consumption. Tae best stuffs are made at Segovia and Guadalaxara. There are silk manufactures atTalavera, Madrid,Segovia, Toledo, Valencia,&c.; but less flourishing than in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Iron and steel wares are exported from Biscay, blankets from Valencia, and fine handkerchiefs from Barcelona. The black Cordovan leather, from Cordova, is of excellent quality. The manufacture of hats at Valencia. Segovia, &c, and of sailcloth, is on the increase. The glass and mirror works at San Udefonso produce good articles, but at a high price. The porcelain of Madrid is much inferior to that of other countries. The principal tobacco works are in Seville. The esparto, or Spanish broom, is a peculiar product of Spain, and is spun and woven mto forty different articles. The commerce has undergone an entire change since the loss of the American colonies, from which the mother country received $35,000,000 yearly in gold and silver and $20,000,000 in cochineal, cacao, vanilla, sugar, tobacco, hides, cotton, vicugna wool, cinchona, dyewoods, ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, &c. The commerce with the colonies was closed against all foreign nations, but, since they have become independent, is carried on by the North Americans, the English and Dutch. Internal commerce suffers from the heavy tolls, and the want of means of communication. Among the five canals, none of which are completed, the imperial canal, or the canal of Arragon, is the most important. The form of government ia monarchical. The king, who bears the title of Catholic majesty, is absolute in Castile, Arragon, and in the islands ; .but the three northern provinces of Biscay, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, have maintained their privileges ; and they consented to pay the extraordinary taxes of 1816, only on condition of the confirmation of these privileges, and the removal of the troops stationed among them. The Cortes forms an important element in Spanish history. (See Corks.) The crown is hereditary, both in the male and female line. The crownprince has the title of prince of Ashirias; the other children of the king are called infantes and infantas. The king is grand master of the orders of the golden fleece, of St. Jago (St. James), of Calatrava, of Alcantara, of Montesa, and of Charles III. The order of Maria Louisa was founded in 1792, for sixty ladies of the high nobility. The reigning king, Ferdinand VII (q. v.), was born in 1784, and ascended the throne in 1814. His three first wives died without children ; his fourth wife, Mary Christina, sister of Ferdinand, king of the Two Sicilies (born 1806, married 1829), has borne him a daughter, who is heiress apparent to the Spanish throne; to which don Carlos, his brother, born in 1788, is next heir. The predecessors of Ferdinand have been, 1. of the Austrian dynasty : Philip I, husband of Joanna of Castile ; Charles I of Spain (V, as emperor of Germany), resigned die crown 1556; Philip II (died Jn98); Philip III (1621); Philip IV (16(55) Charles II (1700): 2. of the Anjou (Bourbon) dynasty ; Philip V (abdicated in 1724, but his successor, Louis, dying the same vear, he resumed the crown, and died 1746) ; Ferdinand VI (died 1759^ o Charles III (1798); Charles IV (resigned 1808). Of the Bonaparte dynasty, Joseph (expelled 1813). The colonial posses presidios (towns on the coast) of Ceuta, &c, remnants of her former conquests in North ern Africa; the Canaries, and the three islands on the coast of Guinea, Annaboa, Fernando Po, and Prince's island: in America, Cuba and Porto Rico are the sole relics of the magnificent colonial empire of Spain. The administration is conducted partly by five ministers, who have a seat and voice in the council, and partly by the provincial councils, of which the most distinguished, the council of Castile, existed as early as 1246. Justice is administered in the towns and villages by alcaldes, of whom there are five classes. The alcaldes may ores, or superior alcaldes, are also called corregidores. An appeal lies from them to the royal courts [audiencias), of which there are twelve at Valladolid, Grenada, &c, and to each of which is attached a chamber of criminal jurisdiction. The laws, the judiciary, and the legal process, all stand in need of a thorough reform. The public revenue is about $20,000,000; the expenditure is much greater, and the public debt is stated at nearly $800,000,000. In 1837, the conscription was introduced ; at the close of 1827, the forces consisted of 91,000 men, including the militia, and of 350,000 rojral volunteers. The naval force is composed of ten ships of the line, sixteen frigates, and thirty other vessels, with 14,000 men.See, for the geographical and statistical accounts of Spain, the works of Bourgoing, Townsend, Laborde, Bory de St. Vincent, and Mifiano's Diccionario de Espana y Portugal. The fourth edition of Laborde's Ilineraire de VEspagne (5 vols., and an atlas) appeared in 1827.For descriptions of the life, manners and character of the Spaniards, see Southey's Letters 'written in Spain and Portugal; Doblado's (Blanco White) Letters from Spain ; A Year in Spain, by a young American ; and Inglis's Year in Spain (London, 1831,2 vols., 8vo.). The ancient history of Spain embraces the period previous to the great irruption of the northern tribes into the Roman empire. As early as the third century before the Christian era, the two rivals, Rome and Carthage, contended for the possession of this important peninsula. The determined spirit of the people is shown by the resistance of Saguutum to Hannibal (B. C. 219), of Xativa( A. D. 1707) and Barcelona (A. D. 1714) to Philip V, and of Saragossa (1808 and 1809) to Napoleon. More than one Roman army withstood the Roman power till he fell by assassination (B. C. 140). For fourteen years, the Romans attempted, without success, to subjugate the Numantines, till Scipio (B. C. 133) triumphed over the ashes of the city, whose inhabitants had destroyed themselves. Afterwards, this land, which is possessed of much natural strength, afforded refuge to several of the popular leaders of Rome, on their fall from powrer. Thus Sertorius, an adherent of Marius, lived in Lusitania (B. C. 72), and the sons of Pompey fought against Csesar in Hispania Bastica, where Cneius fell. After a struggle of 200 years, wdien Agrippa, the general of Augustus, conquered the Cantabrians, Spain was first completely subjected to the Roman power. Augustus himself founded the colony of Csesar Augusta (Saragossa) and Augusta Emerita (Merida). For 400 years, the Roman manners and language took root in the Spanish provinces, which, in Caesar's time, had a population of 40,000,000. Merida supported a garrison of 90,000 men ; Tarragona had 2,500,000. inhabitants. In the arts of war and peace, the peninsula rivalled Rome. Pomponius Mela, Seneca, Lucan, Trajan, and Theo dosius the Great, were natives of Spain The Celtic language continued only in Cantabria, and is still understood in Bis cay, as William von Humboldt's investigations have shown. See his Attempts to ascertain the original Inhabitants of Spain by Means of the Basque Language (Berlin, 1821).The Middle Ages of Spain include the times of the Goths and Arabians from the irruption of the barbarians into the Roman empire to the fall of Grenada, the last Moorish kingdom in Spain (1492). At the commencement of the fifth century, the Vandals, Suevi and Alans spread themselves over the peninsula. About 419, the brave Wallia founded the kingdom of the Visigoths in Spain. The Vandals, from whom Andalusia received its name, could not withstand him, and withdrew into Africa in 428. From 467 to 484, the great Euric extended the kingdom of the Visigoths by the expulsion of the Romans, and gave them their first written laws. At length Leowigild, in 585, overthrew the kingdom of the Suevi, in Galicia. Under his successor, Reccared I, the introduction of the Catholic faith, in 586, gave the corrupt Latin language the predominance over the Gothic; and, after that time, the unity of the Spanish nation was maintained byih<" Catholic religion and the political influence of the clergy. But, after 125 years, Alaric's family, from revenge at being passed by in the choice of a king, recalled the Arabians, who had passed over into Africa. King Roderic fell in the seven days' battle against Tarik, at Xeres de la Froncera, in Andalusia, in 711. After that, the greatest part of Spain became a province of the caliphs of Bagdad. Forty years later, in 756, Abdorrhaman I, the last of the Ommiades, made himself master of Spain, overthrowing the government of the Abassides, and establishing a separate caliphate at Cordova; which, however, after 1038, fell to pieces, the different governors becoming independent, and assuming the title of kings. Thus Arabian princes reigned at Saragossa, Toledo, Valencia and Seville. In these places, the Moorish language and customs were almost universal. Yet the Christians were allowed the free exercise of their religion. The Arabians likewise permitted their new subjects (called Mozarabians, that is, spurious Arabians) to retain their language, laws and magistrates. At this time, the Jews spread over Spain. Meanwhile, the Visigoths, under their hero Pelayo and his successors, maintained their freedom in the mountains of Asturia and Galicia. The Moorish governments being weakened by changes of dynasties, and by internal dissensions, the Christian kings wrested from the Arabians one portion of the country after another, till, after the great victory, which the united Christian princes obtained over the Almohades, in 1220, at Tolosa, in Sierra Morena, there remained to the Arabians only the kingdom of Grenada, which was likewise obliged to acknowledge the Castilian supremacy in 1248, and was finally conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1491. During the period of Arabian power, agriculture, commerce, the arts and sciences, flourished in Spain. The population was considerable. In Tarragona, there were 80,000 families, or 350,000 inhabitants. The rich city of Grenada contained 70,000 houses, 250,000 inhabitants, and 50,000 men able to bear anus. The Ommiades had connexions with the Byzantine emperors. The universities and libraries at Cordova and other places were resorted to by Christians, as the seat of the GrecoArabic literature and the Aristotelian philosophy. From these institutions, Europe received the knowledge of the present arithmetical characters, of gunpowder, and of paper made from rags. Among the Gothic Spaniards, the blending of the chivalrous and religious spirit gave occasion to the foundation of several military orders. The grea* Cid (q. v.), or don Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar el Campeador, the hero without an equal, has been celebrated since the end of the eleventh century as the hero of his age, The romantic elevation of national feeling* which found its support in the religious faith and national church, preserved the Christian Gothic states Navarre, Arragon and Asturia, from many internal and external dangers. The county of Castile, at first called Burgos, became, in 1028, a separate kingdom. Ferdinand I, by his marriage in 1035, united with it Leon and Asturia. For him the great Cid conquered a part of Portugal. The kingdom of Navarre has existed since the ninth century. It formed a part of the Spanish territory of Charlemagne, south of the Pyrenees, obtained by conquest from the Arabians, and extending as far as the Ebro. Here, in the county of Barcelona, now the principality of Catalonia, powerful vassals ruled, till one of them, Raymond V, became, by marriage, king of Arragon, in 1135. His descendants in the male line reigned there 258 years. Alphonso VI (died 1109), king of Leon, Castile and Galicia, together with Portugal, as far as Montego, conquered the Moorish kingdom of Toledo, or New Castile ; but he gave up Portugal (q. v.) to his soninlaw Henry of Burgundy. Ferdinand III did more: he conquered Cordova, Murcia, Jaen, Seville, Cadiz, and subjected Grenada to a feudal dependence on him. He became, in 1252, the true founder of the kingdom of Castile, by establishing the rule of indivisibility and primogeniture in the succession. Still the whole was as yet but an imperfect confederation. The privileges granted to the Jews in Spain, in the middle ages, had an injurious influence on the government and the public welfare. They were placed nearly on a level with the nobles; they were appointed ministers of finance, farmers of the public revenues, and stewards to the great: thus they obtained possession of all the money in the country, and, by their excessive. usury, at length excited a universal outcry against them; and, in 1492, they were banished for ever, to the number of 800,000, from Spain. The improvement of the country was much retarded by the defects in the public administration, par ticularly in regard to the taxes, by power ful vassals, bad kings, and family disputes, so that the third estate was not formed in Castile till 1325, 200 years later than that estates of the kingdom, namely, the clergy, the high nobility, the orders of knights, and eighteen great cities, restricted the royal power, without, however, bringing about a state of legal order. But, in Arragon (a kingdom since 1035), of which Alphonso I, since the conquest of Saragossa, in 1115, had been in complete possession, the third estate was formed before the middle of the twelfth century, sooner than in any other European country, and a wellsettled political order ensued. Disputes between the king and this estate, or of the members of this estate among themselves, were decided by a supreme judge, called justitia. (See Mariana, Teoria de las Cortes, Madrid, 1812.) From these circumstances, and the wisdom of the kings, the country flourished. Arragon comprehended, besides Catalonia and Cerdagne, already united to it, in 1135, the counties of Roussillon, Montpelier, the Baleares, or Majorca, from 1220 (where, however, from 1276 to 1344, a collateral line reigned), also Valencia, from 1238, Sicily from the Sicilian Vespers, in 1282, and Sardinia from 1326. But, by the provisions of James II, in 1319, the states of Arragon, Catalonia and Valencia only were indissolubly united, each with its own constitution. At length the marriage of prince Ferdinand of Arragon see Ferdinand V the Catholic), with Isabella, heiress of Castile, in 1469, laid the foundation of the union of the crowns of Castile and Arragon. This followed on Ferdinand's accession to the throne in 1479.See Murphy's splendid work upon he Arabian Antiquities of Spain (London, 1816); and the Introduction to the History rf the Mohammedan Empire in Spain; and particularly Conde's Histoiy of the Doninion of the Moors in Spain (Spanish, Madrid, 1820), with the History of the Visigoths, by Joseph Aschbach (Frankfort ¦>n the Maine, 1827); and doctor E. A. Schmidt's History of Arragon in the Middle Ages (Leipsic, 1828; the two last in German).With this union, with the entire subjugation of the Moors, and the discovery of America, a new period in the history of Spain begins. The young monarchy advanced immediately to the first place among the European governments ; but, exhausted by political and spiritual oppression, it quickly declined ai consequence, till the Spanish branch f)f the Hapsburg race became extinct in 1700. Spain now became a power of 'he second rank, under the kings ofa close political connexion with France. At length they sunk before the power of Napoleon, and the revolt of Spanish America followed. The state of Spain since the restoration of the Bourbons will be treated in the sequel.From 1479 to 1700. Spain had, when Ferdinand and Isabella founded the monarchy, a. population of about 14,000,000, which, however, was much divided by difference of customs and laws. To unite the discordant parts into one powerful nation, was the great object which occupied for fortythree years Isabella, Ferdinand and car dinal Ximenes. (q. v.) By a severe administration of justice, and by the institution of the Hermandad (q. v.j, order was established through the country. The royal power was particularly strengthened and extended by the introduction of the inquisition, and by the union with the crown of the office of grand masterof the three great military orders of Castile. Grenada was conquered in 1491, after a ten years' war. Soon after began the cruel persecution of the Jews and Moors, so injurious to Spain. They were obliged to be baptized, or to leave the country. Till then toleration had prevailed in Spain. Princes and nobles at one time even fought for the Albi^ genses; and, in the thirteenth century the kings of Arragon braved the papal excommunication. But by this system of persecution the peace and prosperity of the country were deeply shaken. The discovery of America, in 1492, by Christopher Columbus, under the patronage of Isabella, withdrew much of the activity of the nation from the improvement of the mother country; and avarice, united with fanaticism, established in the West Indies an unwise colonial system. In general, the politics of Spain, under Ferdinand the Catholic, were characterized by cunning and desire of foreign aggrandizement, as appears from the acquisition of Naples, the league of Cambray, and ?the conquest of Navarre, south of the Pyrenees, though the warlike fame of the nation was maintained by one ol the greatest commanders of his time, Gonsalvo Fernandez of Cordova, and by the expedition of the great Ximenes into the north of Africa. After Charles I (as emperor of Germany, Charles V, q. v.), sin of the Infanta Joanna and Philip of Burgundy, had succeeded his father in the government of the Netherlands, his maternal grandfather (1516) in that of {Spain, and his paternal grandfather in that of the Austrian dominions (1519) ; and after he had repressed, with the help of the nobles, insurrections in Valencia and Majorca, and particularly in Castile (1520), where the third estate demanded a freer constitution; and after he had annihilated the principal part of the liberties. of the nation by the separation of the deliberative estates,Spain became the first military and political power in Europe, during the four wars which Charles carried on with Francis I of France, and by which he obtained Milan. The victory of the Spaniards at Pavia (Feb. 24, 1525), which made Francis I the prisoner of Charles, in Madrid, till the peace of Madrid (Jan. 14, 1526), and the expedition of Charles into the north of Africa, extended the fame of the Spanish arms throughout Europe. The wealth which flowed in from Mexico, conquered by Cortez, in 1518, and from Peru and Chile, conquered by Pizarro and Almagro, in 1528, was not sufficient to supply the demands of the royal treasury ; so that the revenues of the crown were exhausted, the taxes increased, and debts contracted. The thirtyfive years' union of Germany with Spain promoted the intercourse between the two countries. But the strength of the powerful monarchy was exhausted by the fortytwo years' tyranny of Philip II. (q. v.) Oppression and religious intolerance, war and insurrections, occasioned the loss of the Netherlands, and depopulated the rest of the monarchy; and the conquest of Portugal, which remained united with Spain from 1581 to 1640, could not prevent its decay. England and Holland triumphed over the naval force of Spain, and destroyed her commerce; and Philip died in 1598, a bankrupt. Under his weak successors, Philip III (died 1621), Philip IV (died 1665), and Charles II (died 1700), the abuses in the administration increased. An incurable wound was inflicted upon the country by the expulsion of 600,000 Moriscoes in 1609. On the whole, the persecutions of the Arabians cost Spain* about 2,000,000 of souls, and the expulsion of the Jews about 800,000. The southern coasts, likewise, were depopulated by the continual incursions of the pirates of Northern Africa. Favorites, such as Lerma and the count Olivarez, wasted the resources of the kingdom. Olivarez (q.v.) wished to employ harsh measures ; insurrections were excited ; and Mazarin (q. v.) compelled Spain to acknowledge the superiority of France,in the peace of the Pyrenees (1659). By the peace of AixlaChapelle, in 1668, by that of Nimeguen, in 1678, and by the reunions of Louis XIV, Spain lost many places in the Netherlands and Franche Comte. But after the death of Charles II (1700), the monarchy sunk entirely from its ancient elevation, in consequence of the wars respecting the Span^ ish succession; and the population, which, in 1688, amounted to about 11,000,000, had diminished, in the first fourteen years of the 18th centurv, to about 8,000,000. From 1700 to 1808. Charles II, the last Spanish sovereign of the race of Hapsburg, in his second will, made Philip of Anjou, a grandson of his sister, the consort of Louis XIV, and second son of the dauphin, sole heir of his dominions, in order to prevent the division of the Spanish monarchy, which had been resolved on in a treaty between England, Holland and France. Louis XIV acknowledged his grandson king, according to the testament. The emperor Leopold I, of the race of Hapsburg, laid claim to the throne, whilst William III, king of England and stadtholder of Holland, was in favor of a division of the monarchy, for the sake of preserving the balance of power in Europe. The measures of Louis XIV at length brought on a war with England. Thus began the war of the Spanish succession (see Eugene, Marlborough, Utrecht, Peace of), in which the Bourbon, Philip V, after many changes of fortune, by the victories of Berwick and Vendome, maintained himself on the Spanish throne in opposition to Charles of Austria (afterwards the emperor Charles VI). But by the peace of Utrecht, in 1713, he was obliged to resign the Spanish dependencies in EuropeNaples, Sardinia, Parma, Milan and the Netherlands to Austria, and Sicily to Savoy. England likewise retained Gibraltar and Minorca. Under the Bourbons, the nation lost its last constitutional rights ; for Arragon, Catalonia and Valencia were treated by Philip as conquered countries. The last diet held in Castile was in 1713, and in Saragossa in 1720. Biscay and Navarre alone retained some of their privileges. The ambition of cardinal Alberoni (q. v.), in 1717 et seq., involved Europe for a short time in confusion. Spain, in 1735, again obtained possession of the Two Sicilies, for the Infant Carlos, and, in 1748, of Parma, for the Infant Philip. Naples and Sicily were ceded to a Spanish Bourbon. Under the reign of Charles III, 175988, the Bourbon family compact the war between the French and English. The expeditions against Algiers likewise rr iscarried; as did the siege of Gibraltar, in the war of 177983. Yet this did not disturb the course of the internal administration, to the improvement of which, men like Aranda, Campomanes, Olavides and Florida Blanca (q. v.) devoted themselves. They provided particularly for the advancement of agriculture, the useful arts, and commerce. The population consequently increased. According to the census of 1768, it amounted to 9,300,000, and in 1798, to 10,061,000 men. The power of the inquisition was restricted, and the secret opposition of the Jesuits annihilated at a blow, by the pragmatic sanction of April 2, 1767, which banished them from all the Spanish dominions, and confiscated their property. But the imagination of the nation was employed upon the mystery of the immaculate conception, and the sinless purity of the virgin Mary. The pope, at the desire of Charles III, declared the whole Spanish monarchy, together with the colonies, under the protecting influence of the immaculate conception. The king established some orders with the device of a female figure dressed in white and blue, in allusion to this doctrine ; and every Spaniard, who wished to receive a degree from a university, or to belong to a corporation, and even mechanics, on joining the associations of their trades, were obliged to take an oath of their firm belief in the immaculate conception. The progress in improvement, even during the reign of Charles IV, 1788-1808, was obvious; so that Florida Blanca was able to quiet the wish of the people for the reassembling of the ancient cortes. But he was superseded, in 1792, by Godoy (q. v.J, whose administration was as void of plan as it was injurious to the state, and greatly exasperated the nation; so that the fall of the most fortunate and proudest favorite of modern times, was immediately followed by that of the royal house. Spain, at first, entered with zeal into the war against the French republic (the voluntary contributions of the nation to the expenses of the war amounted to 73,000,000 francs); but the favorite, who wished to conduct the war from his palace, ruined all, and hastened to conclude the discreditable peace of Basle, by which Spain resigned half of St. Domingo ; on which occasion Godoy received the title of " prince of peace." He then concluded with the republic, the leaders of which deluded