SENNAAR

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SENNAAR ; a negro kingdom in Africa, which is generally considered as a part of Nubia, lying between the Nile and the Tacazze, and comprising the isle of Meroe. (q. v.) To the north, it borders on Turkish Nubia; to the east, on mountains which separate it from the coast of the Red sea; to the south, on Abyssinia; and to the west, on Nigritia, or Soudan. It is separated from Darfour by Kordofan ; lat., 14°17° N#> i0Ili 31°39° E. The soil is, for the most part, level, in some parts barren, but, on the Nile and the Tacazze, fruitful and well cultivated. Among the am* mals are camels, sheep, cattle, swine, and the African wild animals. Rice, grain, melons, tobacco, sugar, senna leaves, ebony, and sandal wood, and palms, are among, its' productions. The climate is warm; in summer, insufferably hot. The rains which follow the hot weather, render the air un healthy. The inhabitants are negroes, who bear the name of Shilloolu, and con quered the country from, the Arabs in 1504. They are rude, ignorant Mohammedans, governed by an absolute despotism. Besides the Shillooks, there are also nomadic Arabs, and Bedouins, wrbo are tributary, and the Daheras, or heathen Nubians, who have been purchased, or carried off from the neighboring countries'. The Daheras form the main strength of the military establishment of Sennaar. 14,000 of them, armed with spears and shields, guard the capital, with 18,000 Shillooks on horseback. The manufactures of Sennaar are inconsiderable; but the commerce, carried on, by caravans, to Suakem, Jedda, Mecca, Abyssinia, Nigritia, and Egypt, is extensive. The country has been little visited by Europeans, and is but imperfectly known. Cailliaud Voyage a Meroe, &fc. (1824) and English Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar (Boston, 1823)are among the most recent travellers who have given accounts of it. The capital, SENNAAR, on the Nile, has about 16,000 inhabitants. The houses are poorly built, with flat roofs. The royal palace is constructed of mud, and is surrounded with a high brick wall.