RUSSIA

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RUSSIA. The Russian empire stretches over half Europe, and the whole of Northern Asia, from the Baltic to the Pacific, and includes vast territories on the northwestern coast of North America. It lies between lat. 38° and 79° N., and Ion. 19° E. and 130° W., extending through 211 degrees of longitude. It is bounded N. by the Northern or Icy ocean ; W. by Norway, Sweden, the Baltic sea, Austria and Prussia; S. by Turkey, the Black sea, Persia, the Caspian sea, Independent Tartary, China, and the U. States of North America; and E. by the British possessions in North America. The total superficial area is estimated at 8,000,000 square miles, of which about 1,500,000 are situated in Europe, and 5,600,000 in Asia. The southern boundary of the American possessions of Russia was fixed by the convention of 1824, between Russia and the U. States, at 54° 40' N. lat. The Russian dominions compose about one seventh of the habitable globe. European Russia is for the most part level, but in the southern parts the face of the country is somewhat uneven. Between the Black and Caspian seas is the Caucasus (q. v.); in the southwest are branches of the Carpathian mountains (q. v.), and hi the northwest the elevated plain of the Wolchonski forest. In the east is the Ural (q. v.) chain, dividing Europe from Asia, and terminating at the Frozen ocean. Several branches of this chain shoot off into Asiatic RUSSIA, among which are the Schooget, with its salt mines, the Sok mountains, the Little Altai, the Baikal mountains, the Apple and Stanwowoi mountains, which form the Chinese and Russian boundary, and extend to the rchutschian peninsula. The southwestern part of Russia consists of steppes ]q. v.), which are either uninhabited, or furnish pasturegrounds to nomadic tribes. The climate is various. In the south, the winters are short and mild, the spring early, the summers long and hot, with little rain, and a late autumn. In central RUSSIA, the winters are longer and more severe, particularly in the eastern parts, and the summers shorter; in the north, quicksilver freezes so as to be malleable even in a warm room, and the waters are frozen from October to the end of May. In central Russia corn is raised in considerable quantities, but in the northern parts the crops are small and uncertain. Washed by the Frozen ocean, which forms the White sea and the basins of the Obi, Yenissey and Lena, on the north; by the Pacific ocean, with Beering's and Cook's straits, and the gulfs or bays of Anadyr and Kamtschatka or Okotsk, on the east; by the Black sea on the south ; and by the Baltic, with the gulfs of Bothnia, Finland and Riga on the west,Russia has two great declivities, the one towards the northeast and northwest, and the other towards the south. Down these flow the Dwina, with the Jug and the Sucbowna, the Petchora, the Obi, the Yenissey and the Lena, in the north ; the Duna, the Niemen, and the Neva, in the northwest; and the Don, the Dnieper, the Cuban, the Volga and the Ural, in the south. Besides numerous salt springs and small lakes, Russia contains fourteen large bodies of water, among which are the Caspian sea, lak s Ladoga, Onega and Peipus, lake Sak, m the Crimea, and lakes Baikal, Aral ai.d Altin. Artificial water communications are constantly increasing on a systematic plan. The canals of VishneyVolotchok, connecting Petersburg with Astrachan, the Novgorod canal, the Beresina canal, connecting the Baltic and Black seas, and the Ladoga canal, by which the navigation of the tempestuous Ladoga is avoided, are among the most important. A system of water communication extends through Siberia, from the Chinese wall to Petersburg, Archangel and Riga, so that European wares can be procured at moderate prices in Kolyvan, Tomsk and Irkutsk. Russia raises much more corn than it consumes. Fruits and wine are produced in abundance. The forest also yields important articles of export, besides supplying the consumption: mulberry trees have been planted to a great extent. The raising of cattle, horses and sheep, the keeping of bees (600,000 pounds of wax and honey can be annually exported), and silkworms (furnishing 16,000 pounds of silk yearly), are profitable occupations. Cam els, buffaloes, and wild animals of all sorts, are also numerous. The annual product of the fisheries is reckoned at 15,000,000 roubles. Gold (from the Beresov mines), silver (from the Kolyvan and Nertchinski mines), platina, copper, iron, zinc, quicksilver, alum and salt (to the yearly amount of 500,000,000 pounds), are among the mineral productions. The total value of the natural productions of the empire is estimated to exceed 40,000,000 rouhles. The population of RUSSIA, including Poland and Finland, is 57,000,000, of nine different races:1. Sclavoniaus, 44,000,000, including the .Russians (42,000,000, among whom are the Cossacks, ahout 600,000 capable of bearing arms) and the Poles ; 2. Finns, who are scattered over the country, from Tornea and the Niemen to the Obi (3,000,000); 3. Tartars, from the Dniester to the Caucasus (2,000,000), mostly under their own government, without agriculture or firearms ; 4. Georgians and Circassians (2,000,000); 5. Samoiedes; 6. Mantchoos; 7. Mongols, to whom belong the Calmucks; 8. eastern tribes (including Tchutsches, Kuriles and Aleutians) ; 9. Jews, particularly in the Polish provinces. Besides these races, there are natives of almost all countries of Europe and Asia, as Greeks, Arabs, Hindoos, Gypsies, French, English and Danes. There are among these Russian subjects eighty tribes, differing in language, religion and manners, from the rudest state of barbarism to the highest degree of European civilization. The population is divided into four classes, the nobility, clergy, common people or freemen, and peasants or serfs, In 1811, the number of persons subject to do military duty was as follows : 643,135 persons engaged in trade; 6,389,279 crown peasants; 10,113,177 peasants belonging to individuals; 1,077,636 appanage peasants; 112,453 freemen; in all, 18,335,730 men. We fmd manufactures of leather, tallow, candles, soap, felt, coarse linen, mats of the bark of the linden tree, hardware, and the art of dyeing, among the Russians before the time of Peter the Great; but since his reign these have been carried to much greater perfection, and many new manufactures have been introduced. In 1815, Russia contained 3253 manufacturing establishments; 23 of these deliver to the government annually cloth of 700,000 roubles in value, and there are, besides, 181 private establishments. Drugs are prepared in fortyfive laboratories ; and there are distilleries of brandy, of which 120,000,000 gallons are consumed in the country. Ship building is earned on in the large villages on the Wolga and in the seaports. On the Wolga, boats are built without iron, which are eventually used in Petersburg, Astrachan and other cities for tuei. Th? fabrication of firearms is the most important branch of metallic manufactures ; ki Tula alone 17,000 muskets, 6500 pair of pistols, and 16,000 sidearms, are made by about 6000 workmen. The board of manufactures, in Moscow and Petersburg, has the superintendence over all the branches of manufacturing industry. The commerce is carried on partly by land and partly by sea. The inland commerce is neither impeded by tolls nor staples, but is facilitated by navigable rivers, lakes, canals, the snow in winter, and the great fairs, especially at Novgorod. Goods may be exported from any port or frontier place, but can be imported only into Petersburg, Riga and Odessa. The foreign land trade in Asia is with China, Persia, Bucharia, and the Caucasian countries, and in Europe with Turkey, Galicia, Prussia, Silesia and Saxony. This branch of trade is chiefly in the hands of Armenians, Buchanans and Jews, while the maritime is chiefly carried on by the English. Since 1815, the yearly value of the imports by sea has amounted to 28,000,000 roubles, and that of the exports to 45,000,000. The shares of the American commercial company, and of that of the White sea, command good prices. The board of commerce in Petersburg is the supreme tribunal in all commercial matters. In 1770, a bank was established, whose paper is at par, and has afforded great facilities to the inland trade. The government is an unlimited monarchy; the emperor is autocrat of all the RUSSIAs ; the state is indivisible; the ruler cannot be, at the same time, ruler of any other country (since 1815, however, he has been king of Poland), and must be of the Greek religion. In 1797, the succession was settled in the male line, by the rides of primogeniture, and, in failure of males, in the female line. All the princes of the blood are called grandprinces. By the ukase of March 20, 1820, it was declared that only the children of a marriage acknowledged by the emperor are capable of succeeding to the throne. The highest councils are, 1. the imperial council, under the presidency of the emperor, erected Jan. 1, 1810, with four departmentsthat of legislation (the supreme tribunal in civil and ecclesiastical suits), that of war, that of civil and ecclesiastical affairs, and that of finance ; 2. the senate, for home affairs (a deliberative body, consisting of eight departments, three of which have their seat in Moscow); 3. the holy synod; 4. the ministry of state. The ministerss divided into three sectionsthat of foreignaffairs, war, the marine, the home department, ecclesiastical affairs, education and finance; that of the imperial treasury; and that of the public accounts, roads and canals, and justice. The whole state is divided into fiftyone governments and several provinces ; of these, forty are in Europe, exclusive of the Cossacks of the Don, the Cossacks of the Black sea, and the kingdom of Poland, (q.v.) The revenue, including that of Poland, amounted, before the recent disturbances, to 855,000,000 ; the public debt, in 1824, was $170,000,000. The bank paper, which, since 1817, has been in a course of redemption, was about $150,000,000. The amiv, in 1822, consisted of more than 1,000,000 men, among whom 613,000 were infantry, 118,000 cavalry, 47,000 artillery, 105,000 irregular cavalry, 77,000 in garrison, 27,000 supernumeraries, and 50,000 forming the Polish army. In 1827, the number of troops was 649,300, exclusive of 20,000 officers, which, in 1828, was increased, on account of the Turkish war, to 870,000. (See Military Colonies.) The navy has its principal station on the Baltic ; it consists, according to the most probable accounts, of 32 ships of the line, 25 frigates, 20 corvettes and brigs, 87 smaller vessels, 25 floating batteries, and 121 gunboats, with 6000 cannon and 33,000 men. The principal naval station, on the Baltic sea, is Cronstadt, and, on the Black sea, Sebastopol. There are some ships on the Caspian. No country in Europe supports its military forces so cheaply as Russia. The prevailing religion is that of the Greek church, with a full toleration of all religions ; all Christian sects enjoy equal privileges. The supreme direction of the affairs of the Greek church is intrusted to the holy synod at Petersburg ; subordinate to this are 20 archpriests, with the same number of consistories, and 68,000 secular clergy; there are 480 male and 80 female convents, with 7300 monks and 1300 nuns, all of the rule of St. Basil. (See Greek Church.) Those who adhere to the old Greek church are called Roskalnicians. (q. v.) There are about 40,350,000 members of the Greek church (including 570,000 Roskolnicians); 6,000,000 Catholics and united Greeks; 2,400,000 Lutherans ; 83,000 Calvinists; 9200 Herrnhutters; 6000 Mennonites; 100,000 Armenians; 3,100,000 Mahometans; 500,000 Jews*, 300,000 worshippers of the grand rous and excellent institutions, among which are the eight universities of Moscow, Helsingfors, Wilna, Dorpat, Petersburg, Charkow, Kazan and Warsaw. In 1829, the number of students was 3647, There are, also, a number of primary and intermediate schools ; in 1824, the whole number was 1411, with 69,269 scholars, besides 344 schools maintained by the Greek clergy for the lower classes, with 45,851 pupils. The Petersburg Bible society, instituted by the emperor Alexander, had, in 1818, 128 branches, and has printed the Bible in 29 languages. One hundred and fifty years ago, there were only two printing establishments in Russia ; there are now sixtyone. The population of Russia is composed of four different classes, as has already been mentioned. The boors or peasants are the property of the crown or of individuals; they amount to about 35,000,000, and are in a state of great poverty. They are sometimes emancipated by their owners, and are sometimes permitted to purchase their freedom. The noble families are about 150,000, comprising 750,000 individuals, and enjoy some privileges and exemptions. The freemen, not nobles nor clergymen, are divided into six classes the inhabitants of cities, the three guilds (capitalists, according to their income tax), the trades, foreigners or strangers, the notable citizens (savans, artists, bankers), and the colonists. In regard to rank, these classes form fourteen gradations; and all who can claim either of the eight highest are considered as noble. Russia has six orders, of all of which the emperor is grandmaster. The order of St. Andrew, the oldest and most distinguished, was founded by Peter I, Nov. 30, L698> as a military order of merit, for those generals who had distinguished themselves in the Turkish war. The female order of St. Catharine, was founded by Peter I, Nov. 24, 1714, in honor of his wife, Catharine, who had rescued him from his difficult situation on the Pruth. The Alexander Newsky order was instituted by Peter I; but the arrangements were completed by Catharine I, Aug. 30, 1725. The military order of St. George was revived by Alexander in 1801. The order of St. Wladimir, for civil and military merit, instituted by Catharine II, (1782), was revived by Alexander (1801). The order of St. Anne is an order of merit for all ranks, and even foreigners. The spiritual order of St. John, institutedby Paul in 1797, has a Greek priory, with 128,000 roubles income, and a Catholic priory, with 84,000 roubles income. The present reigning house of HoisteinGottorp was preceded by that of Romanoff, the first prince of which, Michael Feodorowitsch, ascended the throne in 1613, and died in 1645. His successors were Alexis Michailowitsch, died 1676 *, Feodor Alexiewitsch, died 1632; Ivan Alexiewitsch, and Peter I, Alexiewitsch, the former till 1688; the latter assumed the title of emperor in 1721, died 1725; Catharine, empress, died 1727; Peter II, died 1730; Anna, died 1741; Ivan III, deposed 1740; Elizabeth, died 1762:House ofHolsteinGottorp: Peter III, deposed 1762; Catharine II, the Great, died 1795; Paul I, died 1801; Alexander, died 1825. Nicholas I, Paulowitsch, born July 7, ] 796, married, July 13, 1817, the Prussian princess Charlotte, (born July 13, 1798), succeeded his brother Alexander, after the renunciation of the throne by his elder brother Constantine Caesarowitsch, in Dec. 1825. The heir apparent is Alexander Nicholaiewitsch, bornf April 29, 1818; the other children of the emperor are, Maria, born 1819; Olga, born 1822; Alexandra, born 1825; Constantino Nicolaiewitsch, born 1827. The emperor has one brother, Michael, born 1798, and two sisters, Maria, wife of the duke of SaxeWeimar, .md Anna, (born 1795), wife of the prince of Orange. The sons and daugl, ters of the imperial house have the title of grandprinces, and grandprincesses of RUSSIA, with the style of imperial highness. (See Statistique de la Russie, by Schnitzler, Paris, 1829.)After these statistical sketches, let us now throw a glance at what has been effected by the government, for the most important public interests, during the last 15 years. Civilization has made rapid progress during this period; the peasants, in general, have acquired some legal protections against the caprice of their masters, and the great work of emancipation has been effected in the Baltic provinces. In 1818, the nobility of Courland abolished villenage,and in 1819 the Livonian nobles made a provision for its gradual extinction, by which all peasants born after that year were declared to be born free, and all bondage was to cease after 1826. In 1823, the emperor directed the imperial council to take measures for preventing the sale of the peasants, independently of that of the land to which they are attached. In the military colonies, there are no serfs. The settlement of foreign colonists in Russia has been encouraged, and the German and Swiss have emigrated m great numbers to the southern parts of Russia. The government has also made grants of wild lands, in the southern districts, to military veterans, and, by a ukase of 1822, the crown peasants of the provinces, in which the land is poor, are permitted to settle on the fertile lands in Siberia. Some of the nomadic tribes have begun to practise agriculture, and receive assistance from the government, which requires them, however, to embrace Christianity. The Jews have been encouraged to turn their attention to agricultural and mechanical industry; and agricultural societies and schools have been established. In 1820, the number of sheep in Russia was estimated at more than sixiy millions; and the wool exported from Odessa was considered equal to the best Spanish. The army is clothed in domestic woollens. The discoveiy of gold and piatina in the Ural mountains (see Ural), in 1821 and 1823, is of the highest importance, and government has done much to promote the science of mining, and the establishment of salt works. The cultivation of the grape has been introduced, with the happiest results, in Siberia. The subject of education has also received the attention of government: the management of this department belongs to the ministry for ecclesiastical affairs. In 18^3. besides the seven universities, thr* re were eighteen institutions for the promotion of science and the arts, and "in 1824, observatories were erected at Nicolaieff, on the Black sea, and at Moscow. Th ere are also gyran asi a, provin c ial schools, and schools for the instruction of the lower classes on the Lancasterian plan. The different religious denominations have good theological institutions, and the Bible has been widely disseminated, in different languages, among the people, Some distinguished patrons of science, as well as the government itself, have caused scientific voyages and journeys to be prosecuted at their own expense. (See Kotzebue, Kriisenste?n, JRomanzoff, and North Polar Expeditions,) The legislative committee, by order of the emperor, published the Institutions and Pandects of the Russian law7, in 181923, in twentytwo volumes. A complete collection of the Russian laws and legai decisions has been published since 1821 and there is also a collection of thB criminal laws, in sixteen volumes (1753-1826) and a collection of the laws relating to the taxes, the public accounts, the iuvesti gation of the condition of the population, &c. (21st vol., 1827). Among the particular laws, the ukase of 1822, abolishing the practice of branding, after the punishment of the knout, deserves mention. Russian Bath. (See Bath) vol. i, page 610.) RUSSIA, History of.1. Early History. A number of nomadic tribes, reaching to the confines of the Roman Empire, were comprehended under the name of Scythians and Sarmatians. They inhabited the countries between the Don and Dnieper, described by Herodotus. Strabo and Tacitus mention, also, the Roxolani as a Sarmatian tribe. In the second century of the vulgar era, the Goths came from the north into the countries between the Don and the Danube. From the fifth century, the Alans, Huns, Avars and Bulgarians followed each other in this region. The Slavi, a Sarmatian tribe, retired more to the west and north ; the Chazars, pressed by the Avars, entered, in the sixth century, into the countries between the Wolga and the Don, pressed forwards by degrees to the Danube, conquered the Crimea, and thus came into close contact with the Byzantines. (The empress Irene was a Chazarian princess.) The Fetchenegues, who were of a kindred stock with the Chazars, and dwelt along the Caspian sea, moved towards the west, and pressed the Hungarians to Pannonia, whilst they occupied the countries between the Don and the Aluta. In the north of Russia dwelt the Tschuds (Finns and Estonians), Finnish tribes. AH these tribes were wandering herdsmen and hunters. At a later period only, a part of them acquired some degree of civilization by entering the provinces of the Roman empire, coming into contact with the Byzantines, and embracing Christianity. The Sclavonic tribes showed earliest the germs of civilization. They passed, in the fifth and sixth centuries, from the northern part of the Danube down the Vistula, and up the Dnieper. They built the two cities Novgorod (novus hortus*) and Kiev, whicn, at a later period, became powerful by means of their commerce, but, at the beginning, suffered greatly from the Chazars. Novgorod also suffered from the Varagians, a piratic tribe on the Baltic, and therefore sent to beg thenprotection, offering to submit to their sovereignty in return. Induced by this offer, many of this tribe went, in the year* The Russian language uses, as is known, g fiistead of h (hospodar, gospodarj^OL. XI 11 862 (according to Nestor, from the other side of the seaf), under the conduct of the brothers Ruric, Sineus and Truwor, their chieftains, and founded three principalities in the neighborhood of the city of Novgorod. After the death of his brothers, Ruric ruled alone, and united his countrymen and the Slavi into one peoplethe Russians. The new state, with a military organization, embraced Northern RUSSIA, and was known under the name of Holmgard, Gardarike, and Ostrogard. Ruric died in 879. His son Ighor, under his guardian Gleg (Olaf), conquered Kiev, and made it his capital. Ighor's widow and successor embraced Christianity in 955, in Constantinople. Hence the introduction of the Greek ritual into Russia. The grandson of Ighor, Wladimir I of Novgorod, the Saint, or the Great, united the whole of Ighor's dominions in 980. He made extensive conquests, married the Greek princess Anna, was baptized, at Cherson, in 987, and died in 1015, having endeavored to give his people a higher degree of civilization. He divided his dominions among his twelve sons: according to the Slavonic custom, the various territories inherited by his sons were to remain under the grand principality of Kiev; but bloody family wars ensued for the dignity of grandprince. Wladimir II, remotely connected with this line, was elected grandprince by the people of Kiev, in 1114. Alexius Comnenus, the Byzantine emperor, acknowledged him as czar. His son George built Moscow in 1147. The surrounding nations took advantage of the internal dissensions of the country to invade it. The most dangerous of thesef The ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia received different names in the different countries in which they settled. In England, they were called Danes ; in France, Normans ; in RUSSIA, Warcagians, or Varagians (translated wandering hunters, adventurers). The Tschuds, in the Finnish dialect, called them Ruotsi, Rutzi (i. e. foreigners, adventurers) j hence Rohs, and now Russians. This appellation was used, even before the time of Ruric, by the Byzantines, though not before the beginning of the ninth century. According to Nestor, the term Russians became general only after the Varjagi had made themselves, through Ruric; the ruling caste among the Slavi. Nestor calls Ruric and his brothers Nje.mtr.i (i. e. Germans); Thunmann and Schl5zer consider them to be Scandinavians (Normans) ; Ewers calls them, without ground, Chazars. Ruric and his followers probably came from Vagria, from the then known port Aideigaborg, now Aldenburg, or Oldenburg. Thev were, perhaps, Frisians, or Jutes, The first place which Ruric founded near Novgorod, and fortified, was called by him Aideigaborg, from which, to this day, lake Ladoga (formerly Aldoga) has its name. neighbors were the Mongols (from 1223). After a devastating war of fifteen years, and when the grandprince George II had fallen in battle at Sita, in 1238, against the khan Batu, the Mongols (q. v.) occupied all.Russia, Novgorod only being excepted by treaty. In respect to civilization, the Russians were then in a low condition, owing to the variety of tribes of which they were composed, and their military oiganization. Commerce was chiefly in the hands of German merchants, who, since 1200, had entered the country with the missionaries from the Dwina. Novgorod and Kiev were the chief commercial cities. Events were recorded in monkish chronicles (yet in the language of the country), of which, since Nestor (who died about 1113), a long series is extant. Whilst the Mongols oppressed the Russians, the Livonians, Teutonic knights, and Swedes, attacked them on the other side. An annual tribute was paid to the Mongols, and nothing was to be undertaken which should appear dangerous to the latter ; yet, even in this condition, the Russian princes carried on some successful wars. Alexander defeated the Swedes, in 1241, on the Neva, and received the surname of Newsky. (See Alexander JSftwskij.) His youngest son, Daniel, came to the throne fourteen years after Alexander's death, lived in Moscow, and, in 1296, first assumed the title of grandprince of Moscow. The Russians struggled against the Tartars, and even defeated them, in 1360, but were obliged, nevertheless, to return to the condition of tributaries.II. Middle Period. Iwan I (Wasiliewitsch the Great, who reigned from 1462 to 1505) succeeded, after a struggle which continued from 1477 to 1481, in freeing Russia from the Tartars. The conquests of Timour, and partitions of the Tartar territory, had weakened the power of the Mongols. In this period, the Cossacks arose. The Poles and Lithuanians had conquered the whole of Western Russia to Kiev, and subjected the vanquished people to religious persecution, as well as political oppression. On the east, the Tartars of the Crimea bore hard upon Russia. The discontented therefore retired into the fertile but uninhabited Ukraine, and adopted a military organization, under the control of atamans (hetmans). The wife of Iwan I (Zoe, a Greek princess, through whom the doubleheaded eagle came into the Russian arms) did much good in Russia. Iwan made the indivisibility of the realm a fundamental law; he introduced fire arms into RUSSIA, and made Kasan dependent upon her. His son Wasilei had many conflicts with the Poles. The German emperor Maximilian endeavored to make peace between them, in order to institute a sacred league of Christian princes against the Turks, and sent baron von Herberstein (q. v.) to the czar. Pope Clement VII strove to win the czar over to the Roman Catholic church, and offer ed him the royal title ; but Poland did not enter into the pope's plan. In the promotion of civilization, Iwan Wasiliewitsch II surpassed all his predecessors. German artists and learned men went, by the way of Liibeck, to Russia; printingoffices were established; commerce was promoted by a treaty with Elizabeth of England, in 1553, as the English had just found the way by sea to Archangel. Iwan established a standing army, the Strjelzi, oi Strelitzes (shooters); conquered Kasan in 1552, the kingdom of Astraclian in 1554, and strove to drive the Teutonic knights from Livonia ; but Denmark, Poland and Sweden attacked him, and a conspiracy in the interior broke out. In this embarrassment, he implored the emperor Rodolph II and pope Gregory XIII to interfere ; and the nuncio of the latter brought about the peace of Zapolia between Iwan II and Stephen Bathory,king of Poland, in 1582, by which Livonia was ceded to Poland. Towards the end of Iwan's reign, the Cossack Yermak discovered Siberia (about 1578). Iwan died in 1584. Feodor, his successor, conquered Siberia entirely in 1587, and surrendered Esthonia to Sweden in 1595. Feodor, the last of Ruric's descendants, died in 1598; and Russia was shaken by internal convulsions and external wars, which greatly retarded her progress in civilization. The war of the Polish party with the party of the pseudoDemetrius* was not ended until Michael Fedorowitsch ascended the throne in 1613; after which a treaty of peace was concluded at StolbowTa, with Sweden, in 1617, and at Divelina, with Poland, in 1618.III. Modem History. The Russians elected Michael, a son of Philaret, metropolitan of Rostoff, and, at a later period, patriarch (Philaret's original name was Feodor Nikitowitsch Romanoff), in 1613, czar, with unlimited and hereditary power. After having overcome many obstacles, he reigned in com* The genuine Demetrius, younger son of Iwan II, and brother to Feodor, is said to have been murdered by the usurper Boris \ but modern inquiries have thrown much doubt on this subject. The murdered Demetrius is a saint in Russia. parative tranquillity, till 1645. Under his son Alexei, the last pseudoDemetrius was. beheaded, in 1653. In this period, also, begin the wars with the Turks (neighbors of the Russians since 1472), on account of the Ukraine, in 1671. Alexei (died in 1676), and his son, Fecdor III (died in 1682), did much for the industry, commerce, internal organization, legislation, &c. of the empire. The former established the first posts in RUSSIA, and humbled the patriarchs ; whilst the latter put an end to the claims of the nobility to the higher offices, by burning their pedigrees. He appointed his hallbrother, Peter, his successor, passing over the weak I wan. After 1689, Peter ruled alone, having put Sophia, sister to Feodor, in a convent, and having received from Iwan a surrender of his claims to the government. Russia now extended from Archangel to Azoph ; but was as yet separated from the Baltic. The inhabitants of this vast territory formed one nation, united by the ties of language and religion. Peter made the Russians Europeans, as Philip had made the Macedonians Greeks. (See the article Peter I.) By the acquisition of the coasts of the Baltic, Russia entered into the series of European powers. At Pultawa, July 8, 1709, the supremacy of Sweden in the north was destroyed; and, in 1721, Sweden, exhausted by a struggle of 20 years, concluded the peace of Nystadt, under hard conditions. (See Northern War.) Peter's views respecting Persia, the Porte, and Poland, were realized by his successors.His wife, Catharine I (q. v.), reigned from 1725 to 1727, under MenschikofF's influence, only occupied with the concerns of the interior. Under Peter II, her successor, who died in 1730, the Dolgorucky, who had overthrown Menschikoff, found so much to occupy them in the domestic affairs of the country, that they did not pay much attention to the foreign relations. When Anna (q. v.), niece of Peter I, and, from 1711, widow of Frederic, duke of Courland, ascended the throne, the nobles endeavored to limit the power of the sovereign; but their plans were frustrated, and a cabinet composed of foreigners was the consequence. Munnich and Ostermann, of Peter's school, turned their thoughts to foreign aggrandizement. Russia established her influence over Poland, by putting Augustus III on the throne. Munnich took Azoph and Oczakow by storm; the victory of Stewutschan, in 1739, threw Choczim and Moldavia into the Russian poweradvantages, however, which were lost, in consequence of the unfortunate campaign of the Airtrians, and the peace of Belgrade, in 1739. RUSSIA, nevertheless, had acquired, by these conquests, much influence among the powers of Europe ; and her armies were vastly improved. Anna died in 1740, and Iwan III, two months old, was placed on the throne, under Biron's guardianship: but, Dec. 6, 1741, the princess Elisabeth, youngest daughter of Peter the Great, ascended the throne, and imprisoned Iwan III (grandson of the sister of Anna). Elisabeth, (q. v.), who was notorious for gross and open licentiousness, sent the chancellor Ostermann and fieldmarshal Munnich to Siberia. The German language had, till then, prevailed at court and in the chief schools; but the French now gradually gained the ascendency. France had instigated Sweden to a war with RUSSIA, during the Austrian war of succession, in order to prevent Russia from affording aid to Maria Theresa of Austria; but the conquest of Finland caused the peace of Abo (q. v.), Aug. 17,1743. The act of succession of prince Adolphus Frederic of HolsteinGottorp confirmed the influence of Russia over Sweden. In favor of this prince, his cousin Charles PeLer Ulrich, of HolsteinGottorp, resigned his claims upon the Swedish throne, and was declared by his aunt, the empress Elisabeth, in 1743, her successor in that of Russia. Lestocq (q. v.) was banished, and BestuchefF, taking charge of the foreign relations, changed the foreign policy of the country, so that, in 1747, Elisabeth renewed her alliance with Austria and England, and sent an army to Germany against France, by which means she contributed to bring about the peace of AixlaChapelle. (q. v.) In 1754, Russia assisted Austria against Prussia, in the seven years' war. Elisabeth died Jan. 5, 1762, and her successor, Peter III (q. v.), the admirer and friend of Frederic the Great, immediately concluded a peace and alliance with him. But Catharine II deprived her husband of his throne and life, July 9, 1762, and confirmed only the peace with Frederic, and not the alliance. With the reign of this able, artful and licentious woman begins a new era in Russian history. (For an account of her life, see Catharine II.) As soon as she had relieved the country from an exhausting war, she invited all kinds of colonists into it, and collected around her distinguished foreigners to assist her plans; schools, laws, commerce, industry,every thing received a new impulse. The revenue rose from thirty millions of roubles to sixty millions; the army was increased to 450,000 men; the navy to fortyfive vessels of the line. She caused, in 1764, Stanislaus Poniatowski, who had been one of her lovers, to be elected king of Poland; and foreign laws were forced upon the people; but their despair produced, on a sudden, the general confederacy at Bar, and Poland resisted Catharine for six years. She was victorious by land and sea against the Porte (1770), and would have been able to humble Poland, had not the breaking out of the plague in Moscow, the insurrection of a common Cossack, Pugatscheff (q. v.), and the revolutions in Sweden, given so much employment to her forces. At length, the partition of Poland took place (Aug. 5, 1772), and Russia received that part of Poland which lies between the Duna, the Dnieper, and Drutsch. (See Poland.) Besides this, the influence of Russia upon that unhappy country was confirmed by the establishment of a permanent council, the guarantee of an elective kingdom, and the liberum veto. July 22,1774, she concluded peace with the Turks, by which she ac* quired Kinburn, Azoph, part of the Crimea, and Kabarda: all the other conquests were restored. In 1776, she divided the empire into governments. In 1780, she instituted the alliance, called the armed neutrality, between Russia, the German emperor, Prussia and Portugal, against the naval power of the English. In .1778, she had taken a new lover, Potemkin (q. v.), who directed the Russian policy until 1791, when he died. With him she planned the expulsion of the Turks from Europe, and the reestablishment of the Byzantine empire; but political considerations prevented the execution of this idea at the time it was projected; and when it was resumed, ten years later, it succeeded but very partially. In 1783, Russia took possession of Little Tartary; thus she held the key to the Ottoman empire. The favor of Prussia had been won by the first partition of Poland, that of Austria by the project of an exchange of Bavaria* Austria, in fact, was even connected with Russia by an alliance against Turkey, so that the idea of expelling the Turks was not a mere chimera. The war with the Porte began. The attempt of the Turks to reconquer the Crimea was frustrated; their fleet was defeated, in 1788, at the mouths of the Dnieper. Oczakow was taken by a bloody assault; but again the Austrians were unsuccessful. Joseph II lost, at Lugos, September 20, 1788, his health and military reputation. Yet the Austrian and Russian armies were subsequently victorious; but, in 1790, Austria retired from the theatre of war, after the convention of Reichenbach; and when Gustavus III of Sweden had invaded Finland, Catharine became inclined to peace. The Turks did not take advantage of the propitious moment. The peace of Werela, in 1790, put an end to the war with Sweden, after several naval battles, advantageous to the latter. Austria concluded peace with Turkey at Sistova, in 1791; Russia at Jassy, January 9, 1792, by which only Oczakow, with its territory, was taken from the Porte, and the Dniester became the frontier of Russia towards Moldavia and Bessarabia. During this war, Prussia had prevented Poland from joining Russia against the Turks; and the Prussian party in Poland, with Ignatius Potocki at their head, gave a new constitution to the country, May 3, 1791. Felix Potocki, at the head of the Russian party, formed, in 1792, the confederation of Targowitz, for the support of the old constitution. But Prussia, at war with France, feared a war with Russia, and, breaking her word given to the Poles, marched an army into Poland. The second partition of this illfated country took place at Grodno, August 17, 1793 (see Poland), by which Russia acquired 13,609 square miles (the greater part of Lithuania, with Wilna, of Volhynia, and the rest of Podolia). The wreck of the republic was annexed to Russia by the act of union. In 1794, Kosciusko (q. v.) and Madalinski rose for the deliverance of their country. In the same year, the republic was entirely dissolved. In this last partition, Austria also took a share. October 24, 1795, the boundary treaty between Russia and Prussia was concluded, and finally settled January 26, 1797. Courland (q. v.) was taken by Russia as a Polish fief. Catharine died November 17, 1796, having added to the empire of Russia 210,000 square miles of fertile land. She had not taken an active part against the French revolution, though she had concluded an alliance with England and Austria; but her only son, Paul I (q. v.), united with Naples, Turkey, Austria and England, whilst Bonaparte was in Egypt. Suwaroff, commander of the united Austrians and Russians in Italy, was victorious at Cassano, April 27,1799; on the Trebia, July 17, and at Novi, August 15; but political conside?%atioiis obliged him to march back, and Massena having been victorious over Korsakoff in Switzerland, he was compelled to retire to Upper Germany. The alliance between Russia and Austria was broken, as was also that of Russia with England. Paul was embittered against England for occupying Malta; yet the naval war was continued jointly. The Russians and Turks occupied Corfu. In 1800, the republic of the Seven Islands was established under the guarantee of the Porte and Russia, and was occupied by troops of the latter until 1807-a circumstance which very much increased the Russian influence in the Mediterranean. Paid renewed the plan of an armed neutrality in the north, in consequence of which the battle of Copenhagen took place, April 2, 1801; but the emperor had died nine days previous, and his successor declared himself for peace and for England. Under Alexander's mediation, the peace of Luneville (q. v.) was concluded. He then devoted himself to the internal improvement, appointed a committee, under prince Lapuchin, for the revision of the laws, constituted the senate as a kind of intermediate body between the monarch and the people, and gradually mitigated the rigor of bondage, especially in the crownvillages and the German provinces. The police, especially that of the health department, was greatly improved; about 2000 physicians were paid by government ; vaccination was introduced. Agriculture was much improved under him, and some nomadic tribes, as well as the Nogay Tartars, devoted themselves to husbandry. Science was fostered. Krusenstern circumnavigated the world. In Charkow and Kasan, universities and schools were established. But Alexander soon became engaged in the desolating conflicts of Europe with France; at first in 1805, in favor of Austria, until the unfortunate battle of Austerlitz; in the next year in connexion with Prussia. Again unsuccessful, Russia concluded peace with France at Tilsit, in 1807; received a part of Poland (Bialy stock), and ceded Jever ; evacuated Cattaro and Corfu ; broke off all connexion with England; and declared war against Sweden, the only ally of Britain. In the same year (1809), the peace of Fredrieshamm made Finland and East .Bothnia, with Tornea and the Aland islands, a Russian province. In the war between Austria and France, in 1809, Russia took but little share, but continued with vigor the war with the Porte and with Persia. By the peace of Vienna she received a part of East Galicia, which, however, was restored at the con11 * gress of Vienna. When, at length, Russia objected to the extension of France to the river Trave, on account of the emperor's connexion with the duke of Oldenburg, and could not, in her commercial system, accede to the views of Napoleon, the war of 1812 began, which, in the se^ quel, involved all the powers of Europe, and caused the overthrow of Napoleon in 1815. (See RussianGerman ffro,r.) Russia, it is true, had suffered immensely by this devastating war; but it emerged as a power of preeminent importance, and strengthened by the addition of Poland (q. v.) to its immense territory. This influence seemed, during the reign of Alexander, continually to increase by means of the holy alliance (q. v.), founded and supported by him. At Vienna, in 1815, at AixlaChapelle, in 1818, at Troppau, Laybach, Verona (see Congress), this influence was manifested, and the French cabinet was for a considerable time divid* ed into an English and a Russian party. During the struggle with Napoleon, Russia discontinued its hostilities with Persia and the Porte. The peace of Bucharest, May 28, 1812, with the latter, gave her Moldavia as far as the Pruth, Bessarabia, and the chief mouths of the Danube: the peace of Tiflis, in 1813, with the former gained her all the territory west of the Caspian sea, between the Kur and the Araxes, Georgia having been united before with Russia, in 1801; and, on the east coast as far as the gulf of Balkan, with the exclusive navigation of the Caspian sea. Particularly since the congress of AixlaChapelle, Russia may be considered as having found that her influence over Europe would be best promoted by the continuance of peace, which would enable her to develope those resources which make a country formidable in war. Alexander labored with great sagacity to develope the military power as well as the productive capacity of his empire, and at the same time interfered in die affairs of Italy and Spain, and exerted a great control over France and Germany, the less supportable as it was founded on the predominance of force over intelligence. He reorganized almost the whole interior of the empire. (See Alexander L) After the death of this emperor, December 1, 1825, his brother Nicholas ascended the throne, Constantine Csesarowitsch having renounced his right. (See Constantine, and Nicholas I.) A conspiracy, mentioned already in the article Alexander, broke out December 26, 1825, when the regiments of the guard, who had taken the oath to Constantine immediately after Alexander's death, were to take the oath to Nicholas. Two companies refused, and a tumult ensued, which continued for one day, and was suppressed at last by the mingled firmness and moderation of Nicholas. The investigation of this matter brought to light a conspiracy which had existed already for years, founded, as it would appear, partly on crude political ideas, partly on the offended pride of the old Russian nobility. The committee of investigation published a report May 30 (June 11), 1826. The most guilty, some high officers, were hanged, others sent to Siberia, and others pardoned. The foreign relations of Russia with China have remained unaltered since the treaty of eternal amity between the two countries, concluded in 1727. This treaty provides for the residence of a Russian mission (a mission of young men who study Chinese) in Pekin, by means of which the Russians always maintain a communication with the capital of China. According to the peace of Gulistan, October 12,1813, ratified at Tifiis, September 15, 1814, Russia received, besides the territory along the Caspian and the exclusive navigation of that sea with ships of war, the right of trade in Persia, in consideration of paying a duty of five per cent., and engaged to support that prince, whom the reigning sovereign should designate for his successor, and not to surfer any interference of a foreign power in the internal affairs of Persia. General Jermoloff at the same time made war upon the mountaineers of the Caucasus, who make a business of robbery. Most of them had submitted in 1823, and, in the same year, seven khans of the Kirguises and Calmucks had passed from the Chinese sovereignty voluntarily under the Russian. About this time the Persian shah had appointed his son AbbasMirza his successor, when the settling of the new boundaries caused disputes, which were not settled at the time of Alexander's death. Nicholas sent prince Menschikoff to the court of Teheran, to propose an exchange of the province in question; but the warlike AbbasMirza thought the moment propitious for attacking Russia, and marched, August, 1826, over the frontier, called the Mussulman subjects of Russia to arms, and advanced as far as Elizabethpol; but, September 14, the Persian army was defeated, and September 25, general Paskewitsch overcame the Persian crownprince at Elizabethpol, and freed the Russian territory. Septem ber 28, Russia declared war against Persia. Paskewitsch, being appointed commanderinchief, passed the Araxes, took, April 27, the celebrated Armenian monastery, Etschmiasin, October 3, the fortress Sard or Adad, and, October 19, the fortress of Erivan, the bulwark of Persia against Russia. The Russians now entered ancient Media without opposition, and forced the shah to sue for peace. November 5,1827, the preliminaries were signed, according to which Persia ceded the khanships of Erivan, on both sides of the Araxes, and the khanship of Nakitschevan, paid the expenses of the war, and the losses caused by the invasion. In the article Ottoman Empire (vol. ix, p. 460), we have touched upon the relations between the Porte and Russia, during the years 1826 and 1827. (For the part of Russia, in the mediation between Turkey and the Greek insurgents, and in the battle at Navarino, see the end of our article Greece, Revolution of Modem.) The patience of Russia was now exhausted by the conduct of the Porte. February 27, 1828, the Russian minister Nesselrode declared to France and Great Britain, that his sovereign must have satisfaction for the violation of the treaty of Ackermann, and for the hatti sheriff of December 20,1827, which the Porte had addressed to all the pachas, and which contained many offensive charges against Russia. March 14, the emperor Nicholas issued a declaration of war against the Porte. The Russian forces passed the Pruth, May 7, to the number of 115,000 men, including persons of all descriptions, attached to the camp. Count Diebitsch, to whom the plan of the campaign was ascribed, was chief of the emperor's staff which, on May 19, arrived before Brailow. Count Wittgenstein was commanderinchief. Jassy was occupied May 7, Bucharest May 12, and Brailow invested on the 11th. June 11, the third division of the Russian army, in which was the emperor's headquarters, crossed the Danube. June 15, an attempt was made to cany Brailow by storm, but without success; it capitulated, however, on the 19th. The Russians had now the lower Danube in their power, which secured the connexion of the army with Russia. The divisions advanced singly. After the battles of the 7th and 20th of July, the Turks retired into the fortified mountain position of Choumla, which was the centre of their operations. The Turkish army,under Hus sein Pacha, here consisted of more than 40.000 mes, Varna, fortified by nature And art, and defended by the favorite of the sultan, the capudan pacha, and the warlike Jussuf Pacha of Seres, formed the right whig of the Turkish position. Around these gates of Constantinople (as they are called), Vama and Choumla, the hottest conflict ensued. The principal army, 45,000 men strong, under fieldmarshal Wittgenstein, with whom the emperor had his headquarters, approached Choumla, whilst lieutenantgeneral Roth besieged Silistria, and lieutenantgeneral count Suchtelen watched Varna. The grand vizier would not give battle at Choumla, but confined himself to the defence of the place. The Russians took ossession at last of the key of the Balan, Prawodi, from which a strong division of the army might have pressed forward to Aidos; but they did not dare to leave Choumla and Varna in their rear, and some battalions, who had proceeded too far, suffered loss near Eski Stambol, and an intrenchment was taken by the Turks. In proportion to the difficulty of carrying on the siege, in a vast and almost uninhabitable country like Bulgaria, under the fatal influence of the climate, were the efforts of the Russians to get possession at least of Varna. After this place had been invested on the land side by prince Menschikoff, and on the sea side by the fleet from the Black sea, returning from Anapa, under admiral Greig, breaches were made. Omer Vriones advanced to its relief, but was driven back by prince Eugene of Wiirtemberg; a body of troops forced their way into the bastion, October 7, and entered the city, which they soon left again. Terrified by this, the enemy gave up all further resistance, and Jussuf Pacha came himself to the Russian camp to negotiate. The capudan pacha retired into the citadel. The Russians took possession of all the bastions of the fortress, October 11, after two months' siege, without any conditions on the part of the inhabitants. The capudan pacha had liberty to retire with 300 men. Jussuf Pacha of Seres went over to the Russians with several Turkish troops, and repaired to Odessa, After this conquest, the Russians drew back from Choumla, October 15. The siege of Silistria did not take place till the last of September. Winter came on unusually early, and diseases became prevalent; a scarcity of food and provender existed, so that the siege was raised on November 10th. The campaign in Asia was successful; prince Menschikoff, on the 22d of June, had taken the fortress of Anapa, on the Black sea, which was dangerous for the provinces of Russia beyond the Caucasus, in consequence of which the predatory population of the neighboring mountains submitted to the Russians. The Russian army under count, Paskewitsch forced their way from Cau casus and Ararat into Asiatic Turkey, and took by storm, July 5, the strong fortress of Kars, the central point of Turkish Ar menia, together with the enemies' camp. Whilst the Russian fleet on the Black sea destroyed a Turkish flotilla, August 8, and the batteries of Iniada, on the coast, near Constantinople, and supported the attack on Varna, Paskewitsch took the fortresses of Achalkalaki, Gertwiss, and, July 26, Poti, which being situated at the mouth of the Phasis, secured the possession of Mingrelia and Imiretia. The Turks, indeed, wished to press forward from Arsrum, (Erzerum), and for this purpose placed an army of 30,000 men near Akhalzich. But Paskewitsch crossed an almost impassable mountain, and beat the enemy at Kura, and, on the 21st, the principal body of his forces, after which he took Akhalzich by storm (on the 25th). The citadel capitulated. Several strong fortresses fell into the Russian power up to the 21st of September, so that the whole pachalic of Bajasid, as far as the banks of the Euphrates, was conquered. The campaign in Europe corresponded less to the general expectation. The numbers of the army were not so complete as had been calculated, and the supplies were deficient. The loss of the horses could not be immediately repaired. The prevalent diseases had greatly weakened the army. At last, a severe winter came on, and put an end to the campaign in both countries. Its results, however, were important. In Europe and Asia, Russia had taken possession of two Turkish principalities, and three pachalics, fourteen fortresses and three castles, besides commanding a long line of country, and four passages over the Danube. The Russian emperor had repeated, during and after the campaign, as well as before it, to the British ambassadorextraordinary, lord Heytesbury, his inclination for peace with the Porte, on the terms of indemnification for the expenses of the war, and security against future injuries and violations of treaties; but the Porte had rejected all mediation on the basis of the London treaty, and refused to send envoys to negotiate with the ambassadors of the three powers, and the commissioners of the Greeks. On the contrary, Mahmoud had announced a new campaign, with the words, "Honor and independence are worth more than life." Hitherto the negotiations had been ca.i ried on in Constantinople, with the reis etfendi, by the minister of the Netherlands. He had delivered to the reis effendi the manifesto of France, Great Britain and Russia, of August 11, 1828, which made known to the Porte the motive and object of the French expedition against the Morea. The Prussian ambassador, Canitz, likewise advised the Porte to yield, but, till January, 1829, without success. The sultan had even banished to Asia many of the friends of peace among the ulemas, on account of their sentiments. Still he showed, on several occasions, an unexpected regard for the laws of nations. He did not close the Bosphorus against the trade of neutrals with Russia until the 13th of September; the Russian prisoners were well treated; the Russians settled in Constantinople were protected, and the irritated Turks were kept in unusual restraint. On the other hand, Jussuf Pacha of Seres, for surrendering Varna, which had till then resisted all attacks, was banished, and his estates confiscated. The grand vizier, Mehmed Selim, was deposed for his delay in relieving that fortress, and banished to Gallipoli. At length a strong body of cavalry from Asia, under the command of the brave Tshapan Oglu, joined the forces, to open the campaign of 1829. February 21, 1829, general Diebitsch* was appointed commanderinchief of the Russian forces; but even previous to that event, and in the midst of winter, the Russian forces had not been reduced entirely to inaction. The fortresses of Kale and Tourno, on the Danube, w7ere taken at the end of January, with eightyseven pieces of cannon, while the thermometer of Fahrenheit was at zero. February 18, a flotilla of thirty Turkish vessels, frozen up near Nicopoli, was destroyed. February 25, the fortress of Sizeboli, beyond the gulf of Bourgas, east of the Balkan, was taken by a Russian fleet. The garrison, consisting of about 16,000 Albanians, retreated, and joined the main body under Hussein Pacha. But it was in Asiatic Turkey that the serious operations of the campaign commenced. On the night of March 3d, a Turkish force of more than 20,000 men made an attack on Akhalzich. General Paskewitsch imme* Diebitsch was the son of a Silesian officer in the Prussian, and afterwards in the Russian service. In 1813, he was lieutenantgeneral and quartermastergeneral, and, subsequently, adjutantgeneral to Alexander. In the battle of Austerlitz he was wounded in the hand 5 at Dresden he received a severe contusion, and had two horses shot under him ; and he distinguished himself in Uie actions of JLylau and Friedland. diate.ly sent a reinforcement to the relief of the place, and on the 16th th*) besieging force retreated. June 14th, a body of Turks, who had been drawn down, by the movements of the Russians, from the mountains of Adjar, were attacked in their intrenched camp by generals Mouravieff and Bourtsoff. The camp was carried by assault, and large stores of provisions and ammunitions, nearly 400 prisoners, &c, were taken. An army of 50,000 men had been collected by the seraskier of Erzerum, and divided into two corps, one commanded by the pacha of three tails, Hagki, an officer of high renown in Asiatic Turkey, who, with 20,000 men, was stationed at the passes of the mountains of Saganlon ; the other, of 30,000 men, under the seraskier of Erzerum himself. These two corps, by the manoeuvres of general Paskewitsch, were separated from each other, and successively totally defeated, at the beginning of July. July 3, Paskewitsch took possession of Erzerum, the centre of the Turkish power in Asia. The seraskier, commanderinchief of the whole Turkish army, and governor of all Asiatic Turkey, was taken prisoner, together with four principal pachas, and 150 pieces of cannon. The sharpest contest of the Asiatic campaign was occasioned by the attempt of the pacha of Van to rescue from the Russians the fortress of Bajasid. The attack was made with 7000 infantry and 5000 cavalry, aided by the fire from a battery, on a range of rocks, which swept the Russian troops on the flank and rear, and the fire of musquetry from the inhabitants of the Tartar quarter of the place. After thirtytwo hours of incessant fighting, the Turks retreated. The career of Paskewitsch in this campaign had been one of continual success: and such had been his preceding campaign in Persia. In the European provinces, the campaign commenced by the renewal of the siege of Silistria, under the immediate direction of Diebitsch. May 17, a detachment of the Russian army, posted near the village of Eski Arnaoutlar, was attacked by the Turkish army commanded by the grand vizier from Choumla, at three in the morning. The battle lasted till eight in the evening, when the Turks retired. June 11, the battle of Kou levtcha, or Prawodi, took place between the army of Diebitsch and that of th^ grand vizier. It was contested with obstinacy, and the victory displayed ratheT the superiority of European tactics than of courage. June 30, Silistria surren dered, and the garrison of 10,000 men became prisoners of war; 220 pieces of caniwii, 80 standards, and the whole TuAibh iiotilla, fell into the hands of the Rujslans. Immediately after the surrender of Sihstria, Diebitsch commenced his preparations for the passage of the river Kamtchik and the Balkan mountain. He left his camp before Choumla July 17. July 22, the Russians had made such progress, that the general headquarters of the army were removed to Erketch, on the summit of the Balkan, after considerable opposition from the Turks, at the passage of the Kamtchik. Mezembri was occupied on the 23d, and fifteen pieces of cannon, and large quantities of warlike stores, taken. Arriving on the shores of the Euxine, the progress of the army was aided by the cooperation of the fleet under admiral Greig, consisting of three ships of the line, three frigates, and some smaller vessels. After the successive occupation of sundry villages from day to day, the last resistance on the part of the Turks before the Russians reached Adrianople, was made at Slivno, or Selimrio, said to be next in importance to Adrianople, among the cities of the Ottoman empire. The Turks abandoned the city August 12, after a very feeble resistance. From this time the Russians encountered hardly any difficulties, before reaching Adrianople, except such as arose from the excessive heat of the weather, the rocky ground, and bad state of the roads. On the 19th, the Russians approached Adrianople, which was occupied the next day without opposition. Negotiations now commenced, and, September 14, a treaty of peace was signed, the principal points of which were the cessation of hostilities; the restoration by Russia of the principalities of Walachia and Moldavia, and of all the towns occupied by the Russians in Bulgaria and Rumelia; the settlement of the boundaries between the two powers in Europe and Asia; the provisions for the religious liberty, independent administration and free trade of the people of Moldavia and Walachia ; freedom of commerce to Russian subjects throughout the Ottoman empire, as secured by former treaties ; free commerce and navigation of the Black sea to all nations at peace with the Porte; the stipulation of the Porte to pay 1,500,000 ducats of Holland to Russia within eighteen months, as an indemnification for losses of Russian subjects, and a further sum, such as should be agreed on, as an indemnity for the expenses of the war; the accession of the Porte to the arrange ments of Russia, Great Britain and France, respecting Greece. By a subsequent separate act, the indemnities mentioned as stipulated were agreed to be paid by in stalments, the first in four increasing payments at short intervals; the second in ten annual instalments. On the first payment of the portion of the smaller sum, the Russian forces were to retire from Adrianople ; on the second, to recede beyond the Balkan; on the third, to repass the Danube ; and on the fourth payment, to evacuate the Turkish territory. Thus the emperor Nicholas, according to the pledge which he had given to his allies at the commencement of the war, stopped short in the career of conquest, when he had obtained the objects for which the war was professedly undertaken.The beginning of the insurrection in Poland has been given in the article Poland. The following is a short account of the struggle which ensued.* When the diet of Poland met, Dec. 18, 1830, at Warsaw, general Chlopicki resigned the dictatorship ; on the 20th, indeed, he was reinstated in the office, but he finally resigned, January 19, 1831. Whilst Poland was preparing for the unequal conflict with great enthusiasm, at least among the better educated classes, the Jews not excepted, the emperor Nicholas, December 17 (24), 1830, issued a proclamation to the Poles, calling upon them to submit to then* legitimate government. January 21 prince Radzivil was elected commanderinchief of the Polish army, and on the 24th, the termination of the Russian dynasty in Poland was declared. Marshal Diebitsch, who had so successfully conducted the war with the Turks, entered Poland at the head of a large army. He advanced as far as Wrarsaw, and was victorious over the Poles near the walls of their capita], February 25, 1831 (the loss of the Poles is stated to have been ,5500; that of their enemies 4500); but when prince Radzivil resigned the command on the 28th, and Skrzjmecki, then only a colonel, was appointed in his place, the Polish cause gained strength. This brave officer, though finally unsuccessful, like the heroic Kosciusko, proved that he deserved a better fate. March 31, he was victorious over the Russians near Praga, in a night attack. He advanced cautiously, and, favored by the darkness of the night, reached their cantonments without* As our only information on this sad subject is derived from the newspapers, and works compiled from such sources, we have thought it best to COB . fine ourselves to narrow limits. being perceived. The advanced guard of general Geismar, consisting of 8000 or 10,000 men, was first attacked, and almost wholly destroyed: the Poles took 4000 prisoners and 1600 pieces of cannon. Immediately afterwards, he attacked general Rosen, who was posted with 20,000 men at Dempe Wielski, and obliged him to retreat with the loss of 2000 prisoners and nine pieces of cannon. Another important victory was afterwards gained near Zelechow, where 12,000 Russians were killed, wounded or taken, with twelve pieces of cannon. During this action,the Lithuanians arid Volhynians, who served in the Russian army, turned their arms against the Russians, and materially contributed to the success of the Poles. The peasants in various quarters of Poland now took an active part in the war, and hastened, with whatever weapons they could obtain, to the army. Insurrections broke out in Lithuania, Volhynia, Kowno, the Ukraine, Wilna, and even in ancient Poland, as far as Smolensk. On the other hand, general Dwernicki, who had been sent to make a demonstration in the rear of the Russians, and who had been victorious over them, was at last compelled to Eass into the Austrian dominions, where . e surrendered to the authorities of that country, April 27, with 5000 Poles. He is said to have been treated humanely. Skrzynecki, after having had several unsuccessful encounters with the Russians, and having avoided a decisive engagement with an enemy superior in strength, at last fought the battle of Ostrolenka, May 26. The Russian army is said to have amounted to 55,000, and the Polish to 20,000. The Russians were victorious. The same day the Polish general Chlapovski was victorious over the Russians, under Sacken, at Mariampol. The ardor of the people still continued, and hopes were entertained in every country that the manly resistance of the Poles would induce the powerful cabinets to interfere; but, unfortunately, Prussia and Austria, being themselves in possession of a part of the spoils of Poland, did all in their power to prevent interference, whilst England and France were too much occupied at home to render essential aid. June 19, count Diebitsch suddenly died of the cholera morbus, which the Russian army had carried to Poland, at Klechewo, having been superseded, on the 16th of the same month, by general Paskewitsch, whose campaign in Asia has been already mentioned. The military operations were now prosecuted with new vigor, and the emperor, who, in a manifesto addressed to the Russians, had called them the legitimate masters of the Poles, was ready to make every sacrifice to regain the Polish throne. The Poles were successful, July 14, under general Chrzanski five miles from Warsaw, against the Russians ; but, owing to causes which have not yet been satisfactorily explained, a change of government took place in Warsaw, and general Skrzynecki waa superseded by Dembinski as commanderinchief. The behavior of the former seems to have been throughout exemplary, and such was his deportment on bis discharge from the supreme command. The skill and valor of generals Roziski and Czartoryski were no longer of any avail. A conspiracy of the Russian prisoners in Warsaw was discovered and punished. Krukowiecki was appointed Polish dictator. Paskewitsch made preparations for the taking of the city, in which he succeeded September 7, at six o'clock, when the capital surrendered by capitulation, after a most sanguinary conflict of two days' duration, during which the Polish soldiers behaved heroically, whilst it is not yet sufficiently explained, whether the authorities did their duty. The Polish army, followed by the diet and the members of government, retired through Praga, on the night of the 7th, and, early on the 8th, the Russians entered Warsaw.* The Polish army remained for a short time at Modlin; but the country was soon obliged to submit entirely to the Russian forces, with which the grandprince Michael, brother to the emperor Nicholas, had entered Warsaw. He organized a provisory government, of which, at first, he himself, and soon after, general Paskewitsch, was the head. This general* The St.Petersburg papers of October, in the official account of the taking of Warsaw, say that 132 pieces of cannon, '2,000,000 of cartridges, a vast quantity of military stores of every description, and immense magazines of provisions, fell into the hands of the Russians 5 that 3000 prisoners were taken, among whom were 60 staff and superior officers; that many more must have perished during the attack, by the burning of the buildings, and the destructive fire of the artillery, which, during the two days, expended 29,000 cartridges 5 that, besides the abovementioned prisoners, above 4000 soldiers of the Polish army, 1200 generals and officers, had quitted the Polish service, and joined the Russians; that the whole loss of the Russian army was 3000 killed, including G3 officers, and 7500 wounded, including 445 officers. The public will probably soon receive an account of the whole revolution, from the Polish refugees in France. A work on this subject has been advertised in Boston, as preparing for the press, by major Hordinsky, a Polish officer. was made prince Warszawski (the Warsovian) as a reward for his services. A sort of amnesty was proclaimed ; but the corps of generals Romarino, Kamniski and Rubinski were prohibited from relurning to Poland, because they continued m arms after the capitulation of Warsaw, in contempt of the orders of the Polish commanderinchief. Many distinguished Poles were sent into the interior of Russia or to Siberia; many of all ranks emigrated, chiefly to France. They were every where, in Germany and France, enthusiastically received by the people, and in the latter country were also aided by the government. General Skrzynecki is said to live in Austria, and to be honorably treated. Though the kingdom of Poland, it seems, is not to be entirely incorporated with Russia, like those portions which were torn from it by the partitions, yet the intention of the Russian government appears to be to deprive it entirely of a general diet, and to establish provincial chambers. Thus that gigantic power, which, even under an enlightened monarch, is, from the very form of its government, hostile to the constitutional principle, developing itself so rapidly in the west of Europe, and which unites the force both of barbarism and civilization, has come close upon western Europe, and exercises, at least for the present, a powerful influence upon it; as is evincedif an example among so many were necessaryin the Relgic question. However distant the time may be, Europe will not be safe until Poland is reestablished; without which, Austria and Prussia, particularly the latter, must remain bound to Russia. RussianGerman War, 1812-1815. Between France and Russia a coldness had arisen since 1809, although the meeting of the monarchs of the two countries at Erfurt, in 1808 (especially when the geographical situation of their states was considered), seemed to give assurance of a .asting peace. The slight share which the tardy army of Russian auxiliaries took in the war against Austria, showed that its commander had received injunctions to be circumspect in his proceedings. At the same time, all the Russian harbors were opened to the English, provided they displayed the American flag, while French goods were strictly prohibited. This induced Napoleon, in order to enforce his commercial prohibitions against England, to make himself master of the northern seaboard of Germany, and incorporate the country of the duke of Oldenburg, a near relation of Alexander with France. Against this proceeding^ Russia made an energetic protest; and, as early as 1811, five Russian divisions assumed a position opposite Warsaw. On the other hand, Napoleon caused the fortresses on the Vistula and Oder to be declared in a state of siege, sent thither large masses of troops, and occupied Swedish Pomerania, because Charles XIII of Sweden declined a closer connexion with France. (The causes of the war between France and Russia are further treated of in the article Napoleon, Appendix of vol. x.) The Russians adopted the plan of offensive operations; and it had been resolved to treat the approach of the French to the Oder as a declaration of war, to let the Russian army enter Prussia, ascertain the sentiments of this state, and commence hostilities. But political considerations, especially the situation of Prussia, urged the abandonment of this plan. On the French side, the visit of so many princes and kings, and even of the Austrian emperor, to Dresden, gave intimations of some great project, although Napoleon's departure from Paris, according to the Moniteur, had no object but a review of the army of the Vistula Perhaps he might still hope to avert the gigantic struggle, without departing from his purposes; at least for this object the count de Narbonne proceeded to the camp of Alexander, at Wilna, and offers of peaceable arrangements were made. For the contest in the Peninsula, which daily became more obstinate, and consumed a large amount of men and money, might well appear to him an obstacle in the way of a struggle with Russia; but he calculated that his army, amounting nearly to one million, all of which he had rendered perfectly disposable by the institution of a new national guard of 80,000 men, would be sufficient for the conflict in both quarters ; and he also relied upon a great mass of auxiliary forces, chiefly promised by the confederation of the Rhine (100,000 men), and, finally, on the alliance with Prussia and Austria, which covered him on both flanks, secured his retreat, and both together furnished 60,000 men. When, therefore, Napoleon's ambassador, the object of his mission unattained, returned to Dresden, half a million soldiers (French, Germans, Italians, Poles, Swiss, Spaniards, and Portuguese), with more than 1200 cannon, were put in motion, about the end of July, to attack the Russians on the other side of the Niemen and the Vistula. The Russians, in three divisions, occupied a line includ ing Kiev and Smolensk to Riga. The decisive battle with divided forces, or to first western army (127,000 men), in Litliii make a speedy retreat. They chose the ania and Courland, was commanded by latter, and sacrificed their great magaBarclay de Tolly, who had till then been zines, which were to have given suDsistminister of war, under whom was Witt ehce to their right wing. Wilna, whicl genstein ; the other western army (48,000 had been Alexander's headquarters, now strong), between Smolensk and Kiev, was became the headquarters of Napoleon, commanded by prince Bagration. Gen who here organized (an important seconera! DoctorofF led a third body of forces, dary object of this war) the restoration of which served to keep up the commuoica Poland. Napoleon made a considerable tion between the other two. Goods and stay in Wilna, partly for that purpose, records had long before been generally partly for the sake of obtaining informaconveyed into the interior. Riga, Smo tion of the operations of the right wing lensk, &c, were fortified, and an en under Poniatowski, Schwartzenberg, and trenched camp established on the Dwina. Regnier, over whom the king of WestNapoleon, already near the Russian iron phalia was commanderinchief. He had tier, made another diplomatic attempt, received orders to keep the second westand sent count Lauriston, who had for ern army still separate from the first, from merly been ambassador at Petersburg, to which it had been divided by the march the emperor Alexander; but their views to Wilna, and to prevent any junction were too much at variance, and Napoleon farther in the rear. These orders marsaid, in his usual tone, " The conquered shal Davoust, who joined on the left the assume the style of the conqueror; fate flank of the king of Westphalia, executed overcomes them ; let their destiny be fill so fully, that the corps of general DoctorofF filled." June 24, his main forces passed was separated from the forces of Bagra the Niemen, while the rest crossed the tion, as well as from the western army of Vistula farther down. As the passage Barclay de Tolly, and almost surrounded, took place near the influx of the Wilna,* when a rain of thirtysix hours made the and this river, which flowed on their left roads impassable, and the sudden change flank, was also crossed, the Russians to cold from intolerable heat, killed, by were surrounded as far as the Dwina, thousands, the horses of the French, ex o entirely separated from the second west haustecl by wants of all kinds, so that Doctoern army, and compelled either to risk a roff escaped with moderate loss. The cau* The first Russian western army was stationed along the Niemen as tar as Grodno, and comprised six corps of infantry and two of cavalry. The second western army was in the vicinity of Slonim, consisting of four battalions of infantry and one of cavalry. The communication between them was kept up by the hetman Platoif, with 10,000 Cossacks, at Bialystock. The army of Volhjmia, under TormassofF, at Lutzk, was composed of two divisions of infantry, and one of cavalry, containing together about 20,000 men. In Courland, Riga" was protected by general Essen with about 10,000 men. One reserve was formed by general Miloradowitsch in Novgorod, another by general CErtel in Smolensk. There were, moreover, 16,000 men, under Steinhei), in Finland,which, subsequently, with the 25th division of infantry from Petersburg, reinforced the corps of Wittgenstein. In September, KutusoiFs army of 85,C'00 men, which had been till then employed against the Turks, first united itself with the forces of Tormassoff. Soon after the invasion commenced, militia companies were formed in Moscow, Petersburg, arid other places, for supplying the army. Some of these companies fought at Borodino, and several divisions of them accompanied the army in Germany, in 1813. The Russian plan of the campaign was, by retreating, to avoid a decisive battle, until the enemy should be remote from all his resources, and weakened by marches through a desolate region, and the Russian army should be" so considerably strengthened by the accession of all the forces that might be, meanwhile, raised^ as to have, a decided superiority. The bodies of troops detached on the two wings, were to prevent the enemy from spreading out his forces, and to cooperate in his destruction, if he should be defeated. Calculation was also made of die possible arrival of the Moldavian army after the conclusion of peace with the Porte. Particular circumstances, however, gave rise to many errors in the execution of this plan. Napoleon's scheme, on the contrary, was, to use every effort to compel the Russians to battle, to destroy them after the defeat, and, pressing forward with haste to the capital, to proffer peace. Collateral corps were, meanwhile, to cover his line of communication with Germany, weaken the resources of the enemy, and lead them to take false steps. But the French commander, long accustomed to success, committed the mistake of attempting to carry on the war in Russia, as in Lombard}^ without magazines : he overlooked the fact that he ruled the conquered country only in a comparatively small extent, and must, therefore, leave the enemy in possession of his resources : he entirely mistook the character of his enemy. He, nevertheless, made good use of the chief error of the Russiansthe wide interval between the two western armiesby crossing the Niemen at Kowno, and advancing with rapidity to Wilna. Murat hereupon pursued the western army, which retired to the entrenched camp at Drissa. Macdonald drove general Essen back towards Mitt aw, and Oudinot, Wittgenstein to Wilkomirz. Two divisions' under Kamensky were separated from the second western army, and joined the corps in Volhynia, tion, boldness and courage of prince Bagration, with the want of military penetration on the part of the Idng of Westphalia, likewise frustrated the plans against him. He even succeeded in surprising, on his retreat, the Poles in Romanoff, and destroying a corps of 6000 men, and hi stationing in Volhynia general Tormassoff, who not only perpetually confronted the extreme right wing of the French, but, by a bold attack on its flank, took prisoners a whole brigade of Saxons, in Kobryn, July 27. At Mohilew, he finally succeeded in throwing himself, with all his forces, on marshal Davoust, who defended himself with ability, but would not have escaped without the greatest loss, had not Bagration been every minute in fear of an attack from the king of Westphalia on his flank. When the news of these events had reached Wihia, Napoleon hastened to his troops, which already stood on the Dwina, where they were watching the Russians in their large entrenched camp, and had suffered considerable loss from their sallies. A bridge of boats gave the Russians the advantage of stationing their main forces on whichever bank of the Dwina they pleased. The camp was extremely strong, both by nature and art, since the eminences of the right bank commanded the left. Napoleon, howler, ordered a detachment to go round the camp by the road to Poloczk ; and, as the previous consequences of his judicious division of the Russian line had not yet been repaired, that is, the two Russian western armies had not yet formed a junction, the Russians had no alternative but to let half their forces be destroyed or to leave their camp and hasten to the Dnieper, where Bagration hoped to join them. Prince Wittgenstein alone maintained his situation, in order to cover the road to Petersburg, and to prevent the investing of Riga. The main army of the French, with the exception of three corps under Reggio, Macdonald and St. Cyr, which blockaded Riga, and endeavored to take possession of the road to Petersburg (which gave rise to a number of bloody indecisive battles), now went, part across the Dwina, part along the river as far as the heights of Wolgonsk, in pursuit of the Russian army, whose rearguard frequently fought considerable battles with the pursuers, and, from the 25th to the 27th July, contested every foot of ground at and behind Ostrowno. But marshal Davoust, pressing forward between the armies of Bagration and Barclay de Tolly, and thus keeping them apart, finally com pelled tiiem to quit the field and retire to Smolensk. Pleat, and want of all kinds, had, meanwhile, operated so detrimentally on the French army, that it was obliged to halt at this point for ten days, during which the two Russian armies finally. formed a junction under the walls of Smolensk. They immediately began to act on the offensive.* With 12,000 cavalry they attacked general Sebastiani (August 8), and droye him back, with loss, a mile and a half. On the 17th, the main body put itself in motion to encounter the French army, which had advanced, on the 10th, to compel, if possible, a general battle. When Napoleon saw his attempts to surround the right wing of the Russians defeated, he ordered his right wing, under Poniatowski, to hasten, by wTay of Ortza, by rapid marches, to cut off the Russians from Moscow. On the other hand, Bagration hastened to defend this road, and Barclay de Tolly sought to retard the enemy as much as possible. Smolensk, an old place, formerly strongly fortified, and the whole position on the Dnieper, greatly favored his plan ; and not till the midnight of the 17th, after a loss of many thousands, did the French succeed in taking this bulwark, reduced, for the most part, to a ruin. The French army was now in possession of the road to Moscow, and formed a triangle, with the left angle before Riga, with the right on the Bug, and with the foremost at Smolensk, on the Dnieper. On the left, and in the rear, it was tolerably based, but very badly on the right flank, where the division of Tormassoff was continually making attacks. August 19, Napoleon left Smolensk, in pursuit of the Russians, whose rear encountered, at Volontina, the French van under marshal Ney. The duke of Abrantes, who had superseded the king of Westphalia, had already come up in the rear of this body, when part of the main army of the Russians hastened to its succor; and by this means it succeeded in leaving, though with great loss, the narrow defile, 30 miles in length. The Russian army retired, in haste, burning all the towns through which it passed. With equal haste, the troops of Napoleon followed, suffering more and more from want and* According to Russian accounts, the first arm} alone was in the battle of Smolensk, as the second immediately after the junction, had proceeded by rapid marches to Dogorobusch, and covered in its rear the road to Moscow. After the battle, the two armies again united, notwithstanding the exertions of the enemy. the climate. Meanwhile, Barclay cle Tolly had to resign the chief command to Kutusoif, who had reaped new laurels in the Turkish war just ended. Reinforced by militia and reserves, he resolved to await the enemy seventy miles from Moscow, in a strong position, which was entrenched as well as time permitted. September 5, the French encamped opposite him, and, on the evening of the same day, one of the outworks of the Russian camp was taken, after the most dreadful slaughter; and at sunset of the 7th began the most bloody battle of this war, in which the one party fought to put an end to all their privations and sufferings, the other to defend their country and preserve its capital. (See Mos/cwa, Battle ofthe.) The Russians lost 25,000 men; the French themselves estimated their own loss at 10,000 ; the number of wounded cannot be ascertained. Although the Russians were broken in their centre by the perseverance of Ney and the viceroy, on the right and left they remained masters of the field of battle; and, without any great loss of artillery, and still less of prisoners, they were able to retire to Moscow, whither Napoleon's army, after two clays' repose, followed in two divisions, of which the first was designed to attack the Russians in the flank. Kutusoff did not dare to risk a battle before the gates of Moscow. He marched through, and abandoned it to the flames and the French, who, September 14, entered the desolate city. Moscow (q. v.) was devoted to destruction, and all the hopes built on the possession of it disappointed. Kutusoff, by a lateral march to the south, stationed himself at Kaluga, and threatened every minute to interrupt the communication of the French with their base on the Vistula. His Cossacks pressed forward to Smolensk. Werega, situated south of Moscow, constituting, as it were, a post for the protection of the French, was surprised by him, September 29. Nothing could save the French army but a speedy retreat or peace. Of the latter Napoleon entertained the more hope, as he was too proud for the former. Every day heightened the sufferings of his army, the provisions having been wasted, and foraging becoming continually more dangerous, from the conflux of Russian peasants and Cossacks. After Kutusoff had been reinforced from all quarters, by Cossacks and by militia, the summoning of which Alexander had himself superintended in summer, and the French army had been diminished in equal proportion (their lossin Moscow, by famine, assassination, the assaults of marauders, &c, was rated at 40,000 men), he suddenly threw aside the mask of pacific negotiations, and (October 8) caused a strong body, under general Bennigsen, to surprise, at Tarutino, the unexpecting French, commanded by Marat and Sebastiani, and drove them back with great loss. From necessity, Napoleon now did what he should have done four weeks before: October 19, he evacuated Moscow. By his original direction towards Kaluga, he gained, indeed, a march of Kutusoff; but, after the engagement at MaloYaroslawetz (October 24), after which the Russians drew back, iNapoleon was either deceived respecting this circumstance, or not sufficiently informed ; and his army, confined to the high road to Smolensk, also drew back, which was the principal cause of its destruction. For, every moment, the want of cavalry became more perceptible, while the Russians, with theirs, could multiply attack on attack. The French columns, consequently, had to march continually in denser order: in addition to this, the countiy was a desert, and want of all kinds had already dissolved the bonds of obedience, while the severity of the winter now covered the roads with ice and snow, destroying men and horses by thousands; and the Russians attacked in continually increasing numbers. After a thousand sacrifices, Smolensk was readied (November 12). But in vain had the remnants of the army hoped to find there repose, nourishment, clothing. The peace with the Porte had permitted the MoldavianRussian army, under admiral Tschitschakoff, to put itself in Napoleon's line of communication. Leaving some forces behind, to employ the Austrians and Saxons in Volhynia, he proceeded with the rest of the army to the Beresina, where he tried to form a junction with Wittgenstein on the Dwina, in order to cut off Napoleon altogether.* The* Here the two wing's of the Russians could attack with decided effect; for Wittgenstein, after being joined by the Finland corps, had defeated, on the* Drissa, the troops left at Poloczk by Napoleon, with such loss, Oct. 18, that they had to retire across the Dwina. They, nevertheless, succeeded in uniting their forces at Ozasnicki, Oct. 30, with the ninth corps, and, Oct. 15. repelling Wittgenstein's attack at Smoliani. But, instead of pursuing his foe on the march to Rataliczi, Wittgenstein now turned against Baran, by doing which he abandoned the corps of Tschitschakoff, on the Beresina, to its fate. During this contest on the Drissa, the army of Volhynia was defeated, Aug. 12, by the combined Austrian and JSaxon force on the Poddobna; and driven back to Lutzk, Fiench army was, by this means, obliged to leave Smolensk on the 13th, and, with the loss of tw^o whole battalions, under Davoust and Ney, at a temperature of 5° above Fahrenheit's zero to 8° below it, with no food but the flesh of the horses, perishing by thousands, hastened to anticipate the enemy, who were pressing forward from the north and south. This KutusofFmight, perhaps, have frustrated; but after the battle (November 18) at Krasnoi, from causes as yet unknown, he relinquished the pursuit, and Napoleon had the good fortune to be met by fresh troops from the Dwina, who compensated, at least in some degree, for the entire loss of his cavalry; and, reinforced by these, under the command of Belluno, Reggio and Dornbrowski, he succeeded in deceiving admiral Tschitschakoff respecting the true point of passage over the Beresina, at Semi in, above Borissoff. There, on the 27th and following days, the passage took place, with a loss of 20,000 men and a great part of the baggage and artillery. But the road to Wilna, which was entered, was very long, and the cold, which increased every day, together with the most horrible want, carried disorder, misery and despair to the highest pitch. December 3, Napoleon issued his twentyninth bulletin from Molodetschno ; and, on the 4th, at Smorgonie, he intrusted the command of the army to the king of Naples, and hastened himself, under the strictest incognito, by way of Warsaw and Dresden, to Paris. Marshals, officers of high and low rank, followed the example of the emperor. No company kept long together. The sole object of behind the Styr. But being reinforced to double VLS iVimer strength by the army of the Danube, it soon compelled that body to retreat 3 and its commander, admiral Tschitschakoff, leaving general Sacken with 25,000 men at Brzesc, marched thence, Oct. 27, in the direction of Minsk, in the rear of the main army of the French. The two bodies attempted to prevent him, but were themselves incessantly pursued by Sacken ; and after they had beaten him at Wolkowisk on the 26th Nov., and driven him behind Brzesc, Tschitschakoff, who had already apprized Wittgenstein of his march, through colonelCzenitschef, succeeded in entering Minsk, Nov. 16/, where he rested three days, captured Borissoff on the 21st, but left it again on the 23d, and on the 26th displayed his forces opposite the enemy on the Beresina. The Russian army on this day was still on the lanks of the Dnieper. Wittgenstein should now have joined Tschitschakoff, but, instead of so doing, he pursued, on the 27th, the division Partonneaux of the ninth corps, and captured it 3 but, meanwhile, Napoleon had effected, though with great loss, a passage over the Beresina, which rschitschakofi" could oppose, but not prevent. all was to save life, and, if possible, the booty taken from strangers or their com rades. In Wilna, the last remains were attacked by surprise, and driven to the Niemeri, behind which they dispersed in all directions, carrying pestilence wherever they went. Of the whole army which crossed the Niemen in June, the Prussian almost alone returned, which had saved itself by a capitulation (at Tauroggen, December 30), and remained in arms, under York, in Prussia. The Austrians and Saxons, driven ba§k to Warsaw, also returned to their frontiers. The capitulation of the Prussian general York was the signal of the awakening of the Prussian people, who, for five years, had been humbled by the French. January 22, the king went from Potsdam to Breslau, and (Feb. 3, 1813) summoned all capable of bearing arms to battle for their country. He did not yet designate his object, but his people understood him, and, with unparalleled enthusiasm, thousands poured forth to the places of rendezvous, from every section of the country; thousands too old for battle contributed their savings. In vain had the French, with the aid of their last reserves, and of troops thrown together in haste, made efforts to remain on the Pregel, on the Vistula, and on the Oder. The Russians advanced slowly indeed, but every where with overwhelming power; and the viceroy of Italy, on whom Napoleon had devolved the chief command, could do nothing but retire behind the Elbe with the least possible loss. March 8, after the last battle, he crossed the river to Magdeburg. Prussia now declared war against France, and concluded an alliance with Russia. Shortly afterwards, Kutusoff's proclamation at KalisCh announced the dissolution of the confederation of the Rhine, March 25th. Meanwhile, Napoleon had formed in France a new army, which passed the Rhine at the end of March. But Austria was neutral, the confederation of the Rhine without strength and without will, the popular insurrection almost universal in northern Germany; along the Elbe and to the Weser, time alone was needed to arm the people, who were here more enraged than in many other German countries,because they were more immediately and severely oppressed by French dominion. Napoleon appreciated the danger, and hastened to despatch the most necessary forces to the points most threatened. Happily for him, the Russians and Prussians were not in a state to derive the full advantage from the favor able situation of things. The forces of the Russians were almost exhausted ; those of the Prussians had first to be formed; the blockade of the fortresses on the Oder and Vistula occupied many troops. Kutusoff manifested little zeal for the emancipation of Germany, and wished it to be attempted, not from Saxony, but on the Lower Elbe ; time was lost in negotiations with the king of Saxony during which Kutusoff fell sick, and died, at Buntzlau, April 28. The viceroy was thus enabled to unite the remnants of the army under the walls of Magdeburg, and even advance against Berlin, by this means occasioning the indecisive engagement at Leitzkau or Mockern, April 5, while Vandamme and Davoust, between the Weser and Lower Elbe, put down the popular fermentation with iron hand, and threatened the city of Hamburg, which had most spiritedly shaken off their yoke; when the whole right bank of the Elbe was cleared of the French by the bold Tettenborn. The allied army, hardly 70,000 strong, now had in front an army of the French of almost twice their strength. Napoleon united his forces with those of the viceroy, who marched in a southerly direction along the Saale, and crossed this river at Wettin, while Napoleon passed it at Jena. May 1, he advanced upon the Elbe. The Prussians and Russians saw themselves in danger of being cut off from the river by a march from Merseburg by way of Leipsic, and resolved to give battle. The engagement was commenced at Grossgorschen, not far from Liitzen (q. v.), about nooir of May 2, and had no object but to surround Napoleon, who was pressing on to Leipsic, with the left wing, cut him off from the Saale, and with the right attack his flank. But this was well protected by detachments posted in the villages of Grossgorschen, Kaja, &c. Unexpected as was the attack, the French resisted it with bravery. Napoleon's main body, divided into large squares, either repelled all attacks, or soon recovered their lost advantages. The engagement in the villages thus lasted, with terrible slaughter, till dusk, when the corps of Lauriston, forming Napoleon's vanguard on the way to Leipsic, came up to attack the allies in the right flank. This compelled them to retreat to their old position, which, not being pursued by Napoleon, they left, May 3, retiring to the Upper Elbe, without loss of artillery, but with great loss in killed and wounded (about 15,000), which was, however, at least equalled by the loss of the French. Napoleon followed the allies with the in fantry, but from want of cavalry, which was still behind, could do them but little damage. May 8, he was already master of Saxony and the Elbe, Dresden having been evacuated, Torgau having been opened by general Thielemann, and the siege of Wittenberg having been raised. The king of Saxony now had to return from Prague, and Napoleon proceeded to Lusatia, where the allies, reinforced by a body of 17,000 men under Barclay de Tolly, awaited him at Bautzen, behind the Spree, in a strong position. But. Napoleon had also received new forces from the confederation of the Rhine and from France; and thus began, May 19, the prelude to a second great battle, which was fought on the 20th and 21st, at and near Bautzen, and, the right wing of the allies having been surrounded, terminated to their disadvantage, so that the Prussians and Russians drew back towards Schweidnitz, in Silesia, and the French advanced to Breslau, though with several losses, especially at Gorlitz, where Duroc and two other generals fell, and at Hanau. A truce, which was concluded June 4, under Austrian mediation, at the village of Plaswitz (in the circle of Strigau), allowed the French to remain masters of the Oder as far as its entrance into the Saxon territory, and of the whole Elbe to its outlet, while it also allowed the allies to procure reinforcements, to await the arrival of the crownprince of Sweden, who took an active part against Napoleon, and to give Austria time either to complete its preparations and join the allies, or to negotiate a peace, which was to be discussed in a congress to be held at Prague. This truce was peculiarly disadvantageous to Napoleon. He derived no advantage from it, except that a number of bold partisans, who swarmed in his rear, had to retire over the Elbe till June 12, and that he could maintain Hamburg, which, supported by so many friends,Danes, Swedes, Prussians, Russians, Englishmen,and finally abandoned by all, had been already occupied by the French, June 2, through Danish mediation. The congress of Prague began its session at a late period, and led to nothing. Russia and Prussia made such conditions as were required by national honor and independence ; the mediation of Austria, and the neutrality which she had observed, Napoleon regarded as infidelity to the alliance of the previous year. Austria evidently took part in the negotiations at Prague, without a sincere wish for peace. August 17, tile war began more fearfully than ever. The participation of Austria in the war Napoleon had anticipated after the battle of Lutzen, and he had, for that cause, sent the viceroy with officers and subalterns to Italy, to collect an army. For the same reason, Bavaria had to draw out its forces Oil the Inn. They were joined by a corps of chosen men, chiefly cavalry, which had come from Spain. But the main bodies on the side of Napoleon were stationed on the Upper and Middle Elbe and at Hamburg ; those on the side of the allies, in Bohemia and Silesia, with the exception of the great corps which covered Berlin, and protected the Lower Oder against Davoust. The allies had agreed, especially since the convention at Trachenberg, on the 9th, 10th and 11th July, to surround Napoleon's flank, from Bohemia, his right in particular, and to cut him off from his base of operations. For that purpose, Bliicher immediately drew back as Napoleon advanced against him, while the main army, under the command of prince Schwartzenberg, entered Saxony; and Dresden, which had been fortified at the time of the truce, had begun to cherish hopes, when Napoleon's main forces arrived from Lusatia by forced marches, and not only repulsed the assault on Dresden (q. v.), but also (August 27) inflicted on the allies a defeat, which, as they were cut off from the main roads to Bohemia, and all the byroads were destroyed, would have caused the annihilation of the whole army, if from that moment Napoleon's star had not set for ever. The victor at Dresden, on the 26th and 27th August, where Moreau (q. v.) was mortally wounded, was stayed in his progress by the defeat of Vandamme, at Culm, August 30; by the simultaneous overthrow of his army in Silesia, under Macdonald; by the hardfought battles at GrossBeeren, August 23, at Belzig, August 27; and by the defeat which Ney suffered at Dennewitz, September 6. In addition to these misfortunes, want of all kinds prevailed in exhausted Saxony, and lamentations in the hospitals, where thousands perished of dysenteries and fevers. At last, by some rapid, wellcovered marches, Bliicher formed a junction on the Elbe with the crownprince of Sweden, while he surprised a French corps under count Bertrand, watching the passage at Wartenburg. and took up a position between the Mulclau and Elbe. As soon as he was advised of this, Napoleon started from Dresden, October 7, in the hopes of overpowering them both separately. But they had already crossed the Muldau to the 12* Saale. The great Bohemian arm} had also advanced on his right flank. These and Blueher's flying corps met in hisreai, and general Thielemann, who had ex changed the Saxon service for the Russian, took whole troops of French fugi tives,and fought several battles between tho Elster and the Saale, almost all of which resulted to the disadvantage of the French On the opposite side, the bold Czernitschei pressed forward so rapidly with his Cossacks to Cassel, that he was able, October 1, to declare the kingdom of Westphalia dissolved. After some movements on the right bank of the Elbe, which seemed to threaten Berlin, Napoleon proceeded with his main army to the plains of Leipsic, at which he arrived with the guards October 14, when Schwartzenberg had already commenced against the king of Naples, who had commanded the left wing of Napoleon from Dresden, a reconnoisance, which resulted in a smart skirmish of the cavalry at Liebertwolkwitz. Meanwhile, Augereau had brought up an excellent corps de reserve: his army had also been reinforced at.Erfurt by 14,000 newly organized fugitives; and, as he probably thought, that he had deceived the crownprince and Bliicher by movements made the other side of Wittenberg, and that he had gained so much time, that he could meet the great Bohemian army alone in a decisive engagement, he did not delay to encounter it in the spacious plain near Leipsic, between the Pleisse, Elster and Parthe. About nine o'clock in the morning of October 16, the engagement commenced to the south of Leipsic. Napoleon had rested his right wing, under Poniatowski, on the Pleisse, and strongly garrisoned all the villages from Konnewitz to the river. His centre was stationed at Wachau. The left wing was supported by the heights of the Parthe. Prince Schwartzenberg sought to turn the right wing; but' all his efforts were vain, because Napoleon made such progress in the centre, that all the reserves destined for that manoeuvre had to be used for the reinforcement of the centre. After destructive attacks on both sides, Napoleon had gained some ground in the centre and on the left wing. Count Bertrand repelled an attempt of the Bohemian army to gain possession of the defile of Lindenau, and, at the same time, of Napoleon's whole line of retreat, perhaps of the city of Leipsic itself. But the duke of Ragusa was very unfortunate at Block em, where he occupied a wide fine to the north of Leipsic, and was unexpectedly attacked by general Bliicher with the greatest impetuosity, totally defeated, after an obstinate resistance, on his left wing, and driven back, in disorder, to Gohiis. On the 17th, Napoleon negotiated, through count Meerveldt, who had been taken prisoner, for liberty to retire undisturbed, and for an armistice, both of which proposals were the less listened to, because the allies could now conduct their operations with a mutual understanding, the crownprince of Sweden having joined Bliicher with upwards of 60,000 men, and general Bennigsen, with almost an equal number, being every minute expected from Grimma. October 18, therefore, a fearful conflict took place at Leipsic. The French fought with desperation, to save their honor and secure their retreat, which had been commenced at daybreak. Their centre and their right wing, from Probstheyda to Konnewitz, remained firm. The left, supported in Schonfeld on the Parthe, was defeated rather by the defection of the Saxons and Wiirtembergers, than from want of bravery ; and nothing but the inexplicable carelessness of Napoleon on the 19th October converted the regular retreat, at last, into a flight, and a general overthrow of the rear. (See Leipsic.) This battle emancipated Germany. Bavaria had already (October 8) renounced the confederation of the Rhine, and united with Austria. All the German princes followed this example, with the exception of the king of Saxony (prevented by his imprisonment in Leipsic), Jerome of Westphalia, and the princeprimate. After the loss of many thousands, in prisoners and disabled, Napoleon, assailed or harassed in every quarter, was obliged, in order to gain the Rhine, to sustain a bloody conflict (October 31) with the Bavarians and Austrians stationed at Hanau. (q, v.) The allies made a halt on the Rhine, in order to unite the forces of liberated Germany with those furnished by England and Holland, which was now working its own emancipation. The number of troops collected against Napoleon in 1814 amounted to 1,208,000.. The only remaining vestiges of Napoleon's power were the fortresses on the Vistula, Oder, Elbe, &c, in which, however, his best troops, cut off from all succor,finally perished, from want and suffering, or were forced to surrender. Even the Danes, who had been forced to form the closest union with Napoleon, in consequence of the hard terms proffered hem by England and Sweden in the spring of 1813, were obliged to concede to the crownprince of Sweden, in the peace of Kiel (Jan. 14,1814), all that they had formerly refused. The Rhine having been passed subsequently to Jan. 1, 1814, at Caub, Manheirn, Rastadt, Ehrenbreitstein, and Diisseldorf, it was easy to see that Napoleon would be eventually overpowered, because in France many had fallen from him since fortune forsook him, and the old aristocracy raised their heads again, whilst the people at large were exhausted by war. Immediately after his arrival, he had indeed set every spring in motion, in order to repeat, once more, the unexampled exertions which had been made in 1811 and 1813. But affairs in Spain had taken a most unfavorable turn. Marshal Jourdan had been totally defeated by Wellington, at Vittoria (June 21, 1813), and had been forced back to the Pyrenees, with the loss of his artillery; and, subsequently, Soult and Suchet had with difficulty kept the enemy from the soil of France itself, and it was consequently necessary to send thither new forces. For the first time, therefore, the senate ventured, though timidly, to represent the misery of France, when repeated decrees of Napoleon ordered the levy of nearly half a million new conscripts of 1807-1814, the organization of cohorts of national guards, and the formation of four armies of reserve. Still stronger terms did the deputies Laine and Raynouard use in the legislative body; and, in consequence of the general indignation at the enormous expenditure of human life, great difficulties now presented themselves, when the demands of selfdefence were imperative, in the way of collecting the myriads which were necessary, and to provide them with artillery, horses, and other requisites. Beyond the Rhine, therefore, from Switzerland to Holland, wdiich was for the most part voluntarily evacuated by the French, the allies found but little resistance. Almost without loss of blood, they were able to gain possession of mount Jura, to put their left wing in communication with the Austrian army of Italy (which, commanded by general Hiller, had threatened, from Tyrol, to cut off the viceroy, and had obliged him to retreat to the Aclige^ to make themselves masters of all the passes to Italy, of the city of Geneva, of the roads over the Simplon and Bernard, and, as early as the 9th January, to occupy a new line, covered on the left by the Seine, on the right by the Meuse, in Alsace, Lorraine, DeuxPonts, &c, with the exception of the invested foi tresses. Napoleon had issued a proclamation for a land of gene ul rising of the people, or a levy in mass. This measure, which did wonders in the revolution, had, in this instance, but little effect among the suffering people. In a few quarters only, and not till the excesses of the enemy, exasperated by national hatred, had occasioned excitement, did the call produce some effect, but could give no new direction to the course of affairs. The allies, continuing to advance, occupied the Saar, the Moselle, the passes of Ardennes, almost without a blow. In no instance had a French general strength enough to maintain the most important points' against the overwhelming force of the invaders; and it was hoped, by the middle of February, to reach Paris in safety, when Napoleon, who left it on the 25th January, and went to join his army (assembled, after infinite trouble, on the Aube), fought, from January 27 to February 3, a number of battles, which, with that at Brienne, on February 1, form one of the most striking exhibitions in military history. Napoleon put forth all his skill. He lost the battle of Brienne, after his army of 70,0(X) men had made the most desperate resistance, which, regardless of danger, he superintended every where, and left behind 73 cannon and 12,000 prisoners, to retire, as it seemed, beyond Troyes. Meanwhile, the eagerness of the allies to improve the first victory on the soil of France, gave rise to a separation of their forces, of which Napoleon took advantage judiciously and boldly. Having received on wagons new troops from the army of Spain, he proceeded, with rapidity, from the Seine to the Lower Marne, along which the army of Blucher was marching, in security, to Paris. He broke through its centre, and destroyed, at Champeaubert (February 10), the column of general Olsusieff. Without the aid of general York, general Sacken would have met with a similar fate the next day, at Montmirail. In like manner (February 14), Napoleon repulsed, with considerable loss, at Vauchamp and Etoges, the columns led by the fieldmarshal himself. With great exertions, a union was, at last, effected with Bliicher's reserves. Schwartzenberg and Wrede were then, with the Wiirtemberg troops, beyond the Seine ; for Napoleon had been deemed sufficiently enfeebled to allow them to proceed towards Paris in two large columns, one on the Seine, the other on the Marne. This idea had been, in part, recommended by the barrenness of Champagne. The great triangle between the Seine and Marne consequently separated them, for in it stood Napoleon's army. To make a lateral movement, it was necessary to cross the Seine, over which there were only two points of passage, at Nogent (strongly fortified) and at Bray, without a bridge, but in sight of a weak French reconnoitring party. Napoleon now hoped to gain important advantages over the army of Schwartzenberg. Wrede, united with Wittgenstein's corps, had to return across the Seine (February 17). On the 18th, Napoleon attacked the Wiirtembergers, at Montereau, at the confluence of the Yonne and Seine ; but they retired, though with loss, to the left bank of the Seine. Schwartzenberg now hastened back, and passed the Seine at Troyes, to renew his communication with Blucher. Constantly hard pressed, the allies had to continue retiring; and the situation of affairs was so uncertain that, in the headquarters of the monarchs themselves, a diversity of opinions prevailed, which had an influence on the congress of Chatillon. (q. v.) But in this veiy crisis, which inspired Napoleon with such hopes that he raised his demands higher at Chatillon than he had done since the battle of Leipsic, a new turn was given to affairs. The allies concluded the treaty of Chaumont. (q. v.) After the indecisive battle of Bar sur Aube (February 27), Napoleon marched against Blucher, who was approaching the northern army, the van of which had already taken Soissons, but nad lost it again. But in a lucky moment, Soissons capitulated (March 2), and Blucher formed a junction with the northern army, under Bulow, who had taken several fortresses in the Low Countries and Picardy, especially La Fere (February 26), with a great quantity of stores, by means of general Thiimen. The duke of Weimar, who arrived with 30,000 Saxons and other troops, had blockaded the unconquered places. On the extreme left wing, also, of the allied army, from Geneva, the most decided advantages were gained. The count of Bubna here, likewise, had been obliged to contend, till February 25, with obstacles of all kinds Marshal Augereau, inspirited by some reinforcements from Spain, had received from Napoleon orders to advance on this side, and repulse the left flank of the allies. All the Austrian wounded were taken to Berne, and Geneva was considered in great danger; but when the prince of Homburg and count Bianchi came up with considerable reinforcements, Auge reau lost his former advantages as rapidly as he had gained them. Napoleon now saw himself in danger of being surrounded on both flanks, and confined between the Seine and Marne. He therefore (March 9) attacked Blucher's army at Craone, and, on the 10th, gave battle at Laon, and was defeated. He now returned across the Aisne and Marne, took Rheirns, and threw himself with impetuosity on Schwartzenberg, at Arcis sur Aube ; but, repulsed on the 20th and 21st, with loss, he resumed his former plan, to approach the Rhine in the rear of the allies, supported by the fortresses of the Moselle, exhort the people to a general rising, unite with Augereau, and intercept the retreat of the allies. But the allies, merely keeping watch on him, made a rapid march to Paris (q. v.); for marshal Augereau had already been driven back to Lyons, which capitulated March 2L After the victory over Soult at Orthes, February 27, the English had gained possession of the city of Bordeaux, and driven back marshal Soult to Toulouse. Finally, advices were received at headquarters, from Paris itself, disclosing the existence of an antiNapoleon party, and describing the conquest of the city as easy, it being defended solely by the national guards. The battle of March 30 gave them access to the capital of France. Napoleon's family had already fled from the city. Alexander now declared that he would never treat with the emperor or his family. April 1, a provisional government was organized by Talleyrand, which declared Napoleon deposed, and transferred the crown to the Bourbons. Napoleon hastened back too late for the preservation of Paris. He approached only as near as Fontainebleau. Here the fragments of the troops which had left Paris, according to the capitulation, were reunited; but Marmont, with his corps, abandoned the emperor April 4. After many negotiations, Napoleon abdicated the throne, stipulating only for the imperial title, the island of Elba, with entire sovereignty, two millions of francs, &c, all of which were granted him. April 9, an armistice was concluded with all the French commanders. Most of the fortresses situated without the boundaries of ancient France, opened their gates; the others, situated within it, acknowledged Louis XVIII willingly or unwillingly. Davoust, in Hamburg, hesitated the longest: he did not depart till May 29. At the same time, the taking of Paris decided the fate of Italy. In this country, partly through the excellent precautions of the viceroy, partly through the equivocal conduct of Mu rat, king of Naples, who had left the part) of Napoleon, and, favored by Austria, embraced that of the allies, without doing any thing hi good earnest for them, the war had not taken a decisive course. Since the battle which the viceroy had fought with the Austrian general on the Mincio, he maintained his position on this river, with an army of 30,000 men, at most, against the same number of Neapolitans and 50,000 Austrians. The accounts from Paris gave here, also, a new direction to affairs. April 16, a truce was concluded, which allowed the French troops to depart for France, and compelled the Italian to remain. But an insurrection in Milan made a change in regard to the condition, that the fate of Italy should be decided in Paris ; and prince Eugene resigned his command of the troops to the Austrian general Bellegarde (who had taken Hiller's place), and went, by way of Verona, to Munich. Meanwhile, the count of Artois had entered Paris, as the representative of Louis XVIII. April 23, he concluded a general truce with the allied monarchs, and a preliminary treaty respecting the future conditions of peace. Louis XVIII entered Paris himself, May 3. On the 5th, Schwartzenberg resigned the chief command, and the armies retired with rapidity to the Rhine, though peace was not signed till May 30. (See France, since 1814.) On the whole, on account of the great expectations excited by the hatred against France, the joy at this peace wae very slight, although it had taken from France upwards of one hundred fortified places, and twentyfive millions of souls. The tranquillity of Europe was soon again disturbed. In France, Louis XVIII did not succeed in winning the love of the people, to which he had so long been a stranger. Napoleon, therefore, escaped from Elba, and reascended the French throne March 20, 1815. (See Napoleon.) The monarchs being determined to support the Bourbons, the flames of war were again kindled. About 770,000 soldiers were gathered from Germany, Russia, Belgium (which was united into one kingdom with Holland), England, and Denmark. Napoleon, on his side, was not idle. From all France, he had convened in Paris, to a great champ de Mai, in the beginning of June, 4000 deputies, who swore fidelity to the new constitution and to him. From the 20th March, he, Carnot, Davoust, and others, had done every thing to put the army in a respectable state. Their efforts were very much aided by the enthusiasmof the old soldiers, who had, meanwhile, returned home from imprisonment. The Austrian emperor was threatened by a storm in Italy, which seemed to be connected with that in France. Murat, king of Naples, had been obliged to undergo, at the congress of Vienna, a contest with the Bourbon courts ; so much the harder, as England was under obligations to the former king of Naples, and, moreover, understood Murat's equivocal behavior the year before, and therefore declared, in express terms, that he could not remain king. Austria alone, the more faithful to her engagements with him because it was less for her advantage to have a Bourbon for a neighbor, in the south of Italy, spoke in his favor; but either gave up his cause at last, or, at least, Murat thought himself aban don ed by her, or believed that the landing of Napoleon would afford him means, during the prevailing fermentation in Italy, to make himself master of the whole peninsula; so that, on the 4th of April, without declaration of war, he attacked Rome and the Austrian line of troops with 50 to 60,000 men. The Austrians, hardly 12,000 men strong, under general Bianchi, retreated, fighting, behind the Po, where they maintained themselves till the troops sent thither in wagons had arrived ; after which, general Frimont, who commanded them, advanced again so quickly, and so skilfully, that, twenty days after, Murat was in t he most desperate situation; and his dispirited troops by degrees dispersed, and would not stand an attack. Surrounded, and cut off from the best roads, he saw himself forced to retreat continually through bypaths, where artillery and baggage were lost. An attempt to save himself by a truce, failed, from the firmness of the Austrian general; another, at Tolentino, May 1-3, to improve his situation by arms, was frustrated by the valor of his enemy ; and, in consequence of this last vain attack, made with desperation, and much personal exposure, his army totally dispersed, and he himself fled to France.His wife was taken to Austria. The wreck of the army, 5000 strong, laid down their arms behind the river Volturno, May 20. Half the Austrian army, on account of the unexpectedly slight resistance which they had met with, had proceeded to Upper Italy, in order, from thence to enter France, over the Alps. But orders from Vienna delayed the invasion, that the Russians might have time to come up. Half of June had consequently elapsed, when the attack was made on the side of Napoleon, equally impetuously and unex pectedly. Immediately after the champ de Mai, he left Paris for the army of 150,000 select troops, stationed on the northern boundary, taking with him the guards assembled at Lyons, and, with them, attacked, at daybreak, June 15, more than 200,000 Englishmen and Prussians, who were encamped along the Dyle and Sambre, under the command of Blucher and Wellington. Without giving them time to unite, he drove the Prussians back behind Fleurus, and defeated them at Ligny, June 16; while Ney attempted to retard, at Quatre Bras, the English, who were hastening on the Brussels road, and prevent their junction with Blucher. In the battle that took place there, in which the duke of Brunswick fell, Ney was unable entirely to accomplish Napoleon's object ; but neither could Wellington come to the succor of the Prussians, who were, therefore, obliged to make a retreat, in which they were favored by the darkness of the night. The next day, Napoleon detached two of his corps d'armte to pursue the Prussians, who were retreating to Wavre: with the rest of the army, he advanced, on the Brussels road, to crush the English, as he thought he had crushed the Prussians. Wellington had, meanwhile, assumed a position before the great forest of Soigny, on an elevated plain, which formed a natural fortress. (See Water~ loo, Battle of.) On the 18th, Napoleon attacked this position, in the conviction that the English would not make a long resistance. But all his attacks were unsuccessful, and the more he wasted his forces in vain, the more terrible was his defeat, when, towards evening, the army of the Prussians, beaten on the 16th, but only the more eager for battle, coming up from W'avre in two divisions, fell upon the right wing'and the rear of the French army, through the defile of St. Lambert. Wellington, now making a general movement forward, in one hour the whole French army was dispersed, and Napoleon himself carried along with the fugitives, Blucher ordered all the cavalry to pursue the fugitives, in the moonlight night. Ali the artillery and baggage was lost; no point of retreat was specified ; they who had hoped to be in Brussels in the morning, wandered about on the Sambre, in the most melancholy condition. Not a single corps oVarmh opposing the conquerors, the fortified places situated in their route were taken or surrounded. Deputies from Paris, suing for a truce, and announcing Napoleon's abdication, were not heard. The allies advanced, taking advantage of the first consternation. June 27, they were already masters of the main roads leading to Paris, and expected to gain possession of the capital without a stroke of the sword. But the two French generals Vandamme and Grouchy, who had pursued the Prussians, after the battle on the 16th, and had driven general Thielemann from Wavre, at the very moment when Napoleon's army was dispersed, made such a rapid and judicious retreat, that, to the surprise both of friend and foe, they arrived, with moderate loss, under the walls of Paris at the same time with Blucher and Wellington. Paris was better fortified than in 1814 ; but, as the fortifications were surrounded, the city was in danger of being stormed on its weakest side. Grouchy and Vandamme were the Jess able to encounter the allies, as every day brought accessions to the forces of the Prussians and English; a truce was, therefore, made, and Paris evacuated. (See Paris.) All the troops retired behind the Loire, with their baggage, artillery, &c, and on the 6th the city was surrendered. Thus the war was essentially decided by the battle of Waterloo, While the Russians, Bavarians, Wiirtembergers, and Austrians, were coming up from all sides, the French forces stationed in different quarters were too inconsiderable to do any thing but shed their blood in vain, notwithstanding the brave resistance of Rapp under the wails of Strasburg, of Suchet before Lyons, and notwithstanding popular insurrections in several parts of Alsatia and Lorraine. Armistices put an end, by degrees, to the war in these quarters the more speedily, because Louis XVIII had already made his entry into Paris, July 9. Immediately after his return, Napoleon had abdicated. He hoped, perhaps, by that means, to appease the storm, and departed for Rochefort, where he finally, July 15, surrendered to the English. In Paris, a diversity of opinions prevailed in the chambers of peers and representatives. Their attention was occupied, while the conquerors advanced, with the subjects of a republic, of Napoleon II, and a new constitution ; till Fouehe, who stood at the head of the provisional government, closed their halls, and Louis reascended the throne, strongly as such a proceeding was deprecated by the voice of the people in the chambers and in the army. This restoration had much influence on the event of the war. The princes had received Louis as their ally. In their declarations, they had spoken merely against Napoleon, not against the French people. The more active a part the people had taken against them, and the more strongly they still expressed themselves, in some places, against the Bourbons, so much the more cautiously had they to act, in order to maintain the Bourbons on the throne (contrary to the former opinion of the prince regent), against the will of the French people. France was, therefore, still overwhelmed with troops, and the ministers of the allies were engaged with those of Louis in the adjustment of political relations; but up to September 29, the parties were so far from agreeing, that the former all took their departure. Not till new ministers had been appointed, a few days after, by Louis XVIII, were #se preliminaries of peace signed (October 2): these were confirmed in the definitive treaty of November 20, which, 1. fixed the boundaries of France as they were in 1790; but, 2. took from it the fortresses of Landau, Saarlouis, Philippeville, Marienburg, Versoix, with a certain circuit of territory about each, to be subsequently defined; 3. provided that Huningen should be dismantled; 4. fixed an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs for the expenses of the war, payable in five years;5. provided that a line from Conde, through Bouchain, to Bitsch, should be occupied, for the same time, by the allies, with 150,000 men, at the expense of France; and,6. secured the demands of all private persons on France, with the exception of the bank of Hamburg, emptied by Davoust in 1813. This was the actual termination of the war; for, till then, the northern fortresses of France had been besieged, at least by the Prussians, and for the most part conquered. By a separate agreement, half voluntary, half forced, the restoration was granted of all the works of art, of Italy, Germany, &c, accumulated in Paris since 1792. Respecting Napoleon, the allies agreed that he should live at St. Helena, at the expense of England, as a prisoner of war, but with all the alleviations of which such a situation could admit. His whole family was banished from France, under penalty of death, and the members of it were obliged to have passports from the great powers. The banishment of the Bonapartes was again pronounced in 1831, together with that of the elder line of the Bourbons. Murat, impelled by an unhappy error, and deceived by the Neapolitan police, made an attempt to recover his kingdom, and, October 13, died the death of a criminal, at Pizzo, in Calabria* (See Murat.) (See the Histoire de VExpedition de Russie, with an atlas, 3d edition, Paris, 1825, 3 vols., by the French colonel of artillery, marquis de Cham bray. The Russian colonel Butturlin'si&. milit. de la Campagne de Russie en 1812, Paris, 1824, 2 vols., with plans, was used by Chambray, in the new edition of his work. See, also, the marquess of Londonderry's Narrative of the War in Germany and France, in 1813 and 1814 ; and Segur's Histoire de Napoleon et de la Grande Armee pendant VAnnee 1812 ^Paris, 1825, 2 vols.). Russian Language and Literature, Under this head we must distinguish two anguages: 1. The Russian language, originally the dialect of the Sclavi, who founded the empire. It underwent, as did the empire itself, various changes. Thus it has, by degrees, incorporated into itself much of the Scandinavian, Mongolian, Tartar (1225 to 1477), and German, also the Polish and French languages. The improvement of this forcible and harmonious idiom is not, however, concluded, but is continually advancing by means of the national literature.2. The Sclavonian language, or that of the Sclavonian Bible. It was fixed by the translation of the Holy Scriptures, and so settled that it has since experienced but few alterations. It is the language of the Bible, of the old chronicles, as, for instance, Nestor's, about 1100, of the ecclesiastical laws, of some of the pastoral instructions, and of the prayers in the liturgy. A mixed language arose from the combination of these two already mentioned, which is used in sermons, in rhetorical prose, and in the higher species of poetiy. Its principal ingredient is the Sclavian^ language; but it has borrowed those words ' and phrases from the Sclavonian, which, being used for the expression of biblical ideas and images, have thereby acquired more strength and dignity. The Sclavonian, however, prevails in sermons, and the Russian in oratorical prose, and in the more elevated kinds of poetry.History of the Russian Language. The first period, which was the longest, and most destitute of literary productions, extends from the foundation of the empire to Lomonosoff, who first introduced a permanent change into the Russian language. Important, as contributing to fix the written language, was the introduction of a current written character, whereby the unwieldy letters before used, and introduced by Cyril, were superseded (see Cyril), for the full expression of the tones, which are peculiar to the Sclavian language, and for which the Greek letters were neither suitable nor sufficient. Cyril had borrowed some characters from the Asiatic alphabets, the form of which was an impediment to a people not fond of writing. About the end of the seventeenth century, Elias Kopiewitsch improved it, and brought the letters to their present form, for the embellishment of which so much has been done in the last ten years, that the Russian characters may compare in beauty of form with those of any European language. The history of the Sclavian press has, in modern times, attracted much attention, and a copy of a work printed in 1475 has been found. A Sclavonian psalter was printed at Cracow, 1481. The psalter of Kiev (1551) is the oldest work printed in Russia itself. Cracow was the cradle of Sclavonian typog raphy. The oldest monuments of the language are, Oleg's treaty of peace and commerce of the year 912; Igor's treaty with the Greek emperor (945); the municipal charter of Novgorod (1019): but the most important memorials are the Russian laws in the time of JaroslafF (who died in 1054); the expedition of Igor, a heroic poem of the twelfth century ; popular songs, and the poems of the prince Cantemir, in the reign of the empress Anna. This predecessor of Lomonosoff possessed true talent, had received a European education, and was well acquainted with the classics. His poems consist of satires and epistles, in which, in imitation of Horace and Boileau, he described in true colors the manners and faults of his times. The spirit of his poems is modern, the form antique, but his verse is rhymed. He likewise translated into Russian Fontenelle's Dialogues on the Plurality of Worlds; but the language was as yet too little refined to preserve the beauty of the original. This period shows only individual monuments of a written language in the first stages of improvement. Peter the Great had, unintentionally, given it a retrograde direction, when he introduced many foreign expressions, in place of a great number of existing technical terms, which thus became disused, so that the language itself became poorer, and was disfigured The second period extends from Lomonosoff to Karamsin. Lomonosoff (q. v.), a man of genius, created the language of Russian poetry, by the introduction partly of poetical expressions and partly of new forms, which he borrowed principally from the German literature, and which served his successors as models. His example likewise shows how the Russian language can be enriched and ennobled by expressions and phrases from the Sola* vonic. He first developed its grammatical structure, and contributed also to form its prose. His odes relate to the circumstances of the day; we find in them little poetry, but much rhetorical richness. In his tragedies, the lyric tone prevails, and dramatic power is sought for in them in vain. In epic poetry, his Peter the Great was a first attempt; there are individual passages, indeed, of great merit; but the poem, as a whole, is devoid of interest. His imitations of the Psalms are rich in poetical expression. His epistle on the utility of verse shows his great command of the language. Sumarokoff, ail author celebrated in his time, is too diffuse upon every subject. His fertility in tragedy and comedy, in satires, epistles, elegies, eclogues, fables, epigrams and songs, gave him reputation ; but in no department can he be considered a model. Keraskoff has produced two large epics upon the conquest of Kasan, and upon Wladimir the Great, besides tragedies, odes and epistles. His language is beautiful, and far more smooth than that of Lomonosoff, but his talents are much less conspicuous. He was considered in his time as the Homer of Russia; but he is now forgotten. Maykoff acquired a reputation by two burlesque poems, which were, however, not the less worthless on that account. Kniashjinin imitated the French in his tragedies and comedies, too closely indeed, but not without talent. Some comedies, in which he has interwoven many of the follies of the times in which he lived, have maintained themselves upon the stage till the present time. He very much excelled Sumarokoff; and some of his scenes, even now, are read with pleasure, although the language has proceeded so far in improvement.Kostroifdeserves mention en account of his translation of the first books of the Iliad into Alexandrine verse, and of Ossian into prose. His language is not without force.Bobroff, a wild genius, has left behind him a number of bombastic odes, and a descriptive poem, Tauria,) a chaos, but which contains here and there somebrilliant passages.Bogdanowitsch (q. v.), author of a poem called Psyche, in imitation of La Fontaine, is naif, unci full of grace and originality, but diffuse, and deficient in taste.Oseroff belongs, if his language is considered, to this period, although his poems appeared in that which followed. The plan of his tragedies is French, the language neither pure nor beautiful, but the expression is often forcible, and the description of the passions natural; some scenes are really tragic; some of his characters are well delineated and supported.Petroff was a true poet, but his language is rude; he had many ideas and striking images. He celebrated the victories of Catharine the Great in his odes. His heroes were Potemkin and Romanzoff. His translation of the iEneid into Alexandrine verse is very unpolished in it's language, but is full of power.Lomonosoff also com mences the series of prose writers of this period. His eulogies upon Peter the Great and Elizabeth contain few ideas, but much rhetorical ornament. Both of these writings are entirely different from those of his predecessors. They have very much improved the language, but still have not given it a permanent form. The same may be said of his scientific treatises upon electricity and metallurgy, of his Essay towards a Russian grammar, and of his Rhetoric, which' contains many fragments translated from the ancients.Weissen (Wisin) wrote two comedies in prose, full of genuine humor, which describe in true colors some of the absurdities of the age; both of these have maintained themselves upon the stage. He also wrote two very original satires, and some translations from Montaigne and Terrasson.Muravieff, the tutor of the emperor Alexander, composed for his noble pupil several treatises upon Russian history, some dialogues of the dead, and some fragments, in the manner of the English Spectator, under the title of the Suburban. His style is not wholly pure, neither has he a great command of language : it is evident that he has formed his style from the imitation of French writers; but he is full of ideas, and particularly rich in imagery. When we read his works, we feel that his mind is conversant with all the beauty contained in ancient and modern literature. A good heart, a pure mind, and a love of virtue, are conspicuous in every thing that he has written. He was in advance of his age. But he had little effect upon hi3 contemporaries, as he permitted but few of his writings to be printed, and his works did not appear till long after his death. In general, it may be said, that during this period the genius of Lomonosoff awakened a taste for literature in his nation. People eagerly read every thing that was printed, particularly poetical productions. In Sumarokoff they saw a great tragic writer, and in the poem of Keraskoff, with all its defects, an Iliad. They felt the beautiful, but did not know how to distinguish it from what was mis crable. Taste was in the cradle, and criticism still unborn. We may consider this age as the awakening period of genius and poetry. In the last half of it, a man of genius made his appearance, who belonged to no school, of an original and peculiar mind, without high cultivation, but unique in his kind, and the true representative of Russian poetry. This man was Derschawin. (q. v.) He celebrated the glory of the Russian arms during the reign of Catharine, as did Lomonosoff and Pecroff; but while these were only eulogists of their sovereign and her generals, Derschawin celebrated them in the true spirit of a poet. He remained a philosopher even at the foot of the throne : his own character appears in whatever he said of others: he awakened great and patriotic feelings, and at the same time described nature with inimitable touches. His productions however, are not the best models, but they glow with a fire which kindles poetical sentiment. This )eriod produced a great number of transations, particularly from the French; they are all, however, without merit as regards style, but they show the general desire and love of the age for literature. In this age the great dictionary of the Russian academy appeared, projected according to an entirely new plan, and in which the etymological order of the words is followed. This work furnishes great facilities for the study of the Russian language and literature. The Russian academy (founded October 21, 1783) has had great influence in directing the attention of authors to the pure elements of the language; several societies have likewise been formed for the improvement of the language. Finally, one man contributed greatly to the spread of literary taste, who had* himself but little learning, but a good natural understanding, a love for the sciences, and withal a happy talent for illustration. This was Novikorf. He founded a typographical society, and edited a satirical journal, under the title The Painter, which at that time was very much read, and opened to Karamsin a field for the exhibition of his literary powers.In the third period, Karamsin (q. v.) is the representative of prose, and Dmitrieff of poetry. The periodical edited by the former, after his return from his travels, effected a decided change in the Russian language. He revealed to his countrymen the secrets of happy diction, clearness, beauty and precision. The same perfection which he gave to prose, Dmitrieff gave to poetry. Karamsin's careeras an author may be distinguished into three epochs. The first began with his editing the Journal of Moscow. In this publication appeared fragments of his Letters of a travelling Russian, and his tales, which were afterwards published collectively. These productions exhibit genuine taste, though they appear like the effusions of a youth. His remarks and notices of the writings of foreign countries, which appeared in that publication, excited an interest in foreign literature throughout Russia, and developed the germ of true criticism. The second epoch commenced with the publication of the European Courier. This periodical drew the attention of the public to politics, and awakened reflection. His essays upon some of the political topics of the day, and upon morals, are models in their respective kinds. His beautiful style gave to his ideas a still higher charm. The third epoch is marked by his History of Russia. This history, as a literary production, is a mine for alPauthors of his nation. No Russian prose writer since Karamsin has acquired a high reputation: greater purity, perhaps, prevails than did before, but his style has not been equalled. Many have wished to imitate him, but they have only shown their own inferiority. Makaroff has edited a Critical Journal; he wrote very correctly, but his style is dry. BatuschkofF has been able to give grace to his prose, and the Italian harmony to his verse. Shukoffskij was, after Karamsin, the editor of the European Courier, and wrote in it some essays in prose. These, and other authors, have each of them some peculiar merit, but they are not equa. to their master. Besides, their works are unimportant, and cannot, therefore, much promote the further developement of the language. The Russian literature is very barren in original works on the subject of philosophy. In the history of the language of poetry, Dmitrieff's imitations of La Fontaine and his tales make a particular epoch. Before him Lomonosoff, and especially Derschawin, had furnished models of poetical beauty, and opened the way to bold originality. Without checking the flight of genius, Dmitrieff knew how to direct it so as not to offend against taste and sound criticism. We possess about one hundred excellent fables by him, in imitation of La Fontaine and others, many songs, which have become popular, and odes, considered classical, without haviag the brilliancy of Derschawin's originality and boldness. DmitriefF has giveu the language of Russian poetry its permanent form. NeledinskyMeletzsky is less pure and correct than DmitriefF, but many of his songs are in the mouths of the common people. The true fire of passion animates his poetry. Chemnitzer is esteemed as a fabulist; his expression is natural, but very prosaic. KrilofF, a poet in the full sense of the word, is, in his department, like Derschawin, the representative of the national poetry, for his fables are almost all original. Derschawin, in his odes, described the bright side of his age; but KrilofF, in his fables, painted the absurdities and prosaic thought of his time. In expression less pure and perfect than his predecessor DmitriefF, he, however, excels him in descriptive powers. KrilofF has much observation ; his fables, which, in this respect, will bear comparison with the best in any literature, are rich in ideas and instruction; many of his verses, therefore, are now current as proverbs. ShuJcofFskij has enriched the poetical language of the Russians, by describing ideas and feelings which had not been treated in their literature. His poems are a true picture of his individual character at the time in which he wrote them. They therefore possess uncommon attraction for the reader. His predilection for German poetry, which was before his time but little known to his countrymen, induced him to incorporate it with the Russian in his imitations ; his poems, on this account, have a peculiar stamp, which has given a singular charm to their deep melancholy feeling and natural tone. BatjuschkofF pleases by the charms of his diction. With a brilliant imagination he united the finest taste, and he is inimitable in the choice and harmony of his expression. We possess of his writings some amorous elegies, ingenious epistles, and attempts at lyric poetryall excellent. Prince Wiasemskij expresses much in few words : this sometimes gives his language an air of stiffness and diyness; but his satires and epigrams are particularly happy. His prose suffers still more than his poetry from this brevity.WostokofF has richness of thought, power of imagination, and warmth of expression ; but his style is but little refined.Gneditsch deserves much credit for his translation of the Iliad into Russian hexameters. The general characteristic of this period is an elegance and correctness previously foreign to Russian literature. The language has acquired a more settled character ; but Russian prose still wants the labor of thinking minds to perfect it The poetical language of the Russians alone can be called rich. The latest period of Russian literature is yet in its bloom. Already it numbers one very promising poet, Alexander Puschkin, who is distinguished for his imagination and originality, and whose style is in the highest degree refined. Karamsin's historical work now opens a new field for national poetry. Russian history was previously enveloped in the obscurity of chronicles and traditions. Karamsin dissipated this obscurity, and threw light upon the darkness of the past. Poetry, by his torch, may now light her own. Among other living poets, may be mentioned KoslofF (q. v.); Gribojedoff, the author of a very amusing comedy ; Glinka, a lyric poet, full of fire ; baron Delwig (the editor of the Russian Almanac of the Muses, called the Flowers of the North, in 1825 and 1826); Schazykoff, Earatinskij, &c. Among the translators we may mention professor Merslakoff of Moscow, who has translated Tasso's poem of Jerusalem Delivered. Russian prose enumerates, at the present time, but few original productions. There are many journals, but they are for the most part filled with extracts from foreign periodicals. The critical department of them cannot be important, because the national literature is poor; nevertheless, among a great number of tolerable prose writers, Gretsch has distinguished himself; his style is easy, although he sometimes offends against good taste. For many years he edited the best Russian journal. He has likewise been engaged in the composition of a Russian grammar. In connexion with this, besides the old Russian grammars of Ludolph (Grammatica Russica el Manuductio ad lAngiiam Sclavonicam, Oxford, 1696, quarto), of Groning (Stockholm, 1750), of.Lomonosoff, Rodde, Heym (Riga, 1821), that of the Russian academy (St. Petersburg, 1802), particularly that of Vater (Leipsic, 1808), and that of Tappe, on account of the happily chosen examples and practical exercises (St. Petersburg and Riga, 1810; 5th edition, 1820), deserve to be recommended, as well as Puchmayer's System of the Russian Language, in German (1820). They all, at "least the modern, embrace only the common Russian. For the Sclavonian or ecclesiastical language grammatical aids are greatly needed. The grammar of the ecclesiastical Sclavian, written in the Russian language, which Peter Winogradoff published in 181.S, is far surpassed in value by Dobrowsky's' Insiiiutiones IAngua Slaivica Dialccti veteris (Vienna, 1822). The government itself has taken charge of grammatical education, and prohibited the sale of Lewitzkij's small .Russian grammar (St. Petersburg, 1814), which was put under the interdict of the minister of instruction, in 1814, " on account of its many defects and false definitions." Concerning the dictionaries of the Russian language, by Rodde, and Heym, a German, Russian, and French pocket dictionary (Riga, 1805}, and many others, see the review, by Schlozer, in the Gottingen Gelehiien Anzeigen, 1810, number 47. Since that, A. Oldekop has published a RussianGerm an and a GermanRussian dictionary, in 5 vols. The present president of the Russian academy, admiral and minister Alexander Schischkoff, caused a second edition of the academy's dictionary to be published in 6 vols, quarto, in the year 1826. After having thus characterized the poets and prose writers who have had an influence upon the formation of the Russian language, we will touch more particularly on certain portions of the Russian literature, as follows : I. The old popular songs and traditions, which were formerly neglected by the Russians, have now excited their attention, on account of their similarity to the English, Spanish, and Scandinavian ballads. Like these ballads, they appear to refer to a connected series of popular traditions. In that period, however, to which these old songs belong (1015- 1224), the national poetry had not freed itself from the old Sclavian mythology; and the Russian tales and popular traditions have thereby acquired a peculiar charm of a fantastical description, which is particularly remarkable in the story of Filipat and Maxim, and their valorous deeds; the marriage of Devgieiew^as, and the carrying off of Stratigovnas, in the tale of Slhnagrip, the czar of the Adorians. Prince Wladimir I, with his knights, is the central point of this whole series of tales, which may be compared with the stories of Charlemagne and his peers, and those of king Arthur and the Round Table. The heroes, Dobrenja Nikititsch, and Tschurilo Plenkowitsch, and others, here take the place of the well known and harmonious names of Roland, Rinaldo, and Amadis. J. Midler published the Expedition of Igor against the Polowzians (from the old Russian; Prague, 1811 and 1812), and this poem has since passed through several editions in the Russian original. Prince Wladimir and his Round Table (Leipsic, 1819) is a German imitation, drawn from a collection of old Russian songs, which were printed at the suggestion of Ronmnzoff. Prince ZertelofT's Spirit of Russian Poetry, or collection ot old Russian songs (St. Petersburg, 1822, in 2 vols.), has excited the attention of the Russians to this portion of their literature. The ecclesiastics of that period displayed a peculiar degree of intellectual activity; and there were also laymen of considerable merit. Nestor (q. v.) has mentioned many men of rank who shared in this intellectual labor. These beginnings could not, however, be of permanent consequence, because literary institutions of a high character were wanting. The Greek teachers of the public schools at Wladimir, Smolensk, and Halitsch, did not diffuse a taste for Grecian antiquities, which might have been a permanent barrier against barbarism. The Mongolian period had a withering influence on literature. In the rich convents only, which the Mongols respected, were preserved some remains of intellectual cultivation. Thence are derived the materials for the history of that period, which alone give us some insight into it, particularly the annals in the old ecclesiastical language, composed bjr St. Simon, bishop of Susdal (who died in the year 1226), the Stufcnbuch of Cyprian the metropolitan (who died in 1406), and the Chronicles of Sophia, or the Russian annals from 862 to 1534 (edited by Strojeff, Moscow,1820-1822, quarto). "These, and the lives of Alexander the Great, of the Roman emperors, of Mark Antony, and of Cleopatra, related after the manner of stories, were the only books. As the authors despised the language in common use, which, by its additions from the Tartar tongue, had acquired a foreign character, displeasing, even to the people themselves, and made use only of the old Sclavonian dialect, the taste for reading, even if we do not take into consideration the other inconveniences attending it, must necessarily have been confined to a few. As the Russians did not travel, nor learn any foreign Ian guages, they were not connected, by intellectual bonds, with the rest of Europe. There were no schools in Great Russia. The press exercised but little influence, as it was exclusively devoted to the interest of the church, and the amusements of the people were rude. In the dramatic exhibitions which were founded on religious stories,and performed by the students of Kiev, in the principal cities, during their holydays, Judith striking off the head of Holofernes, Ahasuerws ordering Hainan to be hanged, and the spectacle of the three men in the fiery furnace, excited the highest applause. The SclavonianRussian dramas of the monk Simeon of Polotsk (1628-1680) may be considered as an improvement on the others. These were acted in the time of Feodor III, first m the convent, and afterwards at court. Amateurs may find his Nebuchadnezzar, and his Lost Son, printed in the eighth volume of the old Russian library, and most of his other productions in manuscript, in the library of the Synod, at Moscow. The first foreign comedy translated into Russian was Moliere's Medecin malgrS lid (Physician in spite of Himself), which was performed by the czarina Sophia Alexiowna, and the ladies of her court. The Poles served as models, particularly in poetry ; and the translation of the Psalms of David (Moscow, 1680), by the abovenamed Simeon of Polotsk, deserves to be mentioned. As early as the seventeenth century, instances of versification can be produced, which endeavored to imitate the Greek peculiarity of long and short syllables ; but they had no permanent effect. Even the restriction of verses to a particular number of syllables, was considered too stiff and unnatural; and, to the present day, there remains in their poetry (which exhibits, for the most part, the national peculiarities) a free and unrestrained style, which neither requires lines equal in their number of syllables, nor assonance, nor rhyme, but rests upon certain laws of accentuation.II. Peter the Great endeavored to advance literature by technical aids. For this purpose he patronised the press, and, in 1704, himself invented a set of written characters for the Russian language, which, being similar to the Roman characters, might make the communication and interchange of thoughts with the rest of Europe more easy. With this character the first Russian.newspaper was printed, in 1705, in the ecclesiastical press at Moscow.. The ukase press was established in 1711, and from it, in 1714, proceeded the first St. Petersburg gazette. Translations of foreign works, for the most part German, were intended to excite a love of reading; and he hoped, by means of the young Russians, whom he sent abroad to travel, to convince his people of the advantages of education. At his death, he left fiftyone schools for the people, fiftysix schools for the garrisons, and twentysix other institutions for the children of the clergy, which, however, had little perceptible influence upon the great work of civilization. It was, however, less attachment to ancient usage, that opposed the effect of his labors on a people very susceptible of impressions, than the artifices of the state officers, to whom tha public improvement was, frequently at least, an object of little importance. (See Academics.) The academy of sciences, from 1725, promoted the scientific direction which intellectual cultivation had taken, because the want of a national liter ature had not yet been felt. Establishments for the promotion of knowledge and education increased daily by imperial liberality, and Catharine II, by the patronage which she bestowed upon the arts and sciences, greatly contributed to the advancement of her nation. The endeavor to rival foreign countries became general, and those of the nobility and public officers who were capable of intellectual enjoyment, gave themselves up to it with such zeal that Paul I became alarmed, and ordered the communication with foreign countries to be stopped. Alexander I, in the first years of his reign, established literary institutions and popular schools, took care that the clergy should be more thoroughly educated, and patronised talent with imperial liberality. Sopikoff, in his Essai de Bibliographie Russe (St. Petersburg, 1813-1823, in 6 vols.), has enumerated, alphabetically, 13,249 original works and translations published in Russia, in the Sclavonian and Russian languages, from the establishment of the press (in 1553) to 1823. Since the year 1820, in which alone 3400 works appeared, among which nearly half were translations (more than 800 from the French, and 483 from the German), the annual number has very much decreased. In 1824, only 264 works were published, most of which were translations, particularly historical and geographical works, poems and romances. III. Poetry. With all the imitation of the poetical forms of foreign countries, the national song has always maintained an honorable rank, and celebrates love arid war, games, church festivals, and banquets. Among the older ones, those of the Cossack Semen Klimoffskij (who died in 1725) are much esteemed : a collection of such as yet enjoy a high reputation, is to be met with in OstolopofT's Dictionary of ancient and modern Poetry (St. Peters* burg, 1821), in which the names of Dmitrieff, NeledinskijMelezkij, Karamsin, and Shukoffskij, are distinguished above all others. Since the Russian prosody became more settled by means of Kniis Constantme Demetrius Kanternir (q. v., who died in 1744), every kind of poetry has been attempted, from the dithyrambic H tlie madrigal. The popular songs of the Russians, which are preserved among tlie common people, belong to the time of Peter the Great and the empress Elizabeth, who herself wrote verse. The lyric department has been particularly successful. We must likewise mention the philosophic odes and epistles of the prince Ivan Michailowitsch Dolgorucki (who died in the year 1823), under the title of the Existence of my Heart. Poetical tales, for which the old traditions furnish many materials, have been written by Sumarokoff, Kriloff, Batjuschkoff; Dmitrieff, and Shukoffskij. The Russian theatre was first established in 1758. In this year, there was a private theatre erected at Yaroslav, which was soon transferred to the royal lesidence, and, in consequence of the predilection of Catharine II for the drama, soon won the favor of the people. Sumarokoff wrote the first regular tragedy, and was succeeded by Kniiishjnin. The most distinguished dramatic writer, Wladimir Oseroff, has had the honor of having his works often translated. His CEdipus (Petersburg, 1805), his Dmitrij the IJonian, his Fingal, and the RosIofF of Kniashjnin, are considered the most important specimens of tragic literature. Kniashjnin has also accomplished much in comedy. The genius of the Russians, so sensible to the ridiculous, and so capable of imitation, would lead us to expect a rich harvest in comedy, if the readiness with which they adopt every thing foreign did not check the productiveness of native talent. The opera in a court, which, like the Russian, delights in splendor, must naturally excite a lively interest. The first, written by Sumarokoff, was performed at St. Petersburg in 1764; and, since that time, there have continually been authors in this department of the drama. In didactic poetry, Keraskoff's Fruits of the Sciences formerly were in much repute. At the present time, the fables of Dmitri eff, Chemnitzer, and Kriloff, have gained many admirers. Of Kriloff s Russian Fables (St. Petersburg, 18*26), a part has been published in the Russian language at Paris, with a French translation, by count Orloff. The minor species of poetry find a ready admission into the twentyone Russian literary journals (which were in circulation in 1824, throughout the capital), and are very acceptable to the literary public, which is yet small.See N. von Gretsch's Manual of the Russian Literature, or a Collection of Specimens from poetical and prose JVnters {St. Petersburg, 1821,in 4 vols.), and Rorg's Poetical Productions of the Russians (Ri13*ga, 1823, in 2 vols.), both in German ; also Ro wring's Specimens of the Russian Poets (2d edition, London, 1821), andDupre de St. Maure's Anthologie Russe (Paris, 1823). A. Oidekop's St. Petersburg Journal is likewise to be recommended to all friends of literature, on account of the collections therein published. Among the periodicals, those which make us acquainted with the internal condition of the empireas Bulgarin's Northern Archives; the Siberian Herald of Sspaszkij ; the Son of the Country, by Gretsch ; and the Promoter of Knowledgeare worthy of notice. IV. Prose. Russian prose is undoubtedly inferior to the poetry of the same language. In pulpit oratory, in which its first progress was made, a bombastic rhetoric has prevailed, which is often accompanied with little intrinsic merit, as the homilies of Feofan Prokopowitsch (who died in 1736), of Gedeon, Platon, Anastasij, Georgij, Protoiereni Lewanda, Michajl the metropolitan, Filaret, and others, abundantly prove. Lately, a hypocritical rather than pious tone has passed from these homilies into political writings. The secular discourses, to which, for example, Loinonosoff owes his celebrity, are partly composed in a panegyrical style, which leads us to doubt the genuineness of tlie feeling which is displayed. LomonosofPs discourse, however, on the character of Peter the Great, delivered April 26, 1755, is often mentioned as a masterpiece of eulogy. Karamsin's oration, delivered at the assembly of the Russian academy, December 5, 1818, corresponds more to the present taste. Nicholas Karamsin's name must likewise be mentioned with distinction in almost every department of description. He lias given to Russia a work which may be honorably compared with the historical writings of any nation. A great number of the most distinguished literati and statesmen of Russia, have preferred, in their works, to use foreign languages rather than their own. Russia has not yet produced romances, combining originality with beauty of description, which may be worthy of being translated into foreigu languages. Karamsin, Shukoffskij, and Benizkij, are the best models for the novelist. The Russian accounts of voyages and travels deserve the attention of foreigners. Since the first voyages of the Russians round the world, in the ships Nadeschda and Neva, under the command of captain Krusenstern, the American company or individuals have annually sent ships to the northwest coast of America; and Golownin's Voyages (1807-1814); those of lieutenant von Kotzebue, at the expense of the count Romanzoff, those of lieutenant Lasareff; those of Bellingshausen and Wassiljeff; those of lieutenant Wrangel; MurawiefPs travels ; Broneffski's researches in Tauria, &chave produced very important results in a scientific point of view. Many of them exhibit traces of the improving state of the language, in passages containing much beauty of description. The Russian academicians and literati (Frahn, Krug, Schmidt, &c.) have distinguished themselves in Oriental literature. Frahn, at the expense of count Romanzoff, superintended the collection of extracts for Hammer's work, Sur les Origines Russes, extraits de Manuscrits Orientaux, and likewise the printing of Abulghasi's Hisioria Mongolorum et Tatarorum (Kasan, 1825). Wolkoff has been laboring upon a dictionary of the Tartar language. Senkoffski has published the text and translation of the DerbentNameh, and the FrenchArabic lexicon of Berggren. He likewise published, in the Polish language, a Collection of ancient Accounts, in the Turkish Histories, relative to the History of Poland (Warsaw, 1824). Professor Boidyreff has likewise published, at Moscow, a Manual of the Arabic Language (1824), and a Persian Chrestomathy (in 2 vols., 1828). In 1825, eighteen journals were published in St. Petersburg, and seven in Moscow, and six almanacs. BestuchefPs and RylejefPs Polestar, a souvenir for 1824, and the Flowers of the North, for the following years, have met with decided approbation. In 1826, there appeared at St. Petersburg only six gazettes and fifteen periodicals. To promote the knowledge of Russian literature, Von Koppen published, in 1825 and 1828, at St. Petersburg, a bibliographical paper. The society of the friends of .Russian literature, established in St. Petersburg in 1816, the founders of which are N. Glinka and N. J. Gretsch, have conducted the publication of a collection of the most distinguished native productions and translations (now consisting of 16 vols.). See the Survey of the most modern Russian Literature, in the 7th volume of the Annals of Literature (Jahrbiichet der Literaiur), published at Vienna. Russia, Black; formerly a subdivision of Lithuania, now forming the Russian governments of Minsk and Grodno. Russia, Great; former name of a province comprising a large part of European Russia, extending from the Frozen ocean to about the middle of the course of the Don ; now divided into nineteen governments. Russia, Little; name of that part of Russia lying south of Great Russia; now forming the governments of Tchernigov, Cherson, Kiev, Ekaterinoslav,and Poltava. Russia, Red; formerly an independent duchy, which belonged to Poland after 1396, and formed the palatinates of Chelm, Belcz and Lemberg. It now belongs chiefly to Austria, but partly to Russia. Russia, White, was a part of Lithuania, which now forms the Russian govern ments of Smolensk, Mohilev, Vitepsk, and a small part of Minsk.