ROME

From Agepedia

Jump to: navigation , search

ROME (Roma), the eternal city, as it is often called, with which almost every thing great and memorable that has happened in Europe for 2500 years has been connected, and which, first with the sword, and afterwards with the more powerful arms of religious faith, ruled a large portion of the European world for centuries, and saw people of all climes bend before its majesty, is now only the shadow of its former greatness. Ancient Rome was situated nearly on the site of the modern city, in Latium, on several hills (whence the poetical appellation of the sevenhilled city), on both sides of the river Tiber, not far from the Mediterranean sea; but the principal part of the city lay upon the eastern side of tlie river. Here was situated the Pincian mount, and on the river lay the Campus Martius, the Cap itoline hill, the Roman forum, and mount Aventine. The Quirinal, Palatine, and Coelian hills, formed a second range eastward of the preceding, extending from north to south; the Viminal and Esquiline a third. On the other side of the Tiber lay the Vatican mount and Janiculum, This region was inhabited before the foundation of Rome. The city of Pallantium, built by some Greek colonists on the Capitoline mount, was perhaps still in existence when Romulus and Remus led a colony thither from Alba Longa; so that this city was only extended, and Rome Proper was not entirely new. The new city probably derived its name, not from its founder (who was, perhaps, called Romulus from it), but from the river, which, as Servius informs us, was anciently called Rumon. The derivation from the Greek paw (strength) is an absurdity, and of late origin. Two different epochs are assigned for the foundation of Rome. According to Cato it was built 752, according to Varro, 754 years before Christ. The latter date is generally adopted. The founding of the city commenced with ceremonies borrowed from the Etrurians. Romulus traced a square furrow round the Palatine hill with a plough drawn by two white cattle, and caused a wall of earth to be thrown up in the direction of. the furrow. The interior was filled with huts.The history of Rome is divided into three periods, in the first of which Rome was a kins'o dom, in the second a republic, and in the third an empire.I. From the foundation of the city to the year 245, Rome was a monarchy. Romulus was chosen the first king of the new city. He adopted the Etrurian emblems of royaltytwelve lietors (q. v.); but his power, and that of his successors, was so circumscribed, that Rome was, even then, in reality, a free state. A sort of municipal constitution was formed, probably after the model of that of the mother city. The principal points of this constitution are the creation and constitution of the senate ; the origin and permanent establishment of the patricians, or hereditary nobility ; the division of the people into classes, and the different kinds of popular assemblies (comitia) founded thereupon ; the religious institutions ; and, finally, the domestic relations of clientship, marriage, and particularly of the power of a father. Romulus, the leader of the colony (from A. U. 1 to 37), increased the number of the citizens by the establishment of an asylum, and by the incorporation of a part of the Sabines Numa Pompilius (3982) founded the Roman statereligion ; Tullus Hostilius (82-114) conquered Alba, and laid the foundation for the supremacy of Rome over Latium ; Ancus Martins (114-138) built Ostium; Tarquinius Priscus (138- 176) carried on a war with the Etrurian confederacy; Servius Tullius (176-220), the ablest of the kings, placed Rome at the head of the Latin confederacy, and divided the nation, according to property, into six classes, upon which the comitia centuriata and the census were founded ; the seventh and last king, Tarquin the Proud (220-245), aspired to absolute power, and was expelled on account of his tyranny. The constitution was then remodelled (509 B. C). (See Romulus, JYuma, and Tarquinius,) Even at this period, we can perceive in the Romans a manly, free, bold and ambitious people. Agriculture and war were their chief occupations. In private life, simplicity of manners and pleasures prevailed.II. Rome as a republic, from 245 to 727 A. U.First period. The royal power, with the same indefiniteness as it had been exercised by the kings, was committed to two consuls, chosen annually. At the commencement of the new government, Rome had to sustain a contest with the Etrurians and Latins for its freedom. The oppressions of the patricians, who arrogated the whole power to themselves, exasperated the plebeians, and produced, in the year 261, the establishment of tribunes of the people (tribuni plebis), who were to protect their rights and liberties against the encroachments of the nobility. A protracted conest arose between the patricians and the guardians of the plebeians, the principal points of which were as follows:(a.) The tribunes, in their accusation of Coriolanus, claimed the right of bringing individual patricians before the tribunal of the people, and thus gave rise to the comitia tributa, so fatal to the nobility ; (6.) they demanded that the lands taken from the neighboring states should be distributed among the poorer people, and thus gave rise to the contests relative to the agrarian laws {leges agraria) ; (c.) the tribune Publius Volero extended the prerogatives of the comitia tributa, and gave them the choice of the tribunes ; (d.) the tribune Caius Terentius Arsa endeavored to circumscribe the consular power by the formation of a code of laws. (See Twelve Tables, and Apjpius Claudius.) Although the new laws defined the legal relations of all citizens, yet the government of the state remained in the hands of the aris tocracy, which was kept totally distinct from the plebeians by the prohibition of intermarriage. This prohibition gave rise to new contests, which ended in its abolition. The plebeians likewise obtained, eighty years after, a participation in the honors of the consulship. During these disputes, the office of censor was established. Meanwhile, Rome was constantly engaged in petty wars and quarrels with the neighboring states. That the population might not diminish, freedmen, and even prisoners of war, were admitted into the number of citizens. Rome became altogether a military state ; pay was introduced into the Roman armies, which rendered it necessary to impose higher taxes. The city was, at this time, reduced to the brink of destruction by the Senonian Gauls, who captured and reduced it to ashes (A. U. 365). Camillus (q. v.), however, the savior of Rome, restored it from its ruins. The first plebeian consul was elected in the year 388, and the plebeians soon participated in ail officesin the dictatorship, in 398; in the censorship, in 403 ; in the pretorship, in 417 ; and in the priesthood, in 454 (300 B. C). A complete political equality of patricians and plebeians existed at the end of this period ; internal contests ceased, and, in the same proportion, the power of the state abroad increased, and the splendid period of conquests began. During this period, the manners of the Romans were characterized by the ancient simplicity and rudeness: science and the fine arts were as yet unknown to them; but useful arts, commerce (a treaty of commerce was concluded with the Carthaginians in 409), navigation, and mechanic arts, were cultivated. Agriculture was still the chief source of national wealth. The first years of the second feriod were yet marked by contests between the plebeians and patricians. Rome was also visited by the plague, which gave rise to the introduction of theatrical shows from Etruria, The Romans now gained several victories over the Gauls, in which Titus Manlius Torquatus (see Manlius) rendered himself conspicuous. TAVO laws settled the rate of interest in favor of debtors. From an alliance which had been concluded a few years before with the Samnites(q. v.), a formidable war between the two nations broke out in 411, which lasted till 464, opened the way for the subjugation of all Italy, and laid the foundation of the future greatness of Rome. This war was the heroic age of the Romans ; it taught them tactics; it settled their relations with their neighbors, tne Latins and Etrurians, the former being completely reduced, and the latter repeatedly humbled; and brought the Romans sometimes into friendly and sometimes into hostile contact with the distant Lucanians, Apulians and Umbrians. In this period, the principles of their policy towards conquered nations were also developed. After the subjugation of the Samnites, the Romans attempted to secure their authority in Lower Italy, in consequence of which the Tarentines called to their aid (A. U. 473) Pyrrhus (q. v.), king of Epirus, who, notwithstanding his knowledge of the Macedonian art of war, was finally worsted, and obliged (479) to evacuate Italy. Tarentum fell into the hands of the Romans in 482, and soon after all Lower Italy. The fame of Rome extended even to Egypt, the king of which, in 481, sent an embassy to seek for the friendship of the Romans. Authority was maintained among the conquered people chiefly by the establishment of colonies of Roman citizens, who served as garrisons in those cities in which they were placed. Each colony had its own constitution, similar to that of Rome. This colonial system gradually embraced ail Italy. For convenience of communication, great military roads were laid out in different directions. Some of the Italian cities and people enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizens (municipia) ; others had the rights of colonies (jus coloniarvm); the others were either allies (socii) or subjects (dedititii). The latter were governed by prefects sent from Rome. Rome had already a navy, and the office of duumviri novates was instituted for the general management of naval affairs. The judiciary was improved by the appointment of the pretors (q. v.), and the police by that of curule cediles and the triumviri capitales. Learning and the arts now began to appear. Fabius Pictor introduced the art of painting into Rome, Lucius Papirius Cursor brought (461) the first dial ; and Spurius Carvilius caused a statue of Jupiter to be cast. With the worship of iEsculapius the science of medicine came to Rome; the works of Appius, and the temple of Concord by Camillus, prove the progress of architecture. But by the side of noble specimens of morality, temperance, integrity and patriotism, individual examples of luxury, effeminacy and degeneracy already began to appear. In the third period, Rome made the first advances to the dominion of the world. She maintained, in three wars, a desperate struggle with Carthage, ana destroyed her rival. (See Carthage, Hannibal, Fabius, Scipio, Masinissa, &c.) The first war with Carthage was made for the possession of Sicily and the dominion of the sea; it lasted twentythree years (from 489 to 511 of the building of the city), and ended with the expulsion of the Carthaginians from Sicily. Rome, made arrogant by success, then deprived them of the island of Sardinia, in the time of peace (517). She next humbled the piratical Illyrians, on the Adriatic sea, and thus appeared as the friend of Greece. Corcyra, Apollonia, and other Greek cities, put themselves under the protection of Rome ; the Achseans, iEtolians and Athenians emulated each other in expressions of gratitude. While Carthage endeavored to indemnify herself in Spain for her former losses, and was compelled by the Romans to promise not to pass the Iberus (Ebro), a bloody war broke out with the Cisalpine Gauls, which continued for six years, and resulted in the foundation of the Roman dominion in the north of Italy (about 222 B. C). Then began the second Punic war. Hannibal commenced the attack, and made Italy the theatre of the war. It continued from 536 to 553. After many bloody battles, Carthage was subdued ; but Rome, notwithstanding her great loss of men and the devastation of Italy, came out of the war more powerful than she had entered it, with an acquisition of foreign territory and the dominion of the sea. Without any change of the form of the constitution, the senate had now acquired an almost absolute power. The ambition of universal dominion already inspired the nation. At the end of the second Punic war, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and a part of Spain, and Cisalpine Gaul, were Roman provinces ; Carthage was entirely dependent upon Rome. On the other hand, the kingdom of Macedonia in the East, with the Grecian republics, composed a political system, very complicated in itself, but first brought into connexion with Rome after the Illyrian war, and the connexion of Philip II with Hannibal. Of the three powers of the first rank,Syria, Macedonia and Egypt,the two first were allied against the latter, which was on friendly terms with Rome. The powers of the second rankthe iEtolian league, the kings of Pergamus, the republic of Rhodes, and other smaller states, such as Athenso were already allies of Rome, and had been leagued with her against Philip (543); the Acheean confederacy, on in*. contrary, was attached to the Macedonian interest. Hardly was the peace made with Carthage, when the war broke out with Philip of Macedonia. In the beginning of this war, the Romans were unfortunate, till Titus Quinctius Flaminius, by his policy and military talents, laid the foundation for the power of Rome in the East. By the decisive battle of Cynocephale (557), Philip lost his naval superiority and his influence over Greece, whose dependence upon Rome was secured by Quinctius granting her freedom. Roman deputies, such as retained Carthage and Numidia in subjection, exercised a supervision in Greece and Macedonia, and interfered in the domestic policy of these states. To the Greeks, particularly to the proud iEtolians, this was the more intolerable, as the Roman army remained in their country three years. The peace with Philip contained the seeds of a greater war with Antiochus, from whom Rome demanded the Grecian cities which Philip had possessed in Asia, and which Antiochus had now occupied. The difficulties began in 558, when Antiochus took possession of the Thracian Chersonese : they were increased by Hannibal's flight to the court of that prince (559), and soon broke out into a formal war, in the conduct of which Antiochus and Hannibal did not agree, the former being unwilling to adopt decisive measures. Antiochus, defeated by sea and land, found himself, after the battle of Magnesia (564), forced to conclude a peace, which obliged him to retire behind the Taurus, and made him altogether dependent upon Rome. At the same time, bloody wars were carried on in Spain and Upper Italy. In 569, the troubles with Philip broke out anew, because he had made some small conquests; but the negotiations which were entered into with his son Demetrius, and the death of Philip (which took place in 575), delayed the war till 582. The war with Perseus of Macedon (q. v.), the son of Philip, terminated in the total subjection of the kingdom by the victory of Paul us iEmilius, at P}fdna. The conquest of Egypt, by Antiochus Epiphanes, was prevented by the decision of Popilius, the Roman ambassador. After the conquest of Macedonia, Rome openly pursued her plan of universal dominion, and spared no means for attaining it. The division of Egypt was accomplished, and the protection of Syria assumed, which country was thenceforth rendered defenceless. After unparalleled oppressions, Carthage was now tobe destroyed. This was accomplished in the third Punic war, which lasted from 604 to 608, when the proud Carthage was conquered (146 B. C). At the same time, a new war was carried on in Macedonia, against Andriscus, who had placed him self at the head of the disaffected, but who, in 606, submitted to Metellus. Then commenced the Achsean war, the object of which was the dissolution of the Achaean league. Mummius terminated this war in 608 (146 B. C), by the destruction of Corinth ; Greece and Macedonia were reduced to Roman provinces. Thus had Rome, within the space of 118 years, made herself mistress of the world. The Roman tactics had now become so perfect, that no phalanx could withstand the legions. But the Romans svere, as yet, unskilled in naval warfare, and the younger Africanus was the first who carried the art of conducting a siege to some perfection. Out of Italy, Rome occupied, under the name of provinces, Hither and Thither Spain (neither of which was entirely reduced), Africa (the territory of Carthage), Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Liguria, Cisalpine Gaul, Macedonia and Achaia. Not only individual opulence, but the public revenue, was greatly increased. The finances of Rome were conducted with the strictest regularity. With the wealth, the cultivation and refinement of the Romans also increased. Their first poets appeared, and the first regular, dramas were now exhibited in Rome. Learning flourished after the wars in Greece and Asia. Lucilius wrote satires, and FabiusPictor and Cato composed the annals of Roman history. The language was developed. The calculation of solar and lunar eclipses, and the construction of waterclocks and of more accurate sundials, became known to the Romans. In the fine arts the Romans were, as yet, barbarians. After the second Punic war, the ancient purity and simplicity of manners gradually declined. At funerals, the cruel combats of gladiators were exhibited ; immense sums were spent in public shows; and licentiousness began to prevail. Even in this period, laws were enacted against luxury, and the shameless bacchanalia were prohibited in 568 Fourth period. The wars in Spain, particularly against the Celtiberians and Lusitanians, were prosecuted with vigor. In the peasant Viriathus, the Romans found a formidable enemy. The rapacity of the proconsul Licinius Lucullus (603), and of the pretor Sulpicius Galba (o04), caused the war to break out with renewed fury, under the conduct of Viriathus. After his assassination (614), Lusitania was reduced; but, on the other hand, the Numantines compelled the consul Mancinus to a disadvantageous treaty. (See JS/'urnantia.) Scipio terminated this war in 621; but Northern Spain still remained unsubdued. In the same year, the Romans received from Attalus the kingdom of Pergamus, in Asia, by bequest, and maintained their claims to it against Aristonicus. With this acquisition, foreign wars ceased for a time ; but Rome was agitated with internal commotions, which finally broke out into bloody civil wars. The unlimited power of the senate had created a hateful family aristocracy, which the tribunes of the people resisted, and which produced contests between the aristocratic and democratic parties more fatal than the former disputes between the patricians and plebeians. The contest began with Tiberius Gracchus (q. v.), who, for the relief of the lower orders of the people, demanded a juster distribution of the public lands. He was killed in an insurrection of the people ; but the agrarian law remained in full force, and the disturbances still continued. Although the return of Scipio iErnilianus gave new strength to the aristocracy, yet the general insurrection of slaves in Sicily (620-623) was favorable to the democratic party. The tribunes of the people obtained a voice and a seat in the senate : they also endeavored to make their reelection legal. The disturbances were quieted for a time by removing the chiefs of the popular party, under honorable pretences. During these events, the foundation of the Roman power in Transalpine Gaul was laid by Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, in 626, and as early as 632 the southern part was made a Roman province. In 631, Caius Gracchus was chosen tribune of the people ; he renewed the agrarian laws with severer provisions, and gave rise to more dangerous excitements than his brother Tiberius. He endeavored to make the equestrian order a counterpoise to the power of the senate, and attempted to strengthen his party by the admission of the whole population of Italy to the rights of Roman citizens; but the senate succeeded in depriving him of the favor of the people, and in effecting his ruin. In 633, lie was killed in a riot, and the aristocracy took advantage of their victory to abolish the agrarian laws. On the other hand, difficulties arose with" the Italian allies, who demanded the privileges of citizenship, and the breaking out of the war was pre vented merely by accident. These factions had an injurious effect upon morals, which neither the strictness of the censorship, nor the sumptuary laws, nor the laws against celibacy (which were already become necessary), could control. Rapacity was the prevailing vice of the great, and licentiousness that of the multitude. The enormous wealth of the public treasury produced public luxury, which was soon followed by private luxury, that found ample means for its gratification in the extortions of the governors, and in the presents of foreign princes. The influence of bribery was particularly apparent in the war against Jugurtha (636-648), which was even protracted by it. The end of this bloody war opened to a plebeian, Cains Marius, the way to the highest dignities of the state, by which the aristocracy received a severe blow. He succeeded in overturning the constitution, while the war with the Cimbri, during a new servile war in Sicily, rendered him indispensable to the state. He was consul four years successively. At length, in 654, the storm burst over him, and, after a long struggle, he retired to Asia. \See Marius.) From 656 to 663, quiet prevailed, and the provinces enjoyed a short rest. The power of the equestrian order became a new source of abuses. It held the senate in dependence, and could easily oppose all reforms in the provinces, since it had not only the control of the judiciary, but farmed the revenues of the state. The contest which arose between the knights and the senate concerning the judicial power, was ruinous to the state. The knights were deprived of a part of their judicial power by Lucius Drusus, the tribune; but the manner in which this was effected kindled the dangerous social war. He proposed to admit the allies to the rights of citizenship, but his proposition excited so much dissatisfaction that he was murdered. The people of Italy, from the Liris to the Adriatic, now took up arms with the design of throwing off the Roman yoke. The danger was great. The fasces were committed to Lucius Julius Caesar and Publius Rutilius Lupus, and under these consuls were formed the greatest generals of the timeCn. Pompeius, C. Marius, Caspio, C. Perpenna, Valerius Messala, Cornelius Sylla, T. Didius, P. Lentulus, P. Licinius, and M. Marcellus. But there were also men of distinguished talents on the other side; and, after the war had been carried on from 653 to 656, with various success and the greatest fury, it was terminated only by conceding the claims of the allies; and Rome thus ceased to be regarded as the exclusive head of the state. The devastations of Mithridates (q. v.), and the disputes between Sylla and Marius, made this concession necessary. The quarrel between these two distinguished Romans commenced at the beginning of the first Pontic war. (See Marius, and Sylla.) The senate having given the chief command to Sylla, Marius united himself (656) with the tribune Sulpicius, for the purpose of displacing him from this office. But Sylla, at the head of his army, drove Marius from Rome, restored the dignity of the senate, and hastened to his province, after he had, in order to gain the people, raised his adversary, Cinna, to the consulship. The consequence was, that, during this war (656-659), a new anarchy prevailed in Rome, which became still more terrible after the death of Marius. In 671, the banished Sylla returned to Rome: a terrible civil war was the result, which was ended, in 673, by Sylla's elevation to the dictatorship. Sylla endeavored to overthrow the democratic party. The attempt of JEmilius Lepidus to oppose him was without success. The war which broke out in Spain, under Sertorius, a leader of the democratic party, was more serious, and was concluded, in 682, by his assassination. At the same time, the frightful war of the gladiators and slaves broke out in Italy, and a new and more dangerous war began with Mithridates in Asia. The pirates were so powerful at this time, that they rendered the seas unsafe with their fleets, and threatened Rome with a famine. Pompey (q. v.) saved the state, however, by conquering first the pirates, and afterwards Mithridates. Asia Minor, Syria and Crete were made Roman provinces ; Armenia, Cappadocia, the Bosphorus and Judea became wholly dependent upon Rome, and the Thracian power was broken. No foreign enemy could any longer be dangerous to Rome; but new commotions were constantly agitating her. Some attempts to overturn the constitution of Sylla were indeed frustrated; but, even in 679, Opimius carried a law providing that the tribunes should not be excluded from higher offices, and that the judicial tribunals should be restored to the knights; and Pompey and Crassus, during their consulship in 684, nearly annihilated it by completely restoring the tribunitial power. By this victory oi the democratic party, a kind of oligarchy was established, and powerful individuals obtained the direction of affairs. The conspiracy of Cat iline (see Catiline) had for its object the overthrow of the existing powers, and the elevation of a party from the dregs of the people. Cicero defeated it, and restored internal tranquillity. Nevertheless, the state continued to decline; luxury, introduced by the immense wealth of Asm, had destroyed all the remains of ancient virtue. Selfishness and ambition were the ruling passions of the great. Pompey, who had now returned from Asia, found in the severe Cato a superior, and attached himself to the popular party, in order to prosecute his designs with their assistance Cassar's return from Lusitania (694) gave affairs a different turn. He formed with Pompey and Crassus the first triumvirate (q. v.), as it was called, and succeeded (695) to the consulship, which prepared the way for his assumption of the dictatorship. He obtained the province of Gaul for five years, and thus gained an opportunity of making conquests and forming an army. The chiefs of the senate, Cicero and Cato, were banished by the tribune Clodius before his departure; but the triumvirate caused Cicero to be recalled by the tribune Milo, without being able to destroy the power of Clodius. Csesar accomplished, during his administration in Gaul, the subjugation of that country (696-704). The contest which arose during his absence between himself, Pompey, and Crassus, was settled in 698 by the treaty of Lucca, by which Caesar obtained his province for five years more, and Pompey and Crassus the consulate for the succeeding year, after which the former was to have Spain and Africa, and the latter Syria, as their respective provinces. In spite of Cato's opposition, this plan was effected ; but when Crassus fell, on his expedition against the Parthians, and Pompey, instead of departing to his province, remained at the head of the republic as sole consul, with almost dictatorial power, a civil war was unavoidable. (See C(Esar, and Pompey.) Instead of obeying the decree of the senate, Csesar passed the Rubicon, and compelled Pompey to fly from Rome. The civil war broke out, and was ended in 706 at Pharsalia. Ceesar now became dictator, with the most extensive power. His first object was the entire reduction of the party of Pompey, and the restoration of order to Italy. He was assassinated in 710; but his adversaries could not preserve the republic. In 711, a new triumvirate was formed between Octavius, Antony and Lepidus; the object of which was the annihilation of the republican party. For the manner in which they pursued this object, by proscriptions and violence, and for their subsequent divisions, until the battle of Actium rendered Octavius master of the Roman empire, see the articles Antony, and Augustus. Rome now ceased to be a republic. The principal changes which the Roman constitution underwent during this period, have already been related. Bribery and private interest governed the assemblies of the people; interest and ambition actuated the public officers. The equestrian order now gained great power and immense riches. Marius extended the military system, but discipline was de stroyed. The armies fought for their generals rather than for the state. They obeyed whoever paid them. But literature made great progress. To this period belong the poets M. Pacuvius, C. Lucilius, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius and Catullus; the historians Calpurnius Piso, Porcius Cato, Rutilius Rufus, Claudius Quadrigarius, and particularly Csesar, Sallust, Cornelius Nepos, Hirtius Pansa, &c.; Cicero, the orator and philosopher, and Terentius Varro, the learned grammarian, who likewise wrote upon agriculture. At the close of this period began the golden age of Roman literature and art. The Greeks were imitated with taste and success. Not only the Roman youths went to Greece to complete their education, but learned Grecians flocked to Rome, and were employed in education and instruction. The language reached its highest perfection, and the theatre exhibited its masterpieces. Of the philosophical sects of Greece, the schools of Epicurus and Zeno met with the greatest success. Grecian artists elevated the standard of the arts, and Rome was filled with splendid buildings and the master works of sculpture. In the time of Caesar and Pompey, the Grecian artists Arcesilaus, Pasiteles, Zopyrus, Criton, Nicolaus Strongylion, and the great lapidary Dioscorides, resided at Rome. But the corruption of morals increased with the increase of luxury; the greatest part of the people, especially of the nobility, was sunk in debaucheries and vices of every description. Laws were of little avail; agriculture and the mechanic arts were left entirely to slaves, who were treated in the most cruel manner. The common people lived, in spite of their poverty, in idleness, and were ready to devote themselves to those who would give them largesses. Every thing was to be obtained by gold.III. We are next to consider Rome with a monarchical govyrnment, under the Coesars, from the foundation to the division of the empire, from the year of the city 727 to 1148 (or 395 A. D.). This period forms four divisions :1. Octavius returned to Rome as a conqueror in 725, and for fortythree years remained at the head of the government. He was the first sovereign in Rome without adopting this title. Satisfied with the surname of Augustus (q. v.), which was given him in 727, he ruled with mildness, retaining the republican forms of government. He united in his own person the offices of consul, tribune, imperator and proconsul in all the provinces, and finally that of "magister morum" and pontifex maximus. To avoid the appearance of usurpation, he caused the supreme power to be confirmed to him from time to time. The senate acted the part of a council of state. The republican magistracies were retained, but their power was lost: on the other hand, the prefects of the city and of provisions became the most important officers, because upon them depended the public tranquillity. A city militia (cohortes iirhan&) and a bodyguard (cohortes prcetoriana) were formed. The governors of the provinces were paid and limited in their power. Improvements were introduced in the financial system. The distinction between the public treasury and private purse of the emperor, naturally existed at first; but afterwards both were united. The boundaries of the empire were extended, particularly by the addition of Egypt (724), Pannonia (719), Moesia (725), Rhsetia, Vindelicia and Noricum (739), and by the complete subjugation of Northern Spain and Western Gaul (729). On the other hand, the Romans were unsuccessful against the Germans. The successor of Augustus was his stepson Tiberius (q. v.), from 767 to 790. Under him despotism was established by the tribunals of majesty (judicia majestatis). The servility and timidity of the senate in this matter was as criminal as the tyrannical character of the prince, who suffered himself to be guided from 776 to 784 by the monster Sejanus. His successors were Caligula (until 794) and Claudius (until 807); the former a mad tyrant, and the latter a dotard. The conquests in Britain began (796) under Claudius, and Mauritania (795), Lycia (796), Judaea (797), aud Thrace (800), were declared provinces. His successor, Nero (from 807 to 821), a hypocritical tyrant, addicted to debauch and cruelty, was 'the last emperor of the family of Augustus. Under him the' greatest part of Britain was made a Roman province, and war was successfully carried on in Armenia and against the Jews. During the disturbances which followed Nero's death, in less than two years, three persons made themselves masters of the throne by forceGalba, Otho and Vitellius. (See the articles.) This period, particularly the reign of Augustus, was the golden age of literature and the arts. Instead of politics, the distinguished men of the empire were engaged in science, and especially in polite literature: they also protected and patronised men of letters: such patrons, for example, were Maecenas and Agrippa. Augustus and Asinius Pollio founded public libraries. In poetry, the names of Virgil, Ovid, Cornelius Gallus, Cornelius Severus, Tibullus, Propertius, Gratius Faliscus, Manilius, Horace and Phaedrus are distinguished; and there were a multitude of epigrammatists. Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus wrote their valuable histories. Eloquence necessarily declined, but philosophy and mathematics found both admirers and cultivators. Vitruvius was celebrated on account of his knowledge of architecture, and Hyginus on account of his Astronomicon. As a grammarian, M. Verrius Flaccus deserves to be mentioned: geography had a Strabo, and jurisprudence Q. Antistius Labeo, C. Anteius Capito and C. Trebatius Testa. Architecture, sculpture and glyptics also flourished. After the death of Augustus, literature declined, and the style and language degenerated. M. Annseus Lucan, Valerius Flaccus and Persius Flaccus distinguished themselves, however, as poets; Velleius Paterculus, Diodorus Siculus and Valerius Maximus as historians; M. and L. Annseus Seneca as rhetoricians and philosophers; and Aurelius Cornelius Celsus as a physician. Asconius Pedianus wrote commentaries on the writings of Cicero; and in jurisprudence Masurius Sabinus, M. Cocceius Nerva, Cassius Longinus and Sempronius Proculus were eminent. The arts declined; the corruption of manners was increased by debauchery and unnatural passion; foreigners and freedmen were the confidants of the emperor; the soldiers formed a distinct order, and served not the state, but the despots whom they rendered dependent upon themselves.2. After the fall of Vitellius, Flavius Vespasianus (823) ascended the throne. He restored the empire by introducing order into the finances, promoting public education, reviving discipline, and abolishing the tribunals of majesty. Under his government, the war with Civilis the Batavian broke out, and the conquest of Britain oy Agricola was completed. Vespasian reigned till 832, his excellent son Titus till 834, and the brother and successor of the latter, Domitian, a perfect tyrant, until 849. Under his reign arose the war with Decebalus, the king of the Dacians, who stirred up the wars of the Marco in an ni, Quadi and Jazyges, from 839 to 843, which proved so unfortunate to the Romans. He was murdered, and was followed by several celebrated sovereigns. Nerva (until 851) abolished the reign of terror, diminished the taxes, and encouraged industry ; Trajan (until 870) restored, as far as possible, a free constitution, and enlarged the empire by fortunate wars against the Dacians, Armenians and Parthians; and Adrian (to 891) improved the internal condition of the empire, and the discipline of the soldiery. Romp was happy under the peaceful government of Antoninus Pius (until 914); under that of Marcus Aurelius, or Antoninus, the philosopher (until 933), great disasters and bloody wars with the Catti, Parthians, and especially the Marcomanni, disturbed the empire; but his wisdom healed all wounds. With him (180, A. D.) ended the prosperity of Rome. The constitution of the state was now a limited monarchy founded upon civil freedom. The offices of state became in part mere titles of honor; and, on the other hand, a great number of court offices were instituted, which were continually usurping power. Italy was divided into four provinces, which were governed by men of consular rank. The edictum perpetuum effected great changes in the administration of justice, and the imperial commands were continually encroaching upon the decrees of the senate. In the military department, likewise, great alterations had taken place, particularly a different division of the troops. Literature, particularly poetry and eloquence, were on the decline ; but the emperors endeavored to promote learning, by the collection of libraries, by the erection of public halls, and by supporting instructors. The poets of this period are Silius Italic us, Papillitis Statius, Juvenal and Martial; the historians are Tacitus, Appian, Florus, Justin, Curtius, A man, Suetonius and Plutarch ; the principal orator was P3iny the younger; Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius were distinguished as Stoic philosophers and besides these there were many New Platonists; Galen and Scribonius Largus were the chief physicians. Frontinus wrote upon hydraulic architecture. Pliny the elder upon the productions of nature and art, Columella upon agriculture and gardening, and Polyeenus and Frontinus upon military stratagems; Gellius was celebrated for his knowledge of antiquity ; in geography Ptolemy and Antoninus, author of a journal of travels to Britain, were eminent; and Quinctilipn was distinguished in rhetoric: Sa/vius Juliaims, Aburnus Valens, Sextus Csecilius Africanus, Terentius Clemens, Vinidius Verus, and Junius Mauritianus, were celebrated jurists; and Sextus Pomponius, C. Velusius Maecianus, Q,. Cervidius Scsevoia,and UJpius Marcelius, were yet more distinguished authors on the subject of jurisprudence.3. From this time the decline of the Roman empire was constantly accelerated. Com mod us, the son of Marcus Aureikis (from 933 to 945) was a monster. He purchased peace of the Marcomanni, and his generals fought successfully in Dacia and Britain. Great commotions followed his death. Pertinax reigned only two months, and Marcus Didius Julianus, who purchased the empire, as the highest bidder, for an equal period ; the army in Illyria then chose Septimius Severus emperor, and the one in Syria, Pescenninus Niger. The former maintained his claims, and reigned till 965. He kept in check the Parthians and Britons. Caracalla (till 970) was a tyrant; his murderer, Macrinus, succeeded, and reigned till 971; Heliogabalus, a shameless voluptuary, till 975; and Alexander Severus, an excellent prince, till 988. After the latter, his murderer, MaximintheThracian (till 991), exercised a military despotism. While he was carrying on the war in Germany with success, the senate chose the elder Gordian emperor, and, after the death of Gordian, MaximusPupienusand ClodiusBalbirius. The pretorians murdered them, and raised the younger Gordian to the throne; and he reigned until 997, and Marcus Julius Philippus till 1009. Then succeeded Trajan us Decius (slain by the Goths, 1004); Trebonianus Gall us (till 1006); ^Emilius iEmilianus (three months); Pulius Licmius Valerianus (101.1); Publius Licinius Gallianus (until 1021), under whom almost all the governors raised themselves to the rank of emperors, and the Germans and Persians Humphed over the Romans ; M. Aurelius Claudius (until 1023), who overthrew the Alemanni and Goths; Domitius Aurelianns (until 1028), who recovered all the lost countries, took Zenobia prisoner, and voluntarily evacuated Dacia; M. Claudius Tacitus (until 1029); Probus (until 1035), a warlike and prudent prince; M. Aurelius Cams (until 1036); and Marcus Aurelius Numerianus (until 1037), an accomplished and gentle prince : Dioclesian succeeded him (until .1058); he ap~ pointedM.ValeriusMaximianhiscolleague, and united Caius Galerius, Maximian asso dating Flavius Constantius Chlorus, in the empire, as assistants : they distributed the empire among themselves, without dividing it, and not only resisted the barbarians, but extended the empire in the East to the Tigris: the two emperors retired from the government (1058), and Galerius succeeded in the East, and Constantius in the West. Galerius appointed two assistants (Caesars), Flavius Severus and Maximin. Constantius died in 1059, and left his dominions to his son Constantine, who, in 1076, succeeded to the whole empire, by a series of perfidious artifices. In this period, the constitution remained nominally the same, but a military despotism controlled every thing. The soldiery made and unmade emperors. In the administration of justice, the emperors decided by their constitutions, so called. The corruption of manners, the weakness of the empire, oppressive taxes, the poverty of the people, the tyranny of the rulers, and the encroachments of the barbarians, continually increased. Literature and taste declined; language and style degenerated. Some individuals studied the ancients, and took them for models. Among the poets, Terentianus Maurus and Nemesianus are worthy of notice ; among the historians, Dio Cassiusand Herodian are of acknowledged merit; and the Scriptores Histories Augusta, Spartianus, Capitolinus, Trebellius Pollio, Vopiscus, Lampridius, and Vulcatius Gallicanus, must be mentioned. Apuleius wrote romances, and iElian compiled anecdotes. Mamertinus, Nagarius, Magnus Ausonius, &c, panegyrists of the emperors, and Latinus Drepanius, Eumenius and Pacatus composed rhetorical works. Latinus Soliuus the grammarian wrote an abridgment of Pliny's Natural History, under the title of Polyliistor; Serenus Samonicus a didactic poem upon medicine ; Palladiusa work upon agriculture; and Censorinus the grammarian a learned chronological work Be Die natali. Papinian, Ulpian, Julius Paulus and Herennius Modestinus were eminent jurists. Art was extinct. The Christian religion was already widely extended. 4. Constantine the Great (reigned until 1099) embraced Christianity, in 1064, from political motives, and it thus became the predominant religion. The imperial residence was removed to Constantinople: the empire was divided anew, and the civil and military power were separated. After the death of Constantine, his three sons, Constantine, Constantius and Constans, divided the empire, until Constantius, in 1106, united the whole, after a war of twelve years' duration. He reigned first with the Caesar Constantius Gallus, and afterwards with the Csesar Julian, until 1114, maintaining constant wars with the barbarians. His successor was Julian (until 1116), an able and virtuous prince, called the Apostate, because he relapsed into heathenism. After him, Jovian reigned until 1117, Valentinian I, in the West, until 1128, Valens, in the East, until 1131, in whose reign the Huns entered Europe; Gratian and Valentinian II succeeded in the West; the former reigned until 1136, the latter until 1145, and Theoclosius until 1147 in the East, and until 1148 over the whole empire. He divided the empire (395 A. D.), which henceforth remained separated, into the Eastern and Western Roman empires. (See the history of the former under the head Byzantine Empire, and of the latter 'under Western Empire.) To this period belong the following authors : Claudian the poet? Ammianus Marcellinus, Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, and Zosiraus, historians. Symmachus was celebrated as a rhetorician, and Themistius as a sophist. Vegetius wrrLe upon the science of war, and Macrobms was a successful follower of Varro and Gellius. Victor and Sextus Rufus wrote upon the topography of Rome. From this time the Roman language continually degenerated by the intermixture of barbarous words, and the corruption of taste, until at length it wholly disappeared in the Romanic languages, and all learning perished. For the earlier periods of Roman history, see Niebuhr's Roman History, Ferguson's Histoiij of the Roman Republic, Wacksmuth's Early History of Rome (in German, 1819). For the history of the empire, see the works of Tillemont, Crevier, Gibbon, and that of Hiibler (3 vols., Freyburg, 1803). Ancient Rome, although visited for a thousand years by various calamities, is still the most majestic of cities. The charm of beauty and dignity still lingers around the ruins of ancient, as well as the splendid structures of modern Rome, and brilliant recollections of every age are connected with the monuments which meet the passing traveller at every step. The characteristics of ancient and modern times are no where so distinctly contrasted as within the walls of Rome. Ancient Rome was built upon several hills, which are now scarcely discoverable, on account of the 7 * vast quantities of rubbish with which the valleys are filled. (See the preceding historical sketch.) The eastern bank of the Tiber was so low as to subject the city to frequent inundations. The extent and population were very different at different times. We speak here of the most flourishing period. Vopiscus, in his life of Aurelian, relates that the circumference of the city, after its last enlargement by that emperor, was 50,000 paces, for which we must probably read 15,000, as Pliny estimates the circumference, just before the reign of Aurelian, at 13,000 paces, and the accounts of modern travellers agree with this statement. The inhabitants at that time may have amounted to about 3,000,000. The number of inhabitants enjoying the rights of citizenship was never more than 300,000. Romulus surrounded the city with a wall, or rather with an earthen mound. Of the four gates which he builtthe Porta Carmen talis, the Pandana or' theSaturnia, the Roman gate, and the Mugioniathe Carmentalis alone remains. The wall ran from mount Palatine, at the foot of mount Aventine, to the Tiber; one part of it then extended between the Tiber and the Capitoline hill, and on the other side separated the Palatine from the Coelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal hills, and finally terminated at the capitol. The second, or the Servian wall, was much more extensive, and embraced all the above mentioned hills, on the southern and eastern sides; ran round under mount Aventine to the Tiber; thence passed to the west side of the river, where, being continued in the form of a triangle, as far as the summit of Janiculum, it separated this from the other hills ; and then, proceeding to the southern end of the island of the Tiber in a direct course, embraced the whole body of the buildings beyond the river. On the north side of the city, the old walls of Romulus were mostly preserved ; but the old wall terminated at the summit of Qiiirinalis, while the Servian extended to its easternmost extremity, and then ran round the other hills towards the east. The Pincian hill, Campus Martius, and the Vatican hill, therefore, lay entirely outside of it. The third, or Aurelian wall, likewise included all these parts. It ran from the northeastern extremity of Quirinalis, northwardly ; embraced the Campus Martius, which it separated from the Pincian hill; extended beyond the latter to the river; enclosed, beyond the river, the Vatican, in a large bend; and then joined the old wall, which reached to the summit of Janiculum ; so that the Island of the Tiber was now contained within the limits of the city. In so large a circuit the number of gates must have been considerable. Pliny enumerates thirtyseven, of which several yet remain, but under different names. Ancient Rome had several bridges, of which some are still passable. The lowest and oldest bridge was the Pons Sublicius, which led from mount Aventine into the valley below Janiculum, and is no longer standing. The second led from the forum to Janiculum, and was called Pons Senatorius, because the solemn procession of the senate passed over it, when the Sybilline books were to be carried from Janiculum. It was the first stone bridge in Rome, and still exists in ruins under the name of Mary's bridge (Ponte Rotto.) Two bridges led to the island in the Tiber, one from the east, and the other from the west side; the former was called Pons Fabneius (now Ponte di Quattro Capi), and the latter Pons Cestius (now Bartholomew's bridge). A fourth bridge, Pons Janiculensis (now Ponte Sisto), led from the Campus Martins, near the theatre of Marcel 1 us, to Janiculum. The Vu'ins of the fifth, Pons Vatican us, or Triumphalis, may be seen near the hospital of S. Spirito, and led from the Campus Martins to the Vatican. The MYmn bridge (Pons JElius; now the beautiful bridge of St. Angelo) led to the Moles Adriani. Beyond the wall, and above the Pincian hill, was the seventh bridge, Pons Milvius, (now Ponte Molle), built, by iEmilius Scaurus, after the time of Sylla. The streets of Rome, even after the city was rebuilt under Nero, were very irregular. The public squares, of which there were a great number, were distinguished into area, squares in front of the palaces and temples; campi, open places, covered with grass, which served for popular assemblies, public processions, for the exercise of the youth in arms, and for the burning of the dead bodies ; and fora, which were paved, and served either for the assembling of the people, for the transaction of public affairs, or for the sale of goods, or for ornament. Among the latter, the Forum Romanum (see Forum), and Campus Martius (q. v.), were the most celebrated. The earliest division of Rome was made by Servius Tullius; he divided it into four quarters, which he called Tribus urbanse; they were the Tribus Suburbana, Collina, Esquilina and Palatina. This division continued till the reign of Augustus, who divided the city into fourteen regions, according to which ancient Rome is generally described: 1st. Porta Capena; 2d. Cosli Montium ; 3d. Isis et Serapis, or Moneta ; 4th. Via Sacra, afterwards Templum Pacis; 5th. Esquilina cum colle et turn Viminali; 6th. Alta Semita; 7th. Via Lata ; 8th. Forum Romanum ; 9th. Circus Flaminius ; 10th. Palatiuin ; 11th. Circus Maximus; 12th. Piscina Publica; 13th. Aventinus ; 14th. Trans Tiberim. The temples, theatres, amphitheatres, circuses, naumachiae, porticoes, basilicas, baths, gardens, triumphal arches, columns, sewers, aqueducts, sepulchres, &c, are the principal public buildings and monuments. For the capitol, the citadel, and principal temple of Rome, consecrated to Jupiter Capitolinus, and the Pantheon, see the articles. Next to these, the following were the most remarkable : the temple of iEsculapius, in the island of the Tiber, which was consecrated to that god, now the church of St. Bartholomew; the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, in the Via Sacra, now the church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda; the magnificent temple of Apollo, which Augustus, built of white marble, on the Palatine, in which were preserved the Sybilline books (it contained, besides many other curiosities, a splendid library, and served as a place of resort to the poets, who here recited their works); the temple of the 'Csesars (Templum Ceesarum), which contained the statues of the Csesars, the heads of all which were struck off at once by lightning; the temple of the Dioscuri, in the Forum Romanum, under the Palatine hill, opposite the church of Sta. Maria Liberatrice, built in honor of the two youths, who, in the battle of the lake Regillus, assisted the Romans in gaining the victory, and were supposed to be Castor and Pollux ; the temple of the goddess Seia, under the Palatine, built by Servius Tullius, which Nero enclosed in his golden palace, and caused to be covered with transparent Cappadocian marble; the temple of the confederacy, underthe name of Templum DiatMR commune, which the Latin cities built in union, by the persuasion of Servius Tullius, and upon a monument in which were inscribed the articles of the confederation (this temple was situated upon the Aventine hill, near the church of Sta. Prisca); the temple of Janus, upon the island of the Tiber, near the modern Sistine bridge, one of the most beautiful of ancient Rome; the temple of the Flavian family, in which Bomitian was buried, still standing on the Piazza Grimana ; the temple of Hercules and the Muses, built in the ninth region by Fulvius Nobilior, who placed here the images of the Muses, brought by him from Ambracia ; the temple of Honor and Virtue, in the first region, built by Marcus Marcellus, and ornamented by the Marcelli with the monuments of their family ; the temple of Jupiter Stator, on the declivity of the Palatine hill, and vowed by Romulus on an occasion when his soldiers began to flee; the temple of Jupiter Tonans, built by Augustus with much splendor on the slope of the Capitoline hill; the beautiful temple of the Lycaonian hill, on the island of the Tiber, which thence received the name of Lycaonia; two temples of Isis and of Serapis; the temple of Juno Moneta, built upon the spot where the house of Manlius was torn down, on the fortifications of the Capitoline hill, because the awakening of the garrison on the attack of the Gauls, was attributed to this goddess; the temple of Liberty, built by Gracchus in the thirteenth region, and restored by Asinius Pollio, who there established the first public library; the temple of Mars, on the east side of the Appian Way, before the Porta Capena, in the first region, in which the senate gave audience to generals who claimed the honor of a triumph, and likewise to foreign ambassadors (the church delle Palme stands upon its ruins); the temple of Mars Uitor, built by Augustus with great splendor, when he recovered the eagles of the legions that had been conquered by the Parthians; the splendid temple of Minerva, which Do mi ti an built in the forum of Nerva ; another tetriple of the same goddess, which Pompey built in the Campus Martins, and which Augustus covered with bronze ; the temple of Peace, once the richest and most beautiful temple in Rome, built by Vespasian, in the Via Sacra, in the fourth region, which contained the treasures of the temple of Jerusalem, a splendid library, and other curiosities, but was burnt under the reign of Commodus; the temple of the goddess Sal us, which was painted by Fabius Pictor, the first Roman painter ; the temple of Saturn, built by Tarquin the younger, which was afterwards used for the treasury and the archives of Rome ; the temple of the Sun, which Aurelian erected at an enormous expense, and of which some ruins still exist; several temples of Venus, and among them, particularly, the magnificent temple of Venus Genitrix, which Csesar caused to be built to her as the origin of his family, and the temple of Venus and Roma, of which Adrian himself designed the model; the temple of Vesta, one of the oldest and most remarkable, ouilt by Nuraa on the southern summit of the Palatine: in it were contained the ancilia, or sacred shields, and the palladium, sacred fire, &c. Of the palaces, the imperial was the most distinguished. It was built by Augustus upon the Palatine hill, and gave the name to the tenth region of the city. The front was on the Via Sacra, and before it were planted oafifs. Within the palace lay the temple of Vesta, and also that of Apollo, which Augustus endeavored to make the chief temple in Rome. The succeeding emperors extended and beautified this palace. Nero burnt it, but rebuilt it, of such extent that it not only embraced all the Palatine hill, but also the plain between that and the Ccelian and Esquiline, and even a part of these hills, in its limits. He ornamented it so richly with precious stones, gold, silver, statues, paintings, and treasures of every description, that it justly received the name of domus aurea (golden house). The following emperors not only stripped it of its ornaments, but Vespasian and Titus caused some parts of it to be pulled down. Domitian afterwards restored the main building. In the reign of Commodus, a great part of it was burnt; but it was restored by him and his successors. In the time of 'Theodoric, it needed still further repairs ; but this huge edifice subsequently became a ruin, and on its site now stand the Farnese palace and gardens, and the Villa Spada. Among the theatres, those of Pompey, Cornelius Balbus, and Marcellus, were the most celebrated. Pompey built that which bore his name, after his return from Greece, and adorned it with the most beautiful Grecian statues. An aqueduct brought water into every part of it. In order to protect it from destruction, he built within its precincts a splendid temple to Venus Victrix. It was capable of con^ tabling 40,000 persons. Caligula first finished it, but Tiberius had previously restored the scenes : Claudius, still later, did the same thing, and the Gothic king Theodoric caused it to be repaired. A few remains of it are yet to be distinguished near the palace Ursini. The theatre of Balbus, the favorite of Augustus, was situated in the Campus Martins. The theatre of Marcellus was built by Augustus in memory of his nephew Marcellus. It accommodated 22,000 spectators, and was repaired by Vespasian. Some beautiful ruins of it are still to be seen. Among A the amphitheatres, that of Titus was the most remarkable. (See Coliseum; and for the circus maximus and the circus of Caracal la, see Circus.) Among the remaining circuses, the following deserve tobe mentioned: the circus Agonalis, in the ninth region; the circus Aurelius, in the gardens of Heliogabalus, in the fifth ; the circus Flamiiiius, in the ninth, one of the largest and most remarkable, upon the ruins of which the church of St. Caterina de' Funari and the palace Maffei now stand; the circus of Flora in the sixth region, upon the same spot which the Piazza Grimana now occupies, where the licentious Floralia were celebrated ; lastly, the circus of Nero, in the fourteenth region, near the modern church of St. Peter; and the circus of Sallust, the ruins of which nre still visible near the Colline gate. Without stopping to describe the Naumachiae (q. v.), we will proceed to the porticoes or colonnades. Among these are the Porticus Argonautarum, also called Porticus Neptuni, Agrippae, or Vipsanii, which Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa built in 729, and adorned with paintings, representing the history of the Argonauts: it was situated in the Campus Martius, surrounded by a laurel grove, and the marble pillars, still visible in the Piazza di Pietra, probably belonged to it; the splendid portico of Europa, in the Campus Martius, supposed to have been built by Augustus, ¦and containing the history of Europa ; the Porticus Hecatonstylon, in the ninth region, so called from its having 100 pillars ; the portico of Livia, in the third region, built by Augustus, and demolished by Nero ; the portico of Metellus, founded by Metellus Macedonicus, between the temple of Apollo, built by him ; and that of Juno, in the ninth region, and ornamented with statues, brought by him from Macedonia ; the Porticus Milliarensis, or of the thousand columns, the ruins of which are yet to be seen in the gardens of the duke of Muti; the portico of Octavia, built by Augustus; and the portico of Pola, built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa; the portico of Pompey, called the Corinthian, from its pillars being of that order of architecture ; Pompey built it near his theatre, and ornamented it with golden tapestry: finally, the portico of the sun (Porticus Solis), which was built by Aurelian. Among the Bisilicae (q. v.), one of the most beautiful was the iEmilian, on the northerly side of the Forum Romanum, built by PaulusJEmilius. We will also mention the Basilica Caii, or Lucii, on the Esquiline hill, the splendid Basilica Julia, on the southern side of the Forum Romanum, built by Julius Caesar, and the Basilica Portia, which was the oldest, and was built by Cato the Censor. Of the public baths, some of which equalled in extent large palaces, and were ornamented with still greatei splendor,there have been enumerated about 22 warm, and 856 cold, besides 880 private baths. Maecenas and Agrippa founded the first public baths, which were afterwards surpassed by those of Caracalla, and these, in their turn, by those of Dioclesian, vestiges of which remain till this day. Rome was likewise rich in magnificent gardens. The gardens of Lucullus, in the ninth region, hold the first rank ; after these, the gardens of Asinius Pollio, Julius Caesar, Maecenas, Heliogabalus, &c. Of the triumphal arches, the most celebrated are, that of Constantine, the ruins of which are yet seen ; that of Drusus, in the Appian Way, of which the modern gate of St. Sebastian is said to have been built; that of Gallienus, and those of Severus and Titus, which are yet in good preservation; the former in the Forum, and the latter in the Vicus Sandalarius. Among the columns, the most beautiful was Trajan's pillar, 118 feet in height, still standing. Instead of the statue of that emperor, which it formerly bore, Sixtus V placed upon it a statue of St. Peter, in bronze, twentythree feet in height. The bassreliefs, with which it is ornamented, represent the exploits of Trajan, and contain about 2500 half and whole human figures. A flight of stairs, within the pillar, leads to its summit. The columna i'ostrata9 which Duillius erected in commemoration of his victory over the Carthaginian fleet, and the pillars of Antoninus and Aurelian, are still standing. The sewers (cloaca), by means of which the filth and superfluous water of the city were conveyed into the Tiber, are among the most remarkable architectural works of ancient Rome; they are subterranean canals, of from ten to sixteen feet in height, and from twelve to fourteen in width, and, although constructed in the earliest ages of the city, are of such an indestructible solidity, that several earthquakes have but slightly injured them; and some parts of them are in perfect preservation. (Concerning the aqueducts of Rome, of which about twenty have been enumerated, see Aqueduct.) Among the magnificent sepulchral monuments, the mausoleum of Augustus and the Septizonium of Septimius Severus surpassed all others in splendor. This city was also rich in splendid private buildings, and in the treasures oi art, with which 'not only the public places and streets, but likewise the residences and gardens of the principal citizens, were ornamented, and of which but comparatively few vestiges have survived the ravages of time. See Burton's Antiquities of Rome (Oxford, 1821); Nardini's Roma Antica (Nibby's edition, with annotations, plans, &c, Rome, 1820, 4 vols., 8vo.); Venuti's JDescrizione topograpliica delle Aniichita di Roma (3d edition, with Piali's notes, Rome, 1824, 2 vols, quarto, with 72 engravings). Modern Rome; the capital of the States of the Church, the residence of the pope, and for centuries the capital of Christendom, at present the capital of the world of the arts (41° 53' 45" N. lat.; 12° 2& E. Ion). It is about thirteen miles in circuit, and is divided by the Tiber into two parts. The churches, palaces, villas, squares, streets, fountains, aqueducts, antiquities, ruins,in short, every thing proclaims the ancient majesty and present greatness of the city. Among the churches, St. Peter's is the most conspicuous, and is, perhaps, the most beautiful building in the world. Bramante began it; Sangallo and Feruzzi succeeded him ; but Michael Angelo, who erected its immense dome, which is 450 feet high to the top of the cross, designed the greatest part. Many other architects were afterwards employed upon it; Maderno finished the front and the two towers. The erection of this edifice, from 1506 to 1614, cost 45,000,000 Roman crowns. Before we arrive at this beautiful temple, the eye is attracted by the beautiful square in front of it, surrounded by a magnificent colonnade by Bernini, and ornamented by an ./Egyptian obelisk, together with two splendid fountains. Upon entering the vestibule, Giotto's mosaic, la Navicella, is seen. Under the portico, opposite the great door, is Bernini's great bassrelief representing Christ commanding Peter to feed bis sheep ; and at the ends of the portico are the equestrian statues of Constantine by Bernini, and of Charlemagne by Cornachini. The union of these master works has an indescribable effect. The harmony and proportion which prevail in the interior of this august temple are such, that, immense as it is, the eye distinguishes all the parts without confusion or difficulty. When each object is minutely examined, we are astonished at its magnitude, so much more considerable than appears at first sight. The immense canopy of the high altar, supported by four bronze pillars of 120 feet in height, particularly attracts the attention. The dome is the boldest work of modern architecture. The cross thereon is 450 feet above the pavement. The lantern affords the most beautiful prospect of the city and the surrounding country. The splendid mosaics, tombs, paintings, frescoes, works in marble, gilded bronze and stucco, the new sacristy, a beautiful piece of architecture, but not in unison with the rest, deserve separate consideration. The two most beautiful churches in Rome next to St. Peter's are the St. John's of the Lateran, and the Santa Maria Maggiore. The former, built by Constantine the Great, is the parochial church of the pope; it therefore takes precedence of all others, and is called Omnium urhis et orhis ecclesiarum mater et caput (the head and mother of all churches of the city and the world). In it is celebrated the coronation of the popes. It contains several pillars of granite, verde antico, and gilt bronze; the twelve apostles by Rusconi and Legros ; and the beautiful chapel of Corsini, which is unequalled in its proportions, built by Alexander Galilei. The altarpiece is a mosaic from a painting of Guido, and the beautiful porphyry sarcophagus, which is under the statue of Clement Ull, was found in the Pantheon, and is supposed to have contained the ashes of M. Agrippa. The nave of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore is supported by forty Ionic pillars of Grecian marble, which were taken from a temple of Juno Lucina: the ceiling was gilded with the first gold brought from Peru. We are here struck with admiration at the mosaics; the high altar, consisting of an antique porphyry sarcophagus; the chapel of Sixtus V, built from the designs of Fontana, and richly ornamented ,* the chapel of Paul V, adorned with marble and precious stones; the chapel of Sforza, by Michael Angelo; and the sepulchres of Gugiielmo della Porta and Algardi. In the square before the front is a Corinthian column, which is considered a masterpiece of its kind. The largest church in Rome next to St. Peter's was the Basilica di San Paolo fuori delle Mura, on the road to Ostia, burnt a few years since. (See Paul, Churches of St) The church of S. Lorenzo, without the city, possesses some rare monuments of antiquity. The church of San Pietro in Vincola contains the celebrated statue of Moses, by Michael Angelo. The church of St. Agnes, in the place Navona, begun by Rainaldi and completed by Borromini,is one of the most highly ornamented, particularly with modern sculpture. Here is the admirable relief of Algardi, representing St. Agnes deprived of her clothes, and covered only with her hair. The Basilica of St. Sebastian, before the Porta Capena, contains the statue of the dying saint, by Giorgetti, a pupil of Algardi, and the master of Ber nini. Under these churches are the catacombs, which formerly served as places of burial. In the church of St. Agnes, before the Porta Pia, among many other beautiful columns, are four of porphyry, belonging to the high altar and considered the most beautiful in Rome. In a small chapel is a bust of the SJavior by Michael Angelo, a masterpiece. In the church of St. Augustine, there is a picture by Raphael, representing the prophet Isaiah, and an Ascension, by Lanfranco. The monastery has a rich library, called the Angelica, and increased by the library of cardinal Passionei. The following churches also deserve to be mentioned, on account of their architecture and works of art; the churches of St. Ignatius, St. Cecilia, S. Andrea della Valle, S. Andrea del Noviziato, the Pantheon (also called la Rotonda), in which Raphael, Annibal Caracci, Mengs, &c, are interred. All the 364 churches of Rome contain monuments of art or antiquity. Among the palaces, the principal is the Vatican, an immense pile, in which the most valuable monuments of antiquity, and the works of the greatest modern masters, are preserved. Here are the museum PioClementinum, established by Clement XIV, and enlarged by Pius VI, and the celebrated library of the Vatican, (q. v.) The treasures carried away by the French have been restored. Among the paintings of this palace, the most beautiful are Raphael's frescoes in the stanze and the logge. The principal oil paintings are in the appartamento Borgia, which also contains the Transfiguration, by Raphael. In the Sixtine chapel is the Last Judgment of Michael Angelo. The popes have chosen the palace of Monte Cavallo, or the Quirinal palace, with its extensive and beautiful gardens, for their usual residence, on account of its healthy air and fine prospect. The Lateran palace, which Sixtus V had rebuilt, by Fontana, was changed, in 1693, into an almshouse. Besides these, the following are celebrated: the palace della Cancelleria, the palace de' Conservator!, the palace of St. Mark, the buildings of the academy, &c. Among the private palaces, the Barberini is the largest; it was built by Bernini, in a beautiful style. Here are the Magdalen of Guido, one of the finest works of Caravaggio, the paintings of the great hall, a masterpiece of Peter of Cortona, and other valuable paintings. Of works of sculpture, the Sleeping Fawn, now in Munich, was formerly here; the masterly group representing Atalante and Meleagerj a Juno, a sick Satyr, by Bernini, the bust of cardinal Barberini, by the same artist, and the busts of Marius, Sylla and Scipio African us, are in this palace. The library is calculated to contain 60 000 printed books and 9000 manuscripts; a cabinet of medals, bronzes, and precious stones, is also connected with the library. The Borghese palace, erected by Bramante, is extensive, and in a beautiful style; the colonnade of the court is splendid This palace contains a large collection of paintings, rare works of sculpture, valuable tables, and utensils of rich workmanship, of red porphyry, alabaster, and other materials. The upper hall is unrivalled; the great landscapes of Veruet, with which it is adorned, are so true to nature, that, upon entering, one imagines himself transported into real scenes. The palace Albani, the situation of which is remarkably fine, possesses a valuable library, a great number of paintings, and a collection of designs by Caracci, Polydoro, Lanfranco, Spagnoletto, Cignani, and others. The palace Altieri, one of the largest in Rome, is in a simple style of architecture, and contains rare manuscripts, medals, paintings, &c, and valuable furniture. In the palace Colonna there is a rich collection of paintings by the first masters; all the rooms are decorated with them, and particularly the gallery, which is one of the finest in Europe. In the gardens are the ruins of the baths of Constantino and those of the temple of Sol. The Aldobrandini (q. v.) palace contains the finest monument of ancient paintingthe Aldobrandine Wedding, a fresco purchased by Pius VII, in 1818, in which the design is admirable. The great Farnese palace, begun from designs of Sangallo, and completed under the direction of Michael Angelo, is celebrated both for its beauty and its treasures of art. The Caracci andBomenichino have immortalized themselves by their frescoes in its gallery. The Farnese Hercules, the masterly Flora, and the urn of Csecilia Metella, formerly adorned the court; and in the palace itself was the beautiful group of the Farnese bull. But when the king of Naples inherited the Farn ese estate, these statues, with other works of art, were carried to Naples, where they now adorn the palace degli Studj. Not far off is the palace Corsini, where queen Christina lived and died in 1689. It contains a valuable library and gallery. The palace Giustiniani also had a gallery adorned with numerous valuable statues and works of sculpture; its principal ornaments were the celebrated statue of Minerva, the finest of that goddess now known, and the bass relief of Amathea suckling Jupiter. These treasures were nominally bought by Napoleon, and are now in Paris. The paintings are chiefly in the possession of the king of Prussia. In the palace Spada is the statue of Pompey, at the foot of which Caesar fell under the daggers of his murderers. We have yet to mention the palace Costaguti, on account of its fine frescoes; Chigi, for its beautiful architecture, its paintings and library; Mattei, for its numerous statues, reliefs and ancient inscriptions ; the palace of Pamflli, built by Borromini, for its splendid paintings and internal magnificence ; that of Pamfili in the square of Navona, with a library and gallery ; Rospigliosi, upon the Quirinal hill, &c. Among the palaces of Rome, which bear the name of villas, is the Villa Medici, on the Pincian mount, on which were formerly situated the splendid gardens of Lucullus: it once contained a vast number of masterpieces of every kind; but the granddukes Leopold and Ferdinand have removed the finest works (among them, the group of Niobe, by Scopas) to Florence. This palace, however, is yet very worthy of being visited. Under the portico of the Villa Negroni are the two fine statues of Sylla and Marius, seated on the sella curulis. In the extensive garden, which is three miles in circuit, some beautiful, fresco paintings have been found in the ruins of some of the houses. The Villa Mattei, on the Coelian mount, contains a splendid collection of statues. The Villa Ludovisi, on the Pincian mount, not far from the ruins of the circus and the gardens of Sallust, is one and a half miles in circuit, and contains valuable monuments of art, particularly the Aurora of Guercino, an ancient group of the senator Papirius and his mother (or rather of Phaedra and Hippolytus), another of Arria and Paetus, and Bernini's rape of Proserpine. The Villa Borghese, near Rome, has a fine, but an unhealthy situation. The greatest part of the city, and the environs as far as Frascati and Tivoli, are visible from it. It has a garden, with a park three miles in circuit. This palace was ornamented in its interior, and furnished with so much richness and elegance, that it might have been considered the first edifice in Rome, next to the capitol, particularly for its fine collection of statues. The most remarkable among them were the Fighting Gladiator; Silenus and a Faun ; Seneca, in black marble, or rather a slave at the baths ; Camillus; the Hermaphrodite ; the Centaur and Cupid ; two Fauns playing on the flute; Ceres; an ^Egyptian ; a statue of the younger Nero; the busts of Lucius Verus, Alexander, Faustina and Verus; various relievos; among which was one representing Cur tius ; an urn, on which were represented the festival of Bacchus; another supported by the Graces ; two horns of plenty, &c. The greatest part of these has not been restored from Paris. The exterior is ornamented with ancient reliefs. The Villa Pamfili, before the Porta di San Pancrazio, also called Belrespiro, has an agreeable situation, and is seven miles in circumference. The architecture is by Algardi, but has been censured by connoisseurs. In the interior there are some fine specimens of sculpture. Full descriptions of this and of the Villa Borghese have been published. The Villa Albani, upon an eminence which commands Tivoli and the Sabina, is a temple of taste and splendor. The cardinal Alexander Albani expended immense sums upon it, and, during the space of fifty years, collected a splendid cabinet. The ceiling of the gallery was painted by Mengs, and is a model of elegance. The Villa Lante and the Villa Corsini deserve to be mentioned on account of their fine prospects. The Villa Doria (formerly Algiati), in which Raphael lived, contains three fresco paintings of this great master. The Villa Farnese contains the remains of the palace of the Roman emperors. The capitol (q. v.) contains so many and such magnificent objects of every descrip tion, that it is impossible to enumerate them here. We must be satisfied with mentioning the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, before the palace; the Captive Kings, in the court; the columnaro strata; and within, the colossal statue of Pyrrhus; the tomb of Severus; the Centaurs, of basalt; the beautiful alabaster pillars; the masterpiece in mosaic, which once belonged to cardinal Furietti, representing three doves on the edge of a vessel filled with water, which is described by Vliny. The fountains are among the principal ornaments of the squares in Rome. The fountain in the Piazza Navona, the most splendid of them all, has been particularly admired ; it is surmounted by an obelisk, and ornamented by four colossal statues, which represent the four principal rivers in the world. The fountain of Paul V, near the church di San Pietro in Monto rio, is in bad taste, but furnishes such a body of water, that several mills are carried by it. The fountain di Termini is adorned with three reliefs, representing Moses striking waier from the rock, and with a colossal statue of that prophet, with two ^Egyptian lions in basalt. The splendid fountain of Trevi supplies the best water, which it receives through an ancient aqueduct. Among the streets, the Strada Felice and the S trad a Pia, which cross each other, are the most remarkable ; among the bridges, that of St. Angelo (formerly Pons Julius), 300 feet in length; and among the gates, the Porta del Popolo (formerly Porta Flaminia). Of ancient monuments, the following yet remain: the Pantheon, the Coliseum, the column of Trajan, that of Antoniue, the amphitheatre of Vespasian; the mausoleum of Augustus, the mausoleum of Adrian (now the fortress of St. Angelo); the triumphal arches of Severus, Titus, Constantine, Janus, Nero and Drusus; the ruins of the temple of Jupiter Stator, of Jupiter Tonans, of Concordia, of Pax, of Antoninus and Faustina, of the sun and moon, of Romulus, of Romulus and Remus, of Pallas, of Fortuna Virilis, of Fortuna Muliebris, of Virtue, of Bacchus, of Vesta, of Minerva Medica, and of Venus and Cupid; the remains of the baths of Dioclesian, of Caracalla and Titus, &c.; the ruins of the theatre of Pompey, near the Curia Pompeii, where Caesar was murdered, and those of the theatre of Marcellus; the ruins of the old forum (now called Campo Vaccino); the remains of the old bridges; the circus maximus ; the circus of Curaealla ; the house of Cicero ; the Curia Hostilia; the trophies of Marius; the portico of Philip and Octavius; the country house and tower of Maecenas; the Claudian aqueduct; the monuments of the family of Aruns, of the Scipios, of Metella (called Capo di Bove); the prison of Jugurtha (Careere Mamertino), in which St. Peter was imprisoned ; the monument of Caius Cestius, which is entirely uninjured, in form of a pyramid, near which the Protestants are buried; the Cloaca Maxima, built by Tarquin, &c. Besides the obelisk near the Porta del Popolo, that raised in the pontificate of Pius VI, on mount Cavallo, is deserving of notice. The principal collections of literature and the arts have already been noticed ; but the Museo Kircheliano deserves to be particularly mentioned: there are, besides, many private collections and monastic libraries, which contain many valuable works. Such treasures, especially in the arts, make Rome the great school of painters, statuaries and architects, and a place of pilgrimage to all lovers of the arts ; and there are here innumerable studj of painting and sculpture. Roman art seems to have received a new impulse. The academy of San Luca was established solely for the art of painting; and there are also many literary institutions in the city. The principal college of the university, erected by the popes Innocent IV (1245), Boniface VIII (1303), and Clement VI (1311), is called delta Sapie?iza, from its motto, Initium sapie?iti(B timor Domini. It is a splendid building, in which there are eight professors in theology, six in law, eight in medicine, five in philosophy one in the fine arts, and four in the Hebrew, Greek, Syriac and Arabic languages. Of the other colleges, in which instruction is given in the sciences and in languages, the Collegium de propaganda Fide is particularly remarkable for its rich library and its printingoffice, which is worthy of being visited, and which contains works in thirty ancient and modern languages : besides these are the Collegium Clementinum, the Collegium Romanum and the Collegium Nazarenum, institutions for instruction in the Oriental languages, the Hungarian and the German college, &c. Among the academies and learned societies in Rome, the most important are the academies of Roman history, of geography, of ecclesiastical history, of Roman antiquities, of the Arcadians, &c. The two principal theatres are those of Alberti and Argentina, in which operas and ballets are exhibited ; the theatres della Valle and di Capranica are of the second rank, in which comic operas, comedies, and sometimes tragedies, are performed. La Paze and La Palla Corda are of the lowest rank, in which the opera buffii and farces are acted for the amusement of the populace. But they are opened only for a short time during the year. The festivals in Rome most worthy of notice are the grand procession on Corpus Christi day, and the ceremonies of Passion week in the Sistine chapel, where is performed the immortal Miserere of Leo Allegri; the illumination of the cross on St. Peter's, the illumination of the Pauline chapel, &c.; besides these, there are the illumination of the immense dome of St. Peter's, upon the day of that saint, the great fire works, or the Girandola of 4500 rockets, which are discharged from the castle of St. Angelo, upon the anniversary of the pope's coronation, and which produce an indescribable effect, on account of the vicinity of the river, in whose waters the lights are reflected. (For the Carnival, see the article.) The climate of Rome from July until October is unhealthy, and the foreigner is then exposed to dangerous ofevers. This aria cattiva renders whole quarters of the city uninhabitable during these months. It appears to extend gradually, and to be about to take full possession of the eternal city. (See Campagnadi Roma, Malaria, and Pontine Marshes.) The south wind, known by the name of sirocco, affects the elasticity of the muscles without oeing dangerous. Consumption has in Rome a malignant character, communicating itself to the healthy by means of articles of clothing and furniture, and spreading among occupants of the same house with the diseased person, even without such adventitious aid. It is even communicated by books. The water is different in different parts of the city. The fountain of Trevi furnishes the most wholesome water; that from the thermos ofBioclesian and the fountain of Gianicola is unwholesome, and banished from all tables. In Rome, the hours are counted up to 24, as is the case in many of the other Italian cities. The most frequented promenade is the Corso. From 22 to 24 o'clock (5 to 7), it is filled with pedestrians and equipages. In 1824, Rome contained 136,300 inhabitants ; 35,900 houses; 346 churches, 81 of them parish churches; 30 monasteries, and upwards of 120 palaces. In 1830, the population was 144,542, a:nong which were 35 bishops and archbishops, 1490 priests, 1983 monks, 2390 nuns, and 10,000 Jews residing on the left bank of the Tiber, in a quarter called Ghetto. The view of the majestic ruins; the solemn grandeur of the churches and palaces; the recollections of the past; the religious customs; the magic and almost melancholy tranquillity in the splendid villas; the enjoyment of the endless treasures of art,all this raises the ¦¦mind to a high state of excitement.See Fea's Descrizione ; the splendid Vedute di Roma, by Piranesi (2 vols., folio, 138 plates); Description of Rome, by Plainer, Bunsen and Gerhard, with a Sketch of the History of the old, and of the Restoration of the new City, by Niebuhr, with plans and views, in two volumes (in German) ; Rome in the 19th Century. For other works on the subject, see the article Italy, Travels in.