PROVINCE

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PROVINCE (provincia), among the Romans ; a district of conquered country governed by a proconsul o. propretor (see Proconsul), and called therefore provincia consularis, or prcetoria. But this name was only applied to lands lying beyond the boundaries of Italy. In the time of Augustus, they were divided into the provincial senatorice, or populares (the people's provinces), and the provinci<R imperatoria (the emperor's provinces). The latter comprised those which were most exposed to hostile inroads, and the administration of which was left entirely to the emperor, under the pretence of sparing the senate and people the trouble of managing them, but in reality to keep the army in his own hands. They were different according to circumstances. In modern times, the term has been applied to colonies,or to dependent countries, at a distance from the metropolis, or to the different divisions of the kingdom itself. Thus the Low Countries belonging to Austria and Spain were styled provinces (see Netherlands) ; and the same term is applied to some of the English colonies. The different governments into which France was divided, previous to the revolution, were also called provinces. The name has sometimes been retained by independent states. Thus the republic of Holland, after it had thrown off the Spanish yoke, was called the United Provinces; and the Argentine republic has assumed the name of United Provinces of the Plata. In England, the jurisdictions of the two archbishops are styled provinces.Provincial is a monastic officer who has the superintendence of the monasteries of his order within a certain province or district, and is himself subordinate to the general of his order.