PRESIDENT

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PRESIDENT; the supreme executive officer of the U. States. The qualifications, powers, and mode of election, of this officer are settled by article II of the Constitution, the first section of which was amended in 1804. (For qualifications and mode of election, see Election o see also article Constitutions.) By section ]st of that article, it is provided, "that in case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation or disability to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the same shall devolve on the vicepresident; and the congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability both of the president and vicepresident, by declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act. until the disability be removed or a president be elected/' In pursuance of this provision, the act of congress of March 1, 1792, sec. 9, declares, that in such case of vacancy, the president of the senate pro tern., and if there be none, the speaker of the house of representatives, si mil act until the vacancy is supplied. The president holds his office for four years, and it is provided by law (act of congress, March 1, 1792), that the term for which the president and vicepresident shall be elected, shall begin on the fourth day of March next succeeding the day of election. The first section of Article II of the constitution also provides, that " the president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the U. States, or any of them." Before entering on the execution of his office, he is required to take the following oath or affirmation: " I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the U. States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the U. States." The powers of the president are fixed by section 2 of Article III, in the following terms: "The president shall be commanderinchief of the arqiy and navy of the U. States, and of the militia of the several states when called into the actual service of the U. States j he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the U. States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the U. States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next sesr sion." Section 7 of Article I requires that " every bill, wrhich shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the U. States if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not. lie shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on the journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and, if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law." The same provision is extended to every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary (except on question of adjournment). The duties of the president are determined by Article II, section 3. " He shall, from time to time, give to the congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as lie shall judge necessary and expedient; he, may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commision all the officers of the U. States." Art. II, section 4, provides that "the president, vicepresident, and all civil officers of the U. States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." The senate has the sole power to try impeachments; but it is required by section 3 of Article I, that when the president of the U. States is tried, the chief justice shall preside. (See United States, and Congress of the United States.) By the apportionment of representatives under the census of 1820, the number of presidential electors was 261 in 24 electoral colleges.