PORTUGAL

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PORTUGAL ; a kingdom in the southwestern corner of Europe, on the western side of the Spanish peninsula, lying between latitude 36° 56' and 42° 7' N., and between longitude 7° 34' and 9° 30' W., with Spain on the nortlnand east, and the Atlantic ocean on the south and west. It is nearly in the form of a parallelogram; its length from north to south is 350 miles ; its average breadth, about 115 ; its superficial area, 41,500 square miles. The population was estimated by Balbi, in 1822, at 3,173,000 ; in 1826, it was stated at 3,214,000. The state is composed of the kingdom of PORTUGAL, comprising the provinces Entre Minho e Douro, Tras os Montes, Beira, Estremadura, and alen Tejo, and the kingdom of Algarve. In Asia, Portugal possesses the city of Goa (q. v.), Diu on the coasts of Cambay, a part of the island of Timor, and Macao (q. v.), with a total population of 576,000; in Africa, the island of St. Thomas and Prince's island on the coast of Guinea, the Azores, Cape Verd and Madeira islands in the north, some factories in Senegambia, a part of Angola and Benguela, and the captaingeneralcy of Mozambique, with a total population of 1,057,000. In America, it retains nothing of its former immense possessions. (See Brazil.) The lace of the country is, in general, mountainous, and has but two plains of considerable extent, that of Alen Tejo and that of Beira. The principal mountain ridges are merely spurs of the great Spanish system (see Spain), from which descend the largest rivers of PORTUGAL, the Tejo, or Tagus, the Guadiana, the Douro (in Spanish, Duero) and the Minho. The valleys, particularly in Minho and Tras os Monies, are remarkable for beaaty and fertility. Mineral springs abound. Although the country lies in the warmer portion of the temperate zone, the climate is by no means so hot as in the central and southern parts of Spain; the sea breezes temper the heat on the coasts, and the north winds refresh the interior. The air is remarkably mild and healthy. In January begins a most delightful spring; from March the weather is unsettled, sometimes rainy, and sometimes dry and hot. The harvest is in June. From the end of July to the beginning of September, vegetation is parched by the glowing rays of the sun ; and although the weather is, taking the year through, very favorable to cultivation, yet agriculture sometimes suffers from this drought. Artificial irrigation is little practised except in gardens. Rain rarely falls in summer; but, though the days are hot, the evenings and nights are cool. When the first rain falls in September, the earth is again covered with a fresh green, a second spring begins, and the fruit trees are decked anew with blossoms. The winter sets in towards the close of November, and is accompanied by violent showers of rain, which are not, however, of long continuance, but alternate with pleasant weather. In the northern part of the country only does the cold continue for any length of time ; in the south, snow is a rare phenomenon. Thunder storms occur only in autumn and winter.Portugal is rich in natural productions, but wants the cultivation of industrious hands. But the climate and the fertility of the soil incline the Portuguese, like most other southern nations, to indolence; and they engage more readily in co~nmerce than in agriculture or manufactures. The rich mines of precious metals are now neglected on account of the want of hands and fuel. The only mines worked are some of iron in Estre madura. Copper, iron, arsenic, bismutn, and fine marbles, are found in several provinces, but precious stones are rare. Saltsprings are not numerous; salt, is chiefly obtained from seawater. The corn trade is also less productive than formerly ; for example, in the thirteenth century, when Portugal exported corn. The discoveries of new countries, and their consequences, emigration to the colonies, and increasing commerce, withdrew so mairy hands from agriculture, that this branch of national industry began to decline in the fifteenth century. In addition to these causes, the ignorance of the peasantry, the oppressions to which they were exposed, the wealth of the clergy, the deficiency of beasts of burden, and the absence of all facilities of. transportation, contributed to the decline of agriculture *, and, notwithstanding the efforts of the government, since the administration of Pombal, to revive it, the importation of corn has continued to be necessary. The potato is not so much cultivated as the root of the less nourishing helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke). Excellent fruit is raised in abundance, and exported in considerable quantities. Oil is also made, but in so unskilful a manner as to be of inferior quality; the best is from Algarve. Wines of several sorts, both dry and sweet, are produced; the red Port wine (q. v.) is exported, but in less quantities than formerly, chiefly to England. In 1765, with a view to diminish the dispro portion between the cultivation of the vine and of grain, all the vineyards on the Tagus, Mondego and Rouga (with the exception of some districts in Estremadura producing excellent wines), were, by order of government, converted into corn lands. About one third part of the vineyards was thus destroyed; but, after the fall of Pombal, many proprietors planted vines again, as this mode of employing the land was more profitable than tillage. Hemp and flax are raised in the northern districts, but by no means sufficient for the consumption. In many parts of the country, wood is scarce, on account of the little care paid to the forests. Although the country affords, excellent pastures, grazing is little attended to, partly owing to summer droughts, and partly to the want of artificial meadows, which are to be found only in Minho. It is also discouraged by the great number of holydays, which amount to nearly one third of the year, and on which abstinence from butcher's meat is required. It is most successfully practised in Beira, Minho and Estremadura. Oxen Mules are in common use. Sheep are raised in greatest numbers in Beira; the wool resembles the Spanish, but is not so fine. Cows are not much used for milk, which is obtained chiefly from goats. Butter and cheese are imported from England and Holland. The Portuguese swine resemble the Chinese variety, and are veiy fat. Turkies are raised in great numbers. The bees do not yield wax enough for the churches. The culture of silk, which was formerly extensively carried on, has been in some degree revived in recent times, and, in 1804, yielded 61,700 pounds of silk. Deer, rabbits, hares, and wild boars, are the only game. The birds are not numerous, except red partridges. The rivers, particularly the Tagus, abound in fish ; but the consumption is so great that stock fish and salt fish are carried to the country by the English, Americans, and the northern nations, although in the sixteenth century the Portuguese were largely engaged in the Newfoundland fishery. To the prevalence of entails, and the accumulation of the landed property in a few hands (with their consequence that the cultivator is rarely the proprietor of the soil), is to be attributed the smallness of the population. The nobility, now less numerous than formerly, is divided into the higher and lower; the former, in 1805, consisted of 35 families, many of which are opulent. The national character appears to most advantage in the country and the small towns, particularly in the northern provinces, where the Portuguese is friendly, polite, hospitable, frank, moral, temperate and sober. They have inherited the old national hatred against the Spaniards. There are few public amusements except bullfights. The number of ecclesiastics is stated by Balbi not to exceed 29,000. The king appoints the patriarch, who resides at Lisbon, and has under him nine bishops, five European and four foreign; the ten other Portuguese bishops are under the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Braga and Evora, the former of whom is styled the primate of the kingdom. All the bishops are nominated by the king. In 1821, according to the same author, there were 360 convents for men, with 5)760 monks, and a revenue of 607£ million reis, and 138 convents for women, with 5903 sisters, and a revenue of 363 million reis. The university of Coimbra has 1600 students. In the capital are four schools for the learned languages, and other useful institutions. The education. Little has been done for popular education. Of late years the useful arts have made progress, but few of the products of Portuguese industry can compare with the corresponding articles of foreign manufacture ; the most important are those of wool, silk, cotton, linen, hats and glass. The most of the manufactories of woollen goods belong to the king, who leases them for a certain number of years to particular companies, with the right of exclusively carrying on the business. The most important manufactories of silk are in Lisbon, Braganza, Oporto, Beja, Mondim and Almerim, and, prior to 1808, employed 27,000 men. The internal commerce suffers from the want of good roads. Canals there are none, and the few navigable rivers are not so at all seasons. The remains of the Portuguese colonial possessions, and the empire of Brazil, of which the independence, at first at least, was rather an advantage to the mother country, serve to maintain the commerce of Portugal. The exports to those countries amounted, before the late troubles, to $16,000,000, and the imports from them to 13,000,000; the imports from other countries w7ere estimated at $17,000,000, and the exports to them at about 12,000,000. As Portugal possesses comparatively few commercial resources in agriculture, the products of manufacturing industry must have formed a con siderable item in the sums abovemen tioned. The foreign trade is chiefly in the hands of the English, and the direct trade between Great Britain and Portugal was formerly carried on chiefly in English bottoms; but more recently about half the ships engaged in it are Portuguese, and the trade with Ireland is almost wholly carried on by Portuguese vessels. The revenue, in 1827, was $8,500,000 ; the expenditure, $11,000,000; the public debt, in 1824, was $41,500,000. The army, in 1827, consisted of 50,638 men; besides 27,110 of militia. The navy of Portugal, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the largest in the world, perished during the Spanish domination ; and, although revived under the first princes of the house of Braganza, it again declined. Pombal created a naval force of ten ships of the line and twenty frigates. In 1823, the navy consisted of four ships of the line, eleven frigates, and thirteen smaller vessels. The best sailors are from Algarve and the Azores; the only naval station is Lisbon, where there are an arsenal, dock. marine school, &c. Portugal and Algarve had been divided into 44 comarcas; but the civil, military and ecclesiastical, financial and judicial powers ran into each other in such a manner as to render a uniform administration impossible. The cortes, therefore, divided the kingdom into thirteen provinces, and simplified the administration of all the departments. In 1749, the king of Portugal received from Benedict XIV the title ofrexfdelissimus ; and his most faithful majesty styles himself, "king of Portugal and Algarve, of both sides of the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea and of the navigation, conquests, and commerce of ^Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India." The heir to the throne is styled princeroyal, his eldest son, prince of Beira, the other royal children, infantes and infantas of Portugal. There are seven orders of knighthood ; the military order of Christ; the order of SanJago, for civil merit; the order of Avis, for military merit; the female order of S. Isabella; the military order of the Tower and Sword (founded 1459, revived 1805) ; the order of Villa Vi^osa, or the immaculate conception ; and the order of Malta.Braganza Line of Princes. John IV, proclaimed king 1640, died 1656. Alphonso VI died 1683. Pedro II died 1706. John V died 1750. Joseph I died 1777. Maria Francisca Isabella died 1816. John VI, emperor and king, died 1826. Pedro, emperor and king, abdicated the throne in favor of his daughter dona Maria (born 1819), 1827. Miguel, second son of John VI (born 1802), usurped the crown, 1828. History. I. Earliest Period, before Portugal formed a separate Kingdom, from the Christian Era to A. D. 1139. The Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks early traded to this part of the peninsula, which was afterwards conquered by the Romans. (See Imsitania, and Hispania.) The latter introduced among the inhabitants, a branch of the widespread Celts (q. v.), their own civilization; the country was, several centuries later, inundated by the Germanic tribes (see Alans, Suevi, Goths, and also Vandals), and in the eighth century (712) was conquered by the Saracens. (See Moors.) When the gallant Spaniards of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Leon (see Spain) finally wrested the country between the Minho and the Douro from Moorish hands, they placed counts or governors over this region. Henry the younger of Burgundy, whose grandfather Robert I, duke of Burgundy, was grandson of the French king, Hugh Capet, came into Spain, about 1090, to seek his fortune with his sword, in the wars against the Moors. Alphonso VI, king of Castile and Leon, gave to the chivalric stranger the hand of his daughter in reward for his services, and appointed him (1094) count and governor of the conquered districts, which comprised the provinces Entre Minho e Duero, Tras os Montes, and a part of Beira, and the harbors of Oporto, from which Portugal is said to have derived its name. (See Oporto.) The count resided at Guimaraens, owed feudal services to the Castilian kings, but was permitted to hold, in his own right* whatever conquests he should make from the Moors beyond the Tagus. On his death (1109), Alphonso rendered the dignity of count hereditary in Henry's family, and fortune favored their arms. Henry, and still more his son Alphonso I, were successful in their wars. The latter, threatened by the Moors in 1139, advanced to meet them, and gained the brilliant victory of Ourique. He was saluted on the field, king of Portugal.II. With this event begins the Middle Age in the History of Portugal (1139 1495), which extends to the reign of Emanuel the Great, or the establishment of the Portuguese colonial dominion. The elevation of Portugal to naval and commercial power was the result of its internal organization. The cortes of Lamego confirmed Alphonso in the royal title which he had received from the soldiers in 1143, or, according to some, 1145, and, in 1181, gave to the new kingdom, which was acknowledged by the pope, Alexander III, a code of laws and a constitution. The crown was made hereditary in the royal family, according to the rules of primogeniture, but could pass to the collateral lines only with the consent of the estates. In the failure of male heirs, the daughters were to inherit the crown. The code of laws, which Alphonso had caused to be drawn up, was accepted, and the independence of the newly established throne solemnly declared. The king himself renounced for any of his successors, who should consent to become tributary to a foreign power, the right to inherit the crown. The form of government, however, prepared by the cortes of Lamego, was by no means very definite, and the fundamental laws there promulgated were far from being kept inviolate. Alphonso himself made his kingdom tributary to the pope, but maintained his regal dignity against the kings of Castile and Leon, with whom he was frequently at war. He ex tended his dominions to the borders of Algarve,and took Santarem in 1143. The capture of Lisbon (1147), which was effected by the aid of some English crusaders and Hanseatics, who ascended the Tagus, was one of the most brilliant events of his .warlike life. In 1162, he founded two military orders, the order of Avis (a village near Alentejo), and the order of S. Miguel del Ala. Alphonso I died 1185. One of his successors, Sancho II, lost the throne (1245) in his disputes with the clergy, by the decision of Innocent IV. Alphonso III (reigned 1245-79) completed the conquest of Algarve, which had been undertaken by Sancho I, and received the surname of the Restorer (O Restaurador). He defended the rights of the crown against the church. Among the Portuguese monarchs, Dionysius (12791325) is eminently conspicuous; he deserved the glorious epithets, which a grateful' posterity conferred on him, of the "just," the " husbandman" [labrador), the "father of his country." He opposed with prudence and firmness the encroachments of the clergy, who, under his predecessors, had disturbed the public peace, and claimed an exemption from taxes. He remained on terms of peace with Nicholas IV, the most arrogant of pontiffs, although his measures for preventing the accumulation of landed property in the hands of the clergy, would not allow him to conciliate the good will of the papal court. Himself a scholar and a poet, he was the most generous patron of learning among the princes of the age : he left a monument of his zeal for science, in the college founded by him at Lisbon, which, in 1308, was transferred to Coimbra. He was the first to turn the favorable position of the country for commerce to account, and, by awakening the enterprise of his subjects, he laid the foundation of the greatness of Portugal in the succeeding century, although he was involved in wars with Castile (1295-97), and, in 1299 and 1320, in civil feuds with some of his own family. The policy of this king had the most happy influence on manufactures, commerce, agriculture and navigation, and the prosperity of the towns placed the citizens in Portugal, as well as in Spain, by the side of the feudal nobility and the clergy, as a third estate of the realm. He instituted the order of Christ, which, in 1319, obtained the estates of the Templars, on the abolition of that order. He was succeeded by Alphonso IV, and the latter by Pedro I, husband of Ines de Castro (q. v.), 1357. With the death of Ferdi nand the Gentle, son of Pedro the Cruel, the male line of the Burgundian princes became extinct in 1383. His daughter Beatrice, wife of the king of Castile, should regularly have succeeded him ; but the Portuguese were so averse to a connexion with Castile, that the brave John I, natural son of Pedro, was saluted king by the estates. He maintained possession of the throne, having, with the assistance of his general, Alvaro Nunes Pereira, defeated the Castilians at Aljubarotta, in 1385. With him begins the native line of Portuguese kings. After having concluded a peace with Castile in 1411, this excellent prince turned his attention to the improvement of the country. He ruled, with a wise moderation, a turbulent people and a haughty nobility, whose power had been increased by the concessions which he had been obliged to make, to secure their concurrence in his accession to the throne. He transferred the royal residence from Coimbra to Lisbon. In his reign began those foreign conquests, which made the greatness of Portugal. His able sons completed what had been commenced by the father, who diegl of the plague, in 1433. After the conquest of Ceuta, on the northern coast of Africa, in 1415, where the brave princes Edward, Henry, Pedro, received the honor of knighthood from the hand of their father, Hen* ry (q. v.) the Navigator first set on foot those enterprises of discovery and commerce, which raised Portugal above all her contemporaries. He founded the first Portuguese colonies, Porto Santo (1418), Madeira (1420), the Azores (1433), and those on the Gold Coast of Guinea. The reigns of his son Edward (till 1438), and his grandson Alphonso V, were less brilliant than that of John I; but the latter was surpassed by that of John II, the ablest king that has occupied the throne of Portugal. In his reign began the violent struggle with the nobility, whose power had gained great accessions under his indulgent predecessors. The grants of the crown lands were revoked, and the judicial privileges of the nobility were restricted by the appointment of judges, who were learned in the profession, and not nobles. The king caused the powerful duke of Braganza, the chief of the turbulent nobles, to be beheaded, and the new leader of the malcontents, the duke of Viseo, was put to death by the king's own hand, in 1483. The expeditions of discovery were conducted with ardor, and often with scientific method. The rich profits of the trade with Guinea supplied resources for new enterprises. The active spirit, which was now more and more evidently developed among the Portuguese, was quickened by the Jews, 83,000 of whom, driven from Castile, were received into Portugal on the payment of a capitation tax, and the most learned of this nation were then to be found in Portugal. In 1481, John sent two experienced men to attempt to reach the East Indies by land, the commercial wealth of which was the great object of his enterprises. In the same year, Diaz (q. v.) returned from a voyage in which he had discovered the southern cape of Africa, to which the king, foreseeing the great importance of the discovery, gave the name of the cape of Good Hope, The success of these expeditions, and the riches which the commerce of the newly discovered countries poured into Portugal, may excuse the neglect with which the proposals of Columbus, to seek new lands in the west, were received at the Portuguese coast. But after the happy issue of that great discoverer's enterprise was known, John also sent out a fleet to the west. Thence arose the dispute between Portugal and Castile, which pope Alexander VI finally settled by the line of demarkation, drawn 100 leagues west of the Azores and CapeVerd islands, and separating the future conquests of the two crowns. Thus was established, by Portuguese policy and energy, that colonial* system with which begins the modern history of Europe.III. The Modern History of Portugal extends, therefore, from 1495 to 1820, from the most flourishing period of the country to the restoration of the cortes, and of a free constitution. This period embraces three epochs;1. that of the commercial grandeur of Portugal, from 1495 to the extinction of the Burgundian line in 1580;2. that of the decline of Portugal under the dominion of Spain, 1580-1640 ; and,3. that of the history of Portugal under the house of Braganza, and British influence, to 1820.(1.) The Golden Period of Portugal (1495-1580). What John II had begun with such fair prospects, was continued under the fortunate reign of Emanuel (1495-1521). In 1497, he fitted out an expedition of four ships, under Vasco da Gama (see Gama), which arrived safely at Goa ; and thus was the passage to India by sea laid open by the Portuguese. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the great Almeida (q. v.), firs* Portuguese viceroy in India, conquered Ceylon. Albuquerque (q. v.) made Goa, the most important harbor in India, the capital of Portuguese India, and traded to the Moluccas. Lope de Soares opened a commerce with China in 1518. Emanuel ruled from Babelmandel to the straits of Malacca, and the power of Portugal had now reached its height. (See East India Companies, and India, division Portuguese India.) On this distant stage were performed great deeds of heroism and this is the most glorious period of Portuguese history. The national spirit of the people was animated with youthful force and fire, and produced heroes, inspired solely with a zeal for the honor and grandeur of their country. Lisbon became the most important commercial city of Europe; but the wealth which commerce accumulated was hardly sufficient to meet the expenses of the campaigns in Africa, where the arms of Emanuel were less successful. The king of Congo had, indeed, allowed himself to be baptized by the missionaries, without whom no discoveryships then sailed, and sent his two sons to Portugal, to be educated, and the colony on the Guinea coasts, from which all other nations were excluded by the Portuguese, was a source of great wealth; but the enterprises in Northern Africa were unsuccessful. The unfavorable character of the country prevented a rapid progress, and it is highly probable that Venice and Spain, jealous of the Portuguese prosperity, secretly afforded assistance to the Moorish princes. The fame of Emanuel's conquests in India was no indemnification for the depopulation of Portugal, by the loss of so many of her most vigorous youth, sent to extend or defend those conquests. In the reign of John III, son of Emanuel (1521-57), the Indian discoveries and commerce were still further extended ; but the consequences of the rapid accumulation of the precious metals at home, without a corresponding increase of domestic industry, already began to appear. The inquisition was introduced in 1536, to be employed against those Jews who had adopted the externals of Christianity. The wise John II had received into the kingdom a great number of those whom the intolerant rigor of Ferdinand and Isabella had driven from Spain; but they were still treated with so much severity, that Emanuel had at first intended to extend to them greater indulgence. But in the first intoxication of his passion for his wife, the beautiful Eleonora, sister of Charles V, the old king was persuaded to proceed with such rigor against the Jews, as to require them to embrace Christian!y, under the penalty of being deprived of their children and made slaves. Whether they found means to prevent the execution of this cruel order, or whether Emanuel feared the effects of their despair, it is certain, that he allowed them twenty years for their conversion. This measure led a great many of the Jews to conform publicly to the Christian usages, while they secretly adhered to their faith. The inquisition practised the most revolting cruelties on their descendants. Still more injurious in its consequences than the inquisition, was the admission of the Jesuits into the kingdom by John III (1540), who received them into his dominions earlier than any other European prince, as if he had been doomed to undermine the prosperity of his kingdom. The artful Jesuits gladly allowed themselves to be employed as preachers of the faith in India, where the Franciscans had hitherto been principally employed. The education of his grandson, Sebastian, the heir apparent to the throne, was likewise intrusted by John to the Jesuits, the worst tutors of princes. They inspired the young prince with that spirit of bigotry, and that fanatical ambition, which led to his death. He resolved to reduce the Moors in Africa (an attempt in which his powerful predecessors had always failed), and persevered in his projects with a wilful obstinacy, in opposition to the remonstrances of his wiser counsellors. In 1578, having, as is supposed, lost his life in the battle of Alcassar, he left his throne without an heir ; and from this period Portugal sank rapidly from her former prosperous condition.(2.) Portugal under the Dominion of Spain (1580-1640). After the short reign of the old and feeble Henry, uncle of Sebastian, Philip II (q. v.) of Spain, the most powerful candidate for the throne, obtained possession of the kingdom by the victory of Alcantara, and Portugal had the misfortune to be annexed to a kingdom, which, from this time, was hastening its own decline by a series of unsuccessful wars, and by its unwise administration. Philip II introduced the censorship (Dec. 4,1586), and overthrew four PseudoSebastians. (See Sebastian.) England and Holland, the powerful enemies of Spain, now attacked the defenceless Portugal, the wealth of which promised so rich a booty, and whose possessions wTere now gradually torn away. The old heroic spirit of the nation was quenched in the last days of its independence, and the Portuguese had made VOL. x. 24 themselves so much hated by their arrogance and severity, that the oppressed princes and people of Asia wrere eager for any change. Spain made no exertions in favor of a nation which she had involved in her own declining fortunes. The Dutch conquered the Moluccas (q. v.), and, in 1624, half of Brazil, which had been discovered (1500) through a fortunate accident, in the flourishing period of the reign of John II, by Alvarez de Cabral. They took possession of the settlements on the coast of Guinea in 1637, and forced their way into the rich markets of India, where they pressed hard upon the Portuguese. To these losses was added the rapacity of the Spaniards, who alienated the finest domains of the Portuguese crown. The Portuguese nobility, exasperated by this oppression, and the contemptuous conduct of Olivarez, minister of Philip IV, entered into a conspiracy, which was planned and executed with great art, and, December 1, 1640, placed on the throne John IV, duke of Braganza, a descendant of the old royal family.3. Portugal under the House of Braganza, and dependent on the Policy of England (3640-1820). In justification of this revolution, which restored the independence of Portugal, the cortes of 1641 issued a manifesto, addressed to the powers of Europe. The war with Spain, which was the result of this measure, was terminated by a treaty of peace in 1668, and a renunciation, on the part of Spain, of her claims to the Portuguese crown. A treaty of peace was also concluded with Holland, under English mediation,by AlphonsoVI,successor of John, and Pedro II (who, in 1667, had deposed his brother Alphonso), by which Brazil was restored to Portugal; but its former greatness could not now have been restored, even had the princes of this line displayed as much vigor and wisdom as some of them showed good intentions. A commercial treaty had been concluded with England under the first Braganza prince, and, in 1703, a new treaty was concluded by the English ambassador, Mr. Methuen, which secured to England the advantages of the newly discovered gold mines in Brazil. From this time the relations with England continued to become more intimate, until Portugal was no longer in a condition to maintain an independent attitude in European politics. The cortes, in the ordinance for assembling which the king had expressly required, that the third estate should send as deputies no persons who held offices in the department of finance, in the judiciary, the army or the navy, was not summoned after 1697. During the long reign of John V (1707-50), some vigor was exerted in regard to the foreign relations, and something was attempted for the promotion of the national welfare at home (the restrictions on the power of the inquisition, and the foundation of an academy of Portuguese history, for example); but, iii the former case, without decisive consequences, and, in the latter, without a completion of the plans proposed, while the sumptuous monastery at Mafra, and the dearbought permission to institute a patriarch of Lisbon, exhausted the resources of the country. Under his son and successor, Joseph I, the marquis of Pombal (q. v.), a vigorous reformer, such as Portugal required, administered the government. He attacked the Jesuits and the nobility, who, during the preceding reigns, had exercised a secret influence in the government. The exposure of the power of the Jesuits in Paraguay (q. v.), their conduct at the time of the earthquake in Lisbon (in 1755), and the conspiracy against the life of the king '1759), led to the suppression of the order. In 1757, they had been deprived of the post of confessors to the royal family, and forbidden the court. Two years after, all the Jesuits were banished the kingdom, and their estates were confiscated. The brave count of Schauenburg Lippe, to whose services against Spain (1760) Portugal was so much indebted, likewise reformed the Portuguese army; but, soon after his departure, the effects of his improvements disappeared. On the accession of Maria Francisca Isabella, eldest daughter of Joseph (in 1777), Pombal lost the influence which he had possessed for twentyfive years. To him Portugal owed her revival from her previous lethargy; and although many of his useful regulations did not survive his fall, yet the enlightened views which he introduced, and the national feeling which he awakened, were not without permanent effects. During the reign of Maria, the power was in the hands of an ignorant nobility, and a not less ignorant clergy. In 1792, on account of the sickness of the queen, Juan (John) Maria Joseph, prince of Brazil (the title of the princeroyal until 1816), was declared regent (see John VI), and, in 1799, her malady having terminated in a confirmed mental alienation, the prince was declared regent with full regal powers, but made no change in the policy of the government. His connexions with England involved him in the wars of that power against France; and the Portuguese troops distinguished themselves, by their valor, in the peninsular campaigns. But commercial distress, the accumulating debt, and the threatening language which Spain was compelled by France to adopt, led to a peace with France in 1797. The disasters of the French arms, in 1799, encouraged the regent to renew hostilities, in alliance with England and Russia; but after general Bonaparte had established his authority, Spain was obliged to declare war against Portugal (1801), which, however, was terminated the same year by the treaty of Badajoz, by which Portugal was obliged to cede Olivenza, with the payment of a large sum of money, to Spain. Portugal, meanwhile, preserved a mere shadow of independence by the greatest sacrifices, until at last Junot entered the country, and the house of Braganza was declared, by Napoleon, to have forfeited the throne (on account of the refusal of the prince to seize the English merchandise in his dominions). The regent now threw himself entirely into the arms of the English, and, Nov. 29, 1807, embarked for Brazil. Junot entered the capital the next day, and Portugal was treated as a conquered country. An English force was landed, and, in the northern provinces, numerous bodies of native troops determined to sustain the struggle for freedom ; a junta was also established in Oporto to conduct the government. After some hard fighting, the decisive battle of Vimeira took place (Aug. 21,1808), which was followed by the convention of Cintra, and the evacuation of the country by the French forces.See Thiebault's Relation de VExpedition de Portugal (Paris, 1817). The Portuguese now took an active part in the war for Spanish independence. (See Spain.) On the death of Maria, John VI ascended the throne of Portugal and Brazil. This transference of the court of Lisbon into an American colony was followed by important consequences : firstly, that Brazil attempted to withdraw itself from dependence on England, and, secondly, that that colon)' gradually became a separate state; in Portugal, on the contrary, the influence of England continued, and the condition of the kingdom was not essentially changed. The peace of Paris (May 30, 1814), by no means, therefore, corresponded to the expectations of the nation, although it had exerted itself vigorously in the common cause, and Spain evaded the restitution of Olivenza, which had been provided for by the congress of Vienna, at the same time that Portugal was required to restore French Guiana to France. The court of Rio Janeiro, therefore, occupied the Banda Oriental (q. v.), and Portugal was involved in new difficulties with Spain. (See Brazil.) In 1815, the inquisition was abolished in the Portuguese dominions; the Jesuits were refused admission into them ; and the Jews, at the request of the pope (1817), were allowed the same privileges which they enjoyed in the Roman states. The absence of the court was viewed with dislike by the nation ; the military were dissatisfied with the influence of marshal Beresford (q. v.), and the general feeling required some fundamental changes in the administration and constitution of government: thus commences the recent history of Portugal. Portugal since 1820. On the morning of Aug. 24,1820, began the revolution, in which the army and citizens acted in concert. The soldiers were induced by their officers to swear obedience to the king, the cortes, and the constitution which should be adopted. The magistrates and citizens declared in favor of the measure, and a junta was established, which addressed a declaration to the nation, in which they assert that the convocation of the cortes, and the adoption of a new constitution, were the only means by which the state could be saved. All the garrisons from Minho to Leyria embraced the constitutional cause, and the troops of the regency, established at Lisbon, refused to act against their countrymen. September 15, all the troops and the citizens in Lisbon declared for the king, the cortes, and the constitution. The revolution was attended by no violence nor bloodshed. A provisional government was established, which, October 1, formed a union with the j u nta of Oporto. Count Palmella (q. v.), the head of the royal regency, was despatched to Rio Janeiro, with an account of what had happened, and a petition, that the king or the princeroyal would return to Lisbon. The mode of electing the cortes was settled chiefly in imitation of the Spanish constitution, and the liberal party, which was desirous of the immediate adoption of that constitution, obliged the supreme junta, November 11, to administer the oath of obedience to it to the troops. The latter took the oath, but the eighth battalion, under colonel Sepulveda, acceded to this measure only to prevent a civil war. On the 14th, four members of the junta and 150 <.vfficers, dissatisfied with this act of violence, resigned their posts; and it was soon after agreed by a meeting of officers, with the general ap probation, that no part of the Spanish constitution should be in force, excepting the regulation of the mode of election, until acted upon by the cortes. The elections fell chiefly upon the clergy, lawyers and officers, and the first session of the cortes was opened Jan. 26,1821, under the presidency of the archbishop of Braga. It proceeded to name a regency and a ministry, sanctioned the insurrections of Aug. 24, and Sept. 15,1820, and abolished the inquisition. March 9th, the articles of the new constitution, securing freedom of person and property, the liberty of the press, legal equality, and the abolition of privileges, the admission of all citizens to all offices, and the sovereignty of the nation, were adopted almost unanimously. There was more diversity of opinion concerning the organization of the chambers, and the royal veto; but large majorities finally decided in favor of one chamber and a conditional veto. After some disturbances in Brazil (q. v.), the king sailed for Portugal, where he was not permitted to land (July 4) until he had given his consent to several acts of the cortes, imposing restrictions on his power. On landing, he immediately swore to observe the new constitution, and concurred, without opposition, in all the succeeding acts of the cortes. The Austrian and Russian ambassadors left the country ; the separation of Brazil from Portugal (1822) followed, and the country was disturbed by several movements in favor of the old system of government. The constitution was finally completed and sworn to by the king, Oct. 1, 1822, and the session of the extraordinary cortes was closed November 4. The ordinary cortes was convened December 1, and was occupied to the end of its session (March 31, 1823) in reorganizing the different departments of the administration. France declared that she had no intention of interfering with the affairs of Portugal, and the duked'Angouleme refused to enter into any connexions with the Portuguese insurgents under count Amarante, who was driven, after several sanguinary engagements, from the northern provinces, and fled into Spain. A Portuguese regency was established in Valladolid (May, 1823), under the presidency of the patriarch of Lisbon, who had been banished the kingdom ; and the plot for overthrowing the constitution, at the head of which was the queen (a Spanish infanta), and in which several of the nobility and clergy were engaged, was now ripe for execution. Dom Miguel (q. v.), after assuring his father of his da termination to maintain the constitution, went to Villafranca, where he was joined by several nobles and many officers, with several regiments of troops, and invited the nation to rise, under the royal standard, against the anarchical policy of the cones. At the same time, general Sepulveda, in Lisbon, had been gained over by some members of the cortes, and the ministry, to assist in the overthrow of the liberal party, and to effect the introduction of a new constitution with two chambers ; but Sepulveda, who was already suspected by the cortes and the national guards, was prevented from accomplishing the plan of carrying off the king, and did not join the prince till the evening of May 29. But the garrisons of the provincial towns declared for the Infant ; general Rego did the same, June 4; and count Amarante advanced from Spain with his forces. The troops remaining at Lisbon also joined the absolute party, and John VI, fielding to the instances of the soldiery, entered the camp of the Infant, named a new ministry, and declared the constitution of 1822 null. Sixty members of the cortes, finding their cause lost, signed a protest against the new order of things, and the king entered Lisbon, June 5. Petitions were sent up, requesting the king to reassume absolute power, the restoration of which was the object of the counterrevolution. But the king still declared his determination not to comply with this request. The national guards and militia were disarmed; the church property restored; the patriarch of Lisbon recalled; Amarante reinvested with his former rank and rights; several adherents of the cortes banished or imprisoned; and a censorship of the press established. Finally, June 17, a junta was organized, at the head of which was Palmella, to draw up a constitution adapted to a representative monarchy. The theocratical party and the absolutists, supported by France and Spain, and of which the queen was the rallying point, exerted themselves to prevent the establishment of a constitution. The queen returned to Lisbon, June 18, and, a few days after, Amarante made his entry into the capital with his followers to the number of 3000 men; he was created marquis of Chaves (the name of the town where he had organized the insurrection against the Cortes), with an income of $3000. The police, under the direction of the absolutists, now proceeded to prosecutions against the constitutionalists, who were banished into the provinces, and secret societies, particularly those of the freemasons (who were considered to have acted an important part in the revolution), were denounced. Dom Miguel, who had been appointed commanderinchief, composed his staff of decided enemies to the constitution, and filled the offices in the army with his adherents. The new diplomatic corps in Lisbon began to influence public affairs ; several powers congratulated the king and prince on the restoration of legal order; the British court aimed at the recovery of its former ascendency, while the Portuguese endeavored to conciliate the favor of all the great powers, with the hope of preserving Brazil through their interference. The Portuguese commissioners were not allowed to land in Brazil, and the exhausted treasury would not permit the government to execute its plan of an expedition against the country. The intrigues of the absolutists still continued, and a Spanish ambassador, the duke of Villa Hermosa, having appeared at Lisbon (April 7), the queen's party determined to annihilate the hopes of the constitutionalists, and to put an end to the system of moderation (to which the king adhered) at one blow. April 30, 1824, dom Miguel called the troops to arms, and issued proclamations, in which he declared that it was his intention to complete the work of May 27, 1823, and to deliver the king from the pestilent sect of freemasons, &c. On the same day, the ministers and several other civil officers, to the number of about a hundred, were arrested, and no person, not even of the diplomatic corps, was allowed access to the king, until the French ambassador obtained an audience, and was assured by him that every thing had been done without his orders. The Infant, therefore, declared that he had taken these steps on his own authority, to frustrate a conspiracy, which was on the point of breaking out, against the life of the king and the queen. On the representations of the ambassadors, the king ordered the troops to retire to their quarters, and commanded the release of the persons who had been arrested; but May 3, he issued a decree, commanding the summary investigation and immediate punishment of the (pretended) treason ; and he pardoned the Infant for having exercised an extraordinary power in the royal name, on account of the urgency of the case. The Infant, however, continued to issue orders on his own authority; the arrests continued ; the king was closely watched, and the prince was already talked of for regent. But the ambassadors protests against the violences of April 30, and preparations were made, with the king's consent, for receiving him on board an English ship of the line, lying in the Tagus. May 9, under pretence of making a visit to a palace beyond the Tagus, he escaped to the ship, with his two daughters, and the whole diplomatic corps assembled in the same vessel. The king now deprived the Infant of his command, and summoned him to his presence. The prince obeyed, confessed that he had been deceived and misguided,* and received the royal pardon, with permission to travel. May 14, the king returned ashore, and, June 5, 1824, proclaimed an act of amnesty for the adherents of the cortes of 1820, from which only a few exceptions were made (of the authors of the insurrection of Oporto, August, 1820, and nine superior officers in particular), and on the same day appeared the decree of June 4, reviving the old constitution of the estates, and summoning the cortes of Lamego. At the same time, the junta for the preparation of a constitution was superseded by another, which was directed to make preparations for the election of the deputies of the old cortes. But Spain opposed the convocation of the old cortes, and the influence of the queen and the patriarch was thus revived. New conspiracies were detected against the ministers and the king; in consequence, several arrests were made in October. The ministry was divided in its views, principally in regard to the policy to be pursued towards Brazil, and, Jan. 15, 1825, a new ministry was named. After many difficulties and protracted negotiations, the independence of Brazil was finally acknowledged (Nov. 15,1825) by John VI, who merely retained the imperial title in his own person. The Brazilians and Portuguese were to be treated by the respective powers as the subjects of the most favored nation. March 10, 1826, John VI died, after having named the Infanta Isabella regent. She governed in the name of the emperor of Brazil, as king of Portugal. April 23, 1826, dom Pedro (IV of Portugal) granted a constitution (Cartade Ley), establishing two chambers, and in other respects resembling the French charter. May 2, he abdicated the Portuguese throne, in favor of his daughter dona Maria (he remaining king during her minority), on condition of her marry* He is also said to have confessed all the circumstances of the murder of the marquis of Loule7 a royal chamberlain, who had been found dead, March 1.24* ing her uncle Miguel. But a party (secretly favored by Spain) was formed in Portugal, which aimed at the overthrow of this constitution, which had been sworn to by the queen, by the two chambers, and all the magistrates, and even by dom Miguel himself (in Vienna, Oct. 4, 1826), and proclaimed the prince absolute king of Portugal. The marquis of Chaves and the marquis of Abrantes appeared at the head of the insurgents, and Spain, which alone had not acknowledged the new order of things, assembled an army on the Portuguese frontiers. Portugal, therefore, appealed to England for assistance, and 15,000 British troops were landed in Lisbon; they occupied the most important points; the insurrection was completely put down by the government, in February and March, 1827, and Spain was forced to yield. The cortes, which had been convened in October, 1826, closed its session in March, 1827. In July, dom Pedro named his brother dom Miguel lieutenant and regent of the kingdom, with all the rights established by the charter, according to which the government was to be administered. The prince, accordingly, left Vienna, and, passing through Paris and London, arrived at Lisbon in February, 1828. The cortes was in session, and, on the 26th, Miguel took the oath to observe the charter, in the presence of the two chambers. But the apostolicals or absolutists, to whom the disposition of the regent was well known, already began to speak openly of his right to the throne, and to hail him as absolute king. His ministers were all appointed from that party, except the count Villa Real, and the populace were permitted to add to their cry," Long live the absolute king," that of " Down with the constitution." March 1, the day fixed by the prince for receiving the congratulations of the functionaries on his return, the palace yard was filled with a crowd, who obliged each person who appeared to join in the shout for the absolute king, and actually committed acts of personal violence on some constitutionalists. The officers of the garrisons favorable to the charter were removed, and their places filled by men devoted to the court. It was now determined that Miguel should go to Villa Vicosa, a town near the Spanish frontier, where he could be supported by the troops of the marquis of Chaves, and be proclaimed absolute king ; but this project was frustrated by the decision of Mr. Lamb, the British minister, who counteracted the order for the departure of the British troops, and prevented the payment of the loan made to dom Miguel under the guaranty of the British government. The cortes, being opposed to the designs of the prince, was dissolved March 14, and the recall of the British troops in April removed another obstacle from his path. May 3, he accordingly issued a decree in his own name, convoking the ancient cortes of Lamego, which had not met since 1697. The military in genera] was not favorable to the projects of the prince, and, May 18, the garrison of Oporto proclaimed dom Pedro and the charter. They were soon joined by the other garrisons, and by the students of Coimbra, and the constitutional army, 6000 strong, advanced towards Lisbon. But they pushed their operations with little vigor, until at length they were met by superior forces and defeated, towards the end of June. The constitutional junta at Oporto dissolved itself, and the troops either forced their way to the Spanish frontiers, or embarked for England. Thus terminated the efforts of the constitutionalists in Portugal, and, with the extinction of that party, the influence of England in the Portuguese government ceased. Miguel now turned his attention to the consolidation of his power; severity and cruelty were his expedients ; the prisons were crowded with the suspected, and foreign countries were full of fugitives. The cortes met, June 23, and, with great unanimity (all, whose opposition was feared, being in prison or having taken flight), declared dom Miguel lawful king of Portugal and Algarve, chiefly on the grounds that dom Pedro had become a foreigner by becoming a Brazilian citizen, and was not a resident in the country, and that therefore he could neither succeed to the throne himself, nor name the person who should succeed in his stead. July 4, 1828, Miguel confirmed the judgment of the cortes, and assumed the royal title. He immediately established a special commission to punish all who had taken part in the Oporto insurrection, the members of the commission being to be paid from the confiscations they should make. An expedition was sent out (August 9) against the islands which refused to acknowledge Miguel, and Madeira and the Azores, with the exception of Terceira, were reduced. A new expedition against the latter place (October) failed. In the islands, the same course of condemnation was pursued, that had been practised at home. Since this period, Portugal has been the prey of political and religious oigots. In March, 1830, the regency ap pointed by dom Pedro, as guardian of his daughter, was installed in Terceira, consisting of Palmella, Villa Flor and Guer*. reiro. The other islands have since been reduced by the forces of the regency, and subsequently to the return of dom Pedro to Europe, it is well known that he has been making preparations for displacing Miguel from his usurped seat Meanwhile insurrections have repeatedly broken out at home, but have been suppressed by the vigor of the government and the want of concert in the insurgents. In 1830, it was estimated that the number of prisoners confined for political causes was above 40,000, and that the number of persons concealed in different parts of the country was about 5000. Besides these victims of tyranny, foreign countries, as is well known, have been thronged with Portuguese fugitives. In consequence of some acts of violence, and a refusal of redress on the part of the government, a British fleet was sent to the Tagus to enforce the demands of the English government (May 4,1831); but on its appearance the concessions required by Great Britain were made. In July (11), Miguel was obliged to suffer a second humiliation of this nature ; a French fleet having forced the passage of. the Tagus, and taken possession of the Portuguese fleet, in consequence of the demands of the French government, for satisfaction for injuries to French subjects, committed by the Portuguese authorities, not having been complied with. The court of Lisbon was forced, by this vigorous measure, to submit to the terms imposed by the French, which included the dismissal of some of the Portuguese functionaries, an indemnity for the expenses incurred by the expedition, the reversal of all sentences pronounced against Frenchmen for political opinions, and the publication of these terms in the Lisbon Gazette. In August, an insurrection of the troops broke out against Miguel: it was suppressed after some bloodshed; but the extensive preparations of Pedro, for the recovery of the Portuguese throne, render it doubtful whether Miguel will long retain it.See the works of Murphy, Link, Ruder, Chatelet, Costigan, Southey, &c.; see, also, Antillon's Geogrqfia oVEspaha y PORTUGA, (Valencia, 1815); Balbi's Essai Statistique sur Portugal (Paris, 1822), and his VarieUs Politicostatistiques sur la Monarchie Portugaise; and Miss Baillie's Lisbon in 1821-23 Portuguese Language and Literature Among the Romanic languages, which originated from a mixture of the Latin and Teutonic, is the Portuguese. It is not a dialect of the Castilian; for, besides the difference in its structure and pronunciation, it was formed earlier than the Castilian. The two resemble each other about as much as the Danish and the Swedish. Respecting the mixture of the Arabic, Fr. Joao de Souza has written a good book (Vestigios da Lingua Arabica em Portugal), When Henry of Burgundy took up his residence at Guimaraeus, many Frenchmen followed him, which caused a number of French expressions to pass into the language of the country. The national spirit of the Lusitanians always turned with pleasure to the vernacular tongue, and strove to apply it to every branch of literature; yet it cannot be denied that patriotism carries the Portuguese too far in his admiration of his mother tongue. Franc. Diaz Gomes, a celebrated Portuguese author and poet, calls it " rich, melodious, impressive, proper for all subjects, and in its pronunciation corresponding to its orthography." Its delicacy and its richness in songs gave it, even in Spain, the name of the flower language. Yet its pronunciation is difficult for the foreigner, particularly its nasal and guttural sounds. In respect to the j and ch, in respect to the nasal sounds, and the mute endings, its pronunciation is like the French. Sismondi, more wittily than correctly, calls the Portuguese language un Castilian desossi (a boneless Castilian), because the Portuguese have generally omitted the middle* consonants, and particularly the I; as, for instance, in dor for dolor, Afonso for Alfonso. The Portuguese was used earlier than the Castilian, and became the language of the country under Alfonso I, son of Henry of Burgundy. Early epic attempts were followed by books of songs, to which succeeded sonnets, and, in the fourteenth century, prose. The best grammar is Pedro Jose de Figueiredo's Arte da Grammatica Portugueza (Lisbon, 1799), and the best dictionary the revised edition of Bluteau, by the Brazilian Anthony de Moraes Silva (Lisbon, 1789,2 vols., 4to.). Ribeiro dos Santos has done the most towards investigating the spirit of the Portuguese language. As a conversational language, the Portuguese is considered to have advantages over the Spanish. It is more concise, easy and simple, well adapted for easy conversation; and the social tone and the spirit of the Portuguese are much like what the French probably was in former times, for we still find with the Portuguese a kind of goodnatured and artless politeness. The richness of the languagein synonymes, diminutives and augmentatives renders it expressive and very various: at the same time it is concise and perspicuous, as almost all the substantives have corresponding adjectives, verbs and adverbs. A number of them cannot be rendered in other languages without paraphrase. The Portuguese language is almost the only monument of the former greatness of the Portt*guese empire, for it is yet the general language of commerce in India and Africa. The Portuguese literature is pretty complete without being rich: in all branches we find happy attempts ; in none abundance, except in lyric and bucolic poetry. Yet the short period of its bloom has passed. Its poetry has splendor and feeling, much epic dignity, spirit, and dramatic vivacity, but little ideal elevation. It comprises the most important part of the literature, for prose has remained in a backward state in this nation, which, fettered by ignorance, and destitute of philosophy and criticism, could not rise to history or eloquence. The chief causes of this imperfect state of its literature have been the Spanish dominion and the inquisition. It became and remained bombastic and affected: the ancient power, the natural grace, were lost. In the time of Louis XIV, the French were copied, and many Gallicisms were admitted. It was not till the time of Pombal (q. v.) that poets gave elevation to the language. After that time, the prose also became more simple and pure. Pombal was the first who banished the scholastic logic and metaphysics from the lecturerooms of Coimbra; but the study of the ancient languages continues to be neglected. According to Balbi, there are, in the whole kingdom, not more than eight schools for the Greek language. For their first acquaintance with philosophy, botany, medicine, astronomy, cosmography and Hebrew, the Portuguese are indebted chiefly to the Jews. Scientific studies, especially mathematics and natural history, are not entirely uncultivated, but attract little interest; and it is asserted that, among the 3,000,000 of Portuguese, there are hardly 500 readers of scientific books. According to Balbi, there were printed, from 1801 to 1819, about 1800 new works, of which 1200 were originals, 430 translations, 57 periodical works, 40 new editions. Besides these, the academy of sciences and the university at Coimbra caused 116 works to be printed in the same period. All Portugal had, in 1827, but sixteen printingoffices; one in Coimbra, three in Oporto, twelve in Lis bon. Those three places are also the only ones containing considerable libraries and establishments for the sale of books. How much this little may have been lessened of late, since an outrageous tyranny has been plunging that unfortunate country deeper and deeper into barbarism, we cannot say. The style of the Portuguese prose writers is often embarrassed, obscure, and full of jjppetitions. Of late years, however, they have been employed on translations of good English and French prose writers, which will contribute to improve the taste of the nation. These translations have been chiefly of novels. Their own novels and tales continue to be written in the style of the first Portuguese work of belleslettres in prose, a tale of pastoral life and chivalry Menina e Moga (the Innocent Maiden)by Bernardim Ribeyro (printed with his eclogues, Lisbon, 1559), which gave the tone in Portugal, which Montemayor, a Portuguese, afterwards introduced into Spain, and which, some time later, was imitated in France and Germany. The most popular national romance in Portugal, the Historia de Carlos Magno e dos doze Pares de Franga por Jeronymo Moreira de Carvalho (Lisbon, 1784, 2 vols.), amuses by its comic bombast. Among the best Portuguese original romances are the old Palmeirvm de Ingalterra (exempted by Cervantes from the flames), written by Franc, de Moraes (an edition of it was printed at Lisbon, 1786, in 3 vols., 4to.), and the Feliz [ndependente, which was translated into Spanish, and in that language went through six editions. The treasures of the Portuguese language may be in some degree judged from the Catalogo dos Livros, que se hao de ler para a continupad do Diecionario da Lingua Portugueza mandado publicar pela Academia real das Sciencias de Lisboa (1799). The oldest works mentioned in it are of 1495 and 1502. The former is the Livro da Vita Ckristi, por Valentim de Moravia, e JYicolao de Saxonia (Lisbon, 4 vols., folio); the latter a translation of the travels of Marco Polo and Nicolao Veneto to India, with a map by a Genoese, by Valentim Fernandes (Lisbon, folio). Only one volume of the dictionary of the academy has appeared (in 1793), a thick folio containing A, which letter embraces the fifth part of the words in the language. Respecting the history of Portuguese literature, J^outerwek's Gtschichte der Poesie und Beremsamkeit seit dtm Elide des 13 Jahrhunderts (History of Poetry and Eloquence since the End of the Thirteenth Century, 11 vols.) is the chief work. Sismondi, in his Latth'ature du Midi de VEurope (4th vol.), has followed this. A short history of the Portuguese language and literature is also to be found in the preface of Joaquim de Santa Rosa de Viterbo's Elucidacao das Palavras, Termos e Prases que em Portugal antiguamente se usarao, &c, que hoje regularmente se ignorao, &c. (Lisbon, 1798, 2 vols.), and in Balbi's Essai Statistique (Paris, 1822, 2 vols.).Portuguese poetry flourished earlier than the Castilian, and all accounts of the first civilization of the Portuguese, says Bouterwek, indicate an original poetical direction of the mind of the whole nation. The most ancient known Portuguese poets are of the twelfth century Gonzalo Hermiguez and Egaz Moniz, whose songs the Portuguese of the present day do not readily understand. In the thirteenth century, the language became more and more regular and distinct. Kong Dionysius, in the second half of this century, was a patron of literature, and even a poet himself. Alphonso IV and Peter I are mentioned as poets of the fourteenth century. Even in this early period, Italian poetry seems to have had an influence on the Portuguese, as several sonnets prove. Dom Pedro, son of John \f translated some of Petrarch's sonnets. But with the fifteenth century, the era of the heroic age of Portugal, begins the flourishing period of Portuguese literature, when it vied with the Spanish. A tender as well as heroic spirit, a fiery activity, and a soft enthusiasm, war and love, poetry and glory, filled the whole nation, which was carried, by its courage and spirit of chivalrous enterprise, far over the ocean to Africa and India. This separation from home, and the dangers encountered on the ocean, in distant climes and unknown regions, gave their songs a tone of melancholy and complaining love, which strangely contrasts with their enthusiasm for action, their heroic fire, and even cruelty. The cancioneri of the time of John II contain such complaints of love, but neither Bouterwek nor Sismondi were able to find these collections. The Portuguese cancioneiro, discovered by Joaquim Jose Ferreira Gordo, at Madrid, in 1790, comprising poems by a hundred and fifty writers of the fifteenth century, is known only by wiiat is contained respecting it in the Memorias dt Litteratura Portug. The first celebrated Portuguese poet was Bernardim Ribeyro, under Emanuel the Great (1495-1521). He introduced into Portuguese literature the notion of an ideal pastoral life, and was a learned man, esteemed at the court of Emanuel. His romance has been mentioned above. This direction of taste gave rise to the many pastoral poets of Portugal, who are tender, graceful, languishing, but often monotonous and cold. This is a kind of poetry with which our age has little sympathy. The admiral and governor of Madeira, Christovao Falcao, Ribeyro's contemporary, has expressed the pain of unsuccessful love in the same romantic, mystic tone, in an eclogue of 900 verses. It is a remarkable fact, that several distinguished Portuguese poets composed at the same time in the Castilian language, if they wished to sing of great subjects, for instance, Franc, de Sa de Miranda (Obras, Lisbon, 1784, 2 vols.; earlier, 1560,1569 and 1614), who died in 1558. His two comedies Os Esta?igeiros and Os Villalpandios are contained in the secon'd volume of the edition of 1784 ; but he distinguished himself more in lyric and didactic poetry. Ant. Ferreira, whom the Portuguese call their Horace, still more successfully imitated the ancients in the epistle. He died in 1569. His Poemas Liisitanos appeared in Lisbon, 1598, 4to., and the most recent edition Lisbon, 1771, 2 vols. His tragedy Castro (Ines de Castro, q. v.), in vol.ii of the edition of 1771,is formed after the Greek model, and Sismondi prefers it to the Italian tragedies then existing. They were followed by Pedro de Andrade Caminha {Poesias, recent edition,. Lisbon, 1791), and Diego Bernardes Pimenta (Rimas Varias ao bom Jesus, &c, Lisbon, 1594 ; O Lima, em o qual se contem as suas Eclogas e Cartas, Lisbon, 1596, and Flores do Lima, Lisbon, 1596), who died in 1596. Sismondi compares him to Marini. The most celebrated of all Portuguese poets is Luis de Camoens. (q. v.) The best edition of his poems was published under the care of Thorn. Jos. de Aquino and Fern. Lobo Surrupita (Obras de L. de Camoens, Principe dos Poetas de Hespanha, Seg. Edic. Lisb. Na Qffic. de S. TL Ferreira, 1782 and 1783). It contains a preliminary discourse, the life of the poet, an index, various readings and stanzas, in 4 vols., 12mo. A pretty edition of the Lusiad, in 16mo., appeared at Coimbra, from the printingoffice of the university, in 1800, 2 vols., with two engravings, the life of the poet, an index, various readings, &c. The first edition of the Lusiad appeared at Lisbon, 1572, 4to.; his Rimas Varias, with a full commentary by Manoel de Faria e Souza, Lisbon, 1685,1 vol. fol.; the third and fourth volumes in 1688, and the Commentary on the Lusiad. Ma drid, 1639, 4 vols, folio. Another commentary is that of dom Manoel de Faria Severin, in the Obras de Camoens (Lisbon, 1720); a third is by Manoel Correa (Lisbon, 1613, 4to.), and Obras do grande L. de Camoens (Lisbon, 1720, folio); a fourth by Ignacio Garcez Ferreira, Lusiade lllustrata com varias Notas (vol. i, Naples, 1731, 4to.; vol. ii, Rome, 1732,4to.). The hero of Camoens's epic is his country. It breathes the most intense patriotism, a noble pride and an enthusiastic feeling of love, animated by a powerful imagination. This work is the noblest monument of Portuguese greatness, attractive to every one who cherishes patriotic feelings and a love of glory. Several sonnets of Camoens, and other productions {Rhytmas, Canpaos, t. ii; Eclogas, t. iii; Comedias ; El liei Seleuco; Os Amphitrioes and Filodemo, with Fragmentos and Obras attribuidas a Lais de Camoens, t. iv), breathe the spirit of a great and deeply stirred soul. In his dramatic attempts, his countryman Gil Vicente, whom the Portuguese call their Plautus, and who died in 1557, was his model. The collection of the dramatic works of Gil Vicente, who preceded the Spanish and English dramatists, and whose fame spread all over Europe, so that Erasmus learned Portuguese, in order to read this pioneer of the modern drama in the original, appeared at Lisbon, 1562, folio (Copilagam de todas las Obras de Gil Vicente, a qual se reparte em cinco Livros), On the model of Gil Vicente, rude as his works were, Lope de Vega and Calderon formed themselves. In Portugal itself, dramatic poetry was neglected. The ruling taste, unfortunately, was pleased only with pastorals. Franc. Rodriguez Lobo br" "ught out tedious pastoral romances, in which, however, some ballads and canzoni breathe a true spirit of poetry; his epic Nuno Alvarez Pereira, High Constable of Portugal (O Contestabre de Poiiugal, Poema heroico, Lisbon, 1610, 4to.) is only rhymed prose; Eclogas (1605,4to.); APrimavera (1619, 4to.); O Pastor Peregrino (1608, 4to.); and several others. Yet he was the first who showed the purity, tenderness and harmony of which Portuguese prose is capable. The merits of Jeronymo Corte Real are higher, as shown in his Naufragio, o lastimoso Successo da Pardicao de Manoel de Sousa de Sepulveda e D. Leonor de Sa, sua MMher (Lisbon, 1594,4to.). This poet also sung the famous siege of Diu, valiantly defended by Mascarenhas; he himself was a brave soldier (Successo do segundo Cerco de Dio, Poema, Lisbon, 1574, 4to.). He and Lobo showed to Portuguese historians the way in which Joao de Barros, a celebrated politician of the time of John III (died 1571), whom Portugal calls her Livy, first acquired distinction. His Asia, or Dos Feitos, que os Portuguezes Jizerao no Descobrimento e Conquista dos Mares e Terras do Oriente (Lisbon, 1552, folio; second edition, Lisbon, 1553; third edition, Lisbon, 1563; fourth edition, with notes and maps, by J. B. Lavanha, Madrid, 1616, folio), is an important work. Diego de Couto has continued it in his Asia Portugueza, which comprises the whole in 14 vols., folio, 1552-1615. Also Fernao Lopes de Castanheda, in his Historia do Descobrimento e Conquista da India pelos Portuguezes (Coimbra, 1552-1561,8 vols., folio); Ant. Bocarro, and the famous Portuguese hero Afonso de Albuquerque, in his Commentarios, published by his son (Lisbon, 1557, folio); Damiao de Goes (translator of the Cato major of Cicero), in his Chronica do Folic. Rey D. Emmanuel (p. iiv, Lisbon, 1565-1567, folio); and Chron. do Principe D. Joam II (Lisbon, 1567, folio); and in his short Latin writings De Moribus JEthiopum, &c. (in P. Martyr's work De Rebus Oceanicis, Cologne, 1574, third edition), have described the Portuguese heroes. The History of King Emmanuel by the bishop Jeronymo Osorio, who died 1580 (Lisbon, 1571), is esteemed on account of the tolerant views of this prelate. Bernardo de Brito afterwards wrote his Monarchia Lusitana (1597 and 1609, folio); also his Elogios dos Reis de Portugal (Lisbon, 1603, 4to.). But as he began with the creation of the world, he had not proceeded to the actual foundation of the Portuguese state, when he died in 1617; his style is manly and simple. The voyages of discovery of the Portuguese missionaries and other Portuguese also furnished abundant materials to the Portuguese iiterature; for instance, the Travels of John Fernandez, from cape Arguin into the interior of Africa, in 1445; of Alf. de Paiva and Joan de Covilharn, whom John III sent, towards the end of the fifteenth century, as ambassadors to the (so called) Prester John, king of Abyssinia, and to India; yet many of these narratives are still in manuscript.Respecting the historical literature, see Biblioth. Histor de Portugal e sens Dominios Ultramarinos, &c, with notes by Arco do Cejo (Lisbon, 1801). At ^at time the power of Portugal sunk under Spanish despotism, and with it the Portuguese literature (in the seventeenth century).A voluminous writer, Manoel de Faria e Souza (1590 to 1649), commented on Camoens, without taste and spirit, but with an abundance of erudition; he published Fuente de Aganippe, e Rimas varias (Madrid, 1644-46, 7 vols.), and Europa Portugueza (3 vols., folio, Lisbon, 1675), in the Castilian language, and was considered for a long time a good critic in Portugal. His historical work shows a faulty taste, and, whilst he is anxious to exhibit every where his knowledge, wit and eloquence, he abuses the talents which he actually possessed. Among his sonnets some are distinguished by feeling and grace. Among other poets is the inventor of a sort of elegiac compositions, called saudades, the famous lawyer Ant. Barbosa Bacellar (who died in 1663). The prose writer Jacinto Freire de Andrade is distinguished by his Vida de D. Judo de Castro, Viso Rey da India (Lisbon, 1671, second edition, folio), and by his comic poems. This biography, translated into several languages, is considered, by the Portuguese, a model of a pure and noble historical style. Violante do Ceo, a Dominican nun, published Rimas (1646) and Soliloquios (1668). She, as well as some others, such as Jeronymo Bahia, are too artificial. The sonnets of Franc, de Vasconcellos, who was born in Madeira, and the sacred songs of the Brazilian Andre Nunes de Silva,are in a simpler style. In the eighteenth century, the literature of Portugal seemed to sink entirely with the decay of the state. In order to give it some support, the government founded the academy of the Portuguese language in 1714, and the academy of history in the same year. But the Jesuits and the inquisition permitted no talent to develope itself freely. Under Pombal's powerful government (1750-1777), the national feeling rose once more. He established, indeed, a censorship; but this was intended chiefly for political writings; he himself was a great friend to scientific pursuits. Under Joseph I, the whole school system was reformed, and an institute for the education of young noblemen was established. The rupture with Rome, then existing, was wisely taken advantage of for this purpose. The traces of independent thinking yet to be met with are chiefly derived from that time, when, among others, the great theologian Ant. Pereira was very active. The renovation of the university of Coimbra also belongs to this period, and several good works then appeared. After the death of Joseph, the enemies of intelligence again raised their heads, yet without being able to destroy every thing. On the contrary, an academy of sciences was founded in 1779, by the influence of the duke of Braganza, which consists of three classes. One man, of great talents and accomplished taste, distinguished himself in the first half of the eighteenth centurygeneral Franc. Xav.de Meneses,count of Ericeyra. He corresponded with Boileau, whose Art Poelique he had translated into Portuguese verse, and published, among several other writings, an epic poem, the Henriqueida, or the Foundation of the Portuguese Monarchy, by Henry of Burgundy (Lisbon, 1741). It was intended to be more regular than the Lusiad, but Boileau's school was unable to inspire the count with the ardent and chivalric spirit of Camoens. Another poem of this period, by Jose Basilio da Gama, called Ouraguay (Lisbon, 1769), commemorating the conquest of Paraguay, is much esteemed. The inclination of the people of Lisbon now turned again to the theatre which had been so long neglected. We shall say a few words on the Portuguese theatre hereafter. Among the recent Portuguese poets, several have contributed to banish the ancient pastoral style, and to alter the taste of the people for poetry of an Oriental character, by good translations, particularly from the English; e. g. two Brazilians, Claude Manoel da Costa, and Antonio Diniz da Cruz e Silva, after whose death appeared his Obias, &c. (Lisbon, 1807), containing imitations of British poets, and Odes Pindaricas posthumas de Elpino Nonacrience (Coimbra, 1801); also Almeno, translator of the first four books of Ovid's Metamorphoses into Portuguese verse, author of Poesias de Almeno, publicadas por Elpino Duriense (Lisbon, 1805); Francisco Manoel, who was born in 1734, and after 1778, when he escaped from the inquisition, passed his life in Paris, where his lyrical poems appeared in 1808, and where he died in 1819; and several others. One of the most fertile and most popular poets was Manoel Maria de Barbosa du Bocage, who died in 1805, in the Lisbon hospital. Of his Rimas, the second edition appeared in Lisbon, 1800, in 3 vols, (the third, 1804, under the title Poesias, dedicated to the countess of Oyenhausen). This lady, a daughter of the marquis of Alorno, has translated Wieland's Oberon, but not yet published it. Among the poets yet living, Jose Monteiro da Rocha and Mozinho d'Albuquerque are esteemed. There are among the Portuguese several successful improvvisatori. The Parnasso Lusitano (published in Paris) facilitate* an acquaintance with Portuguese poetry. Since 1827, a Portuguese periodical has been published in Paris, called NovosAnnaes das Sciencias e das Artes, in which a fragment of a great Portuguese poem, yet in manuscript, is to be foundBranca ou a Conquista do Algarve Blanca. There can be no question respecting the state of Portuguese literature at this moment. In no arts have the Portuguese so distinguished themselves as in music, in dramatic performance and in dancing. In music they come near the Italians, in the theatrical dance to the French. King John, just before he left Portugal, established an academy of painting under the direction of the painter Jose da Cunha Taborda, but it came to an end when the French took possession of Lisbon. Before the reign of king Joseph, there existed no national Portuguese theatre, if we do not apply this name to the absurd productions called sacred pieces (aidos sacramentaos) which were as barbarous as the dramas of other nations in the middle ages. Private persons undertook to establish a theatre under Joseph, and Pombal did much to support them. In 1771, a royal decree declared the profession of actors respectable, and many excellent actors soon distinguished themselves. But, after the death of Joseph, the queen thought herself in conscience bound to prohibit the appearance of women on the stage. Dramatic writing, of course, immediately relapsed. It had, indeed, consisted, in this period, of little more than translations from foreign works. King John permitted again the appearance of actresses. At present, there is hardly one actor at Lisbon who can be compared with a second rate actor in other large cities of Europe. Lisbon has at present five theatres1. Sari Carlos, the largest. In 1822, government appropriated 15,000,000 reis for its support. 2. Rua dos Condes, for the support of which government contributed, in 1822, 10,000,000 reis. 3. and 4. Salitre and Bairo Alto, smaller theatres, where Portuguese and Spanish pieces are played alternately. 5. BoaHora, at Belem, where Portuguese farces only are played. A circus adjoining the theatre Salitre serves for bullfights. The theatre of SanJoao, atdQporto, is the second in the kingdom. Women were allowed to appear on the stage here before they were allowed so to do in Lisbon. In 1822, this theatre received from government 10,000,000 reis. Setubal (St. Ubes) has a large theatre, but no permanent company. Madeira has a beautiful theatre at Funchal, and a society, calling themselves socios do bom gosto, support a theatre. The tragedy, so neglected in Portugal, is here much cultivated. Brazil possesses several theatres, of which some may be compared with San Carlos. The first Brazilian theatre, SanJoao, at Rio Janeiro, was opened October 11, 1813. There are several others at this place. Bahia has a brilliant theatre since 1810. Pernarnbuco has also one. The Italian opera has always been the chief theatrical attraction in Portugal. Joseph was enthusiastically fond of music, and Pombal nourished this inclination, in order to be left more at liberty in affairs of government. Joseph had several royal theatres for the opera. That in' Lisbon cost more than any similar establishment in Europe. The first musicians and singers were attracted by large salaries. Among the performers who sang in the royal chapel, Egizieli and CafFarelli had salaries of 72,000 francs, though they performed but two or three months in the year, and, after a few years, received considerable pensions for life. The theatre on which the operas were performed, was situated on the Tagus, and when the curtain in the back ground was raised, the sea was seen in its splendor. After the banishment of actresses, the opera also suffered ; but it revived, and Italian voices, like those of Crescentini, Naldi, Mombelli, Mad. Catalani (q. v.), Gaforini, &c, were heard. The ballet and scenery were equally attended to. But the invasion of the French, and the subsequent political events, caused the decline of the opera. At Oporto it flourished longer. The Jesuits formerly established a singing school for negroes near Rio Janeiro, on their estate, called Santa Cruz. When the order was abolished, this district fell to the crown, and Santa Cruz became one of the residences of the court, after the removal of the royal family to Brazil. When the court for the first time attended mass in the church of St. Ignatius de Loyola at St. Cruz, the king was astonished at the perfection with which the sacred music was executed by negroes of both sexes, who had formed themselves on the rules formerly introduced by the Jesuits. The king now ordered the establishment of elementary musical schools, and very skilful singers and musicians of both sexes were soon formed . the first performers on the violin, bassoon and clarionet were negroes, and, among vocal performers, t\vo n egresses were distinguished. In 1826, the whole orchestra of the chapel consisted of negroes. The exemperor Pedro, an enthusiastic admirer of music, who composes himself, had several operas composed by the brothers Marcos and Simao Portugal (more known under the name of Portogallo), and performed by negroes only, who played with universal applause.