POLITICS

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POLITICS, in its widest extent, is both the science and the art of government, or the science whose subject is the regulation of jxVnn, in all his relations as the member of "a sf ate, and the application of this scie'lce. In other words, it is the theory and t'se practice of obtaining the ends of civil suciety as perfectly as possible. In common parlance, we understand by the politics of a country the course of its government, more particularly as respects its relations with foreign nations; and the more important these relations are (as, for instance, in European states, which exert so powerful an influence on each other), the more prominent is the place which they hold in the ideas conveyed by the word ; whilst in a country like the U. States, whose ^relations to foreign countries are comparatively unimportant, the word, in common usage, is naturally more confined to the principles and operation of the internal government. Politics, therefore, extends to every thing which is the subject of positive laws ; for it is by means of these that the purposes of a state or civil union are effected. The political relations of men have therefore always been the en grossing subject of history. (See the definition of history, at the beginning of the article on it.) As the idea of politics depends upon that of state, a definition of the latter will easily mark out the whole province of the political sciences. By state we understand a society formed by men, with the view of better obtaining the ends of life by a union of powers and mutual assistance. This idea of state is the basis of a class of sciences, and gives them as distinct a character as belongs to the various classes of historical, philosophical, theological, medical, &c, sciences. The political sciences are divisible into the abstract, or purely philosophical, and the historical and practical. This, however, is not the best order for studying them. The following order may, perhaps, be adapted to the wants of the scientific student:1. Natural law, which treats of the rights and duties of men in the absence of all positive regulations. As the idea of law and the mutual obligations of men is closely connected with that of the state or government, the philosophy of government enters, in some degree, into this science, so that the various views of the origin of governments, whether they are to be considered as founded essentially on compact or force, or as having a divine origin, &c, fall under natural law. The subject of natural law is treated at considerable length in the article on that subject, in our ninth volume, to which we refer the reader; also to the article Holler, as he gives a peculiar turn to the old notion of divine right.For the various theories of natural law, see the works of Hugo Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pads (Paris, 1625), which belongs, however, more properly to the practical law of nations ; Puffendorf, Elementa JurisprudenticR universalis ; Wolf, Jus Naturae, Methodo scientifica pertractatum (8 vols., Halle, 1740-49, 4to.); Montesquieu's Esprit des Lois; Rutherforth's Institutes of Natural Law; Ferguson oil Civil Society ; also the works on government by Filmer, Locke, Mackenzie, Algernon Sidney Hume, Milton, and a host of modern writers.2. Though the theory of government falls, in some degree, under natural law, yet the full treatment of so extended a subject gives rise to a separate branch of science, which we might call abstract or theoretical politics. This department treats of the object of the state, and the relation between the state and the individual ; of the right to prescribe laws, and to punish; of fundamental laws and compacts ; of the various forms of governmentsmonarchies and republics, aristocracies;, democracies, representative systems, &c.; of the division of powers, legislative, judiciary, executive ; of the means of obtaining the true ends of the state; of the relations between different political societies, &c.; and of the whole subject of criminal law (q. v.), philosophically considered. Among the most important authors on these subjects are Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, among the ancients , Macchiavelli, II Principe, with Frederic the Great's Antimacchiavelli (1741), and that by Jakob (1794); Hubert Languet (under the assumed name of Stephanus Junius Brutus), Vindicice contra Tyrannos (Solenre, 1577); Mariana, De Rege et Regis Insti* tutione (see Mariana) ; Hobbes, De Cive, and Leviathan, seu de Materia, Forma et Potestate Civitatis (see Hobbes) ; Locke Two Treatises of Government (see Locke); Rousseau, Contrat Social; Chr. von Wolf, De Jure Civitatis (Halle, 1748); Aug. Schlozer, Allgemtines Staatstrecht und Staatsverfassungslehre (Gottingen, 1793); Von Haller (q. v.) ; Zacharia, Vierzig Biicher vom Staate (Tubingen, 1820, et seq.); Salmasius, Defensio pro Carolo o and Milton's answer to him, Defensio pro Populo AngUcano; and Milton's Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, his Ready and Easy Way to establish a Free Commonwealth. Among the writers who have treated criminal law philosophically are Beccaria, Dei Delitti e delle Pene (Naples, 1764); Feuerbach, Revision derGrundsdtze und Grundbegriffe des positiven peinlichen Rechts (2 vols., Erfurth, 1799), and his Lehrbuch. des peinlichen Rechts (9th ed., Giessen, 1820); Grolman (q. v.), Tittman, Henke.3. Political economy, which treats of the resources of national wealth, and the circumstances which affect it advantageously and disadvantageously. (See Political Economy.) The Germans give the name of national economy to what is generally comprised, with us, under political economy. Under state economy they include the management of the finances, .and the regulations by which the government influences the wealth of the state. Under this latter branch, they treat of taxes, monopolies, loa,ns, imports, exports, &c. 4 Science of policy (See Police.)5. Practical politics, or the art of Administering the government of states, both in regard to their internal and external relations. This branch tests the principles of political institutions, whether liberal or despotic, whether advocated by the holy alliance or by the friends of freedom.6. History of politics. This traces the variety of civil governments; the causes of their rise and decay; how one grew out of the other; how they underwent fundamental changes, from the patriarchal form, in which religious institutions, civil government and family relations were rudely mixed, to the theocratic, in, which the two former were blended; to military monarchies, after the separation of the military power from the priesthood; to democracies or aristocratic republics; to feudalism; to aristocratic constitutional monarchies; to representative aristocraticodemocratic governments; and, at last, to democratic, representative governments. The enumeration of the works necessary to the student of this y*anch, wotild far exceed, our limits.7. History of the European and American systems, of states., as fQrming eaeb a family of members under constant arj.a intimate mutual influence. In as far as the.relations of the members of these familiescan be learned from treaties of peace, &c> there exist very valuable n^ajpiialscollections ©f documents byftq M^n^Rousset, Wenfe, Von Martens, Kqch, Schol^IsamlJert, &e* The first attempt to treat this branch systematically was by J. JUG. Scbmauss, in his Introduction to Politics (in German), and commentaries on the Corpus Juris Gentium Academici (2 vols., Leipsic, 1741), edited by him. Koch wrote an Abrigi de VHistoire des Traites de Paix entre les Puissances de VEurope depuis la Paix de Westphalie (4 vols., Basil, 1796; a new edition in 15 vols., by Fr. Scholl, Paris, 1817). George Fr. von Martens wrote a Sketch of a Diplomatic History of the European Political Negotiations and Treaties, from the End of the fifteenth Century to the Peace of Amiens (in German, Berlin, 1807). Heeren wrote a Manual of the History of the European System of States (fourth edition, Gottingen, 1822); and Politz, Political Sciences (3d vol.); both in German. 8. Statistics, or a knowledge of the actual condition, resources, &c. of states. The term was first used by the Germans.9. Positive, public and constitutional law This branch gives a scientific representation of the fundamental laws and constitutions of the various European and American states. Materials for this branch are found in Lacroix, Constitutions des principaux Etats de VEurope et des EtatsUnis de VAmerique (third edition, Paris, 1802); George Fr. von Marten's Collection of the most Important Fundamental Laws (in German); Politz, the Constitutions of the European States, during the twentyfive last Years (4 vols., Leipsic, 1817-1825, in German); Luder's Diplomatic Archives for Europe (3 vols., Leipsic, 18191823, in German); Archives DiplomaHques pour VHistoire du Temps et des Etats (6 vols., Stuttgard, 1821- 1825); and its continuationJVeueste Staatsacten und Urkunden (11 vols., Stuttg., 1825 seq.); Dufau, Duvergier and Guadet, Collection des Constitutions, Chartes et Lois fondamentales des Peuples de VEurope et des deux Am6riques (6 vols., Paris, 1821-23); Alb. Fritot, Science du Publiciste (11 vols., Paris, 1820-1823).10. Practical law of nations, containing the scientific exposition of the principles adopted by modern civilized natjpns for the regulation of their mutual relations in peace and in war. To this belong the rights and duties of neutrals and belligerents, the rules relating to prizes (see Prize), prisoners, blockade, conquest (q. v.). &c. The rules of national law are not drawn up in a code, but are merely the principles which have developed themselves within the last 300 years. (See Nations, Law of) J. Jac. Moser was the first who treated the practical law of nations separately from the theoretical, in hia Attempt at.a Sketch of the modern Euro*on the Maine, 1777). See, also, Vattel, Le Droit des Gens (3 vols., recent edition, Paris, 1820); George Fr. von Martens, Precis du Droit des Gens moderne de PEurope; and Charles Martens, Causes cklebres du Droit des Gens. The Germans have numerous recent works in this branch of science.11. Diplomacy. (See Diplomacy.)12. Political practice embraces whatever is necessary for the conduct of public affairs. In some European governments, in which all business is transacted by means of writings drawn up with various formalities, the wording, &c. of these writings forms a subject of study, and various works have been written on the chancery style, so called ; and in all governments, the study of a .diplomatic style, and of the mode of transacting diplomatic business^ belongs to it. See Cours de Style Diplomatique (2 vols., Dresden, 1823). The knowledge of parliamentary rules, the duties of committees, and all the forms usual in the administration of public business^ fall under the head of political practice in representative governments. P6LITZ, Charles Henry Louis, a distinguished German writer, professor of politics in the university of Leipsic, was born at Ernsthal, in 1772, and educated at Chemnitz. Iri 1791, he studied at Leipsic, in 1794, obtained the right of lecturing there, and, in 1803, was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy. His numerous works on education, criticism, history, politics^ and the German language, are much esteemed in Germany. Among them are his WeltgeschicMe (Universal History, 5th ed.* 1825, 4 vols.); Kleine Weltgeschickte (5th ed., 1825}; Die Staatensysteme Europas und Amenkas sett 1783 (1827); Die Staaiswvssenschajlen im Lichte unserer Zeit (5 vols., 1824; 2d ed. 1827 seq.; also, as an academical textbook, in 1825); Das Gesammtgebiet der deutschen Sprache (4 vols., 1825), with histories of several German states, &c. His Manuals of German Prose and of German Poetry also deserve notice. Since 1828, Politz has edited the Jahrbiicher der Geschichte und Staatskunst POLLTAX. (See Tax.) POLLUX. (See Castor.) POLLUX, Julius, was born in Egypt, in the latter part of the second century. He devoted himself early to letters, and settled at Athens, where he read lectures on ethics and eloquence. He became preceptor to the emperor Commod&s, for whose use he drew up the catalogue of Greek synonymes in ten books, utwier the name Wetstein. He died A. D. 238.