PARIS

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PARIS ; the capital of France, the second city in Europe for population, and the fourth for extent, in the northern part of the kingdom, on both banks and two islands of the Seine; lat. 48° 50' 14" N., Ion. 2° 20' 15" E. of Greenwich, 20° E. of Ferro. It is 112 miles S. E. of Havre, at the mouth of the Seine ; 472 N. W. of Marseilles; 304 N. E. of Bordeaux o 225 S. E. of London. The environs lo not exhibit the same variety as those of London; instead of the gardens, parks and countryseats which surround the great capital of the world, on the banks of the Thames, Paris on several sides presents large tracts of unenclosed cornfields. The stream of life in the great streets, the crowd of wagons, carriages and horsemen, is not so great as in the neighborhood of London. The finest approach to Paris is by St. Germain; a broad, straight street, lined with lofty buildings, leads from Neuilly to the city, where the view is terminated by the ujifinishecl Arc de 1'Etoile, which stands on an elevation; from this to the charming Champs Elysees, extends a walk about a mile and a half in length, planted with fine elms, and lined on both sides with handsome houses and beautiful gardens. You next arrive at the Place Louis XV, pass the Tuileries, with its gardens and statues, the Seine, with its bridges and quays, the Place Vendome, with its triumphal column, the Palais Bourbon, where the chamber of deputies assembles,you are in PARIS. Its circuit, as marked by a wall raised in 1787, to prevent smuggling, is about fourteen miles; its greatest breadth three miles; its greatest length somewhat above five. The original soil on which Paris is built was a marly gypsum, and a great portion of the southern part of the city is built over the immense quarries which form the catacombs, (q. v.) The eastern sections, the suburb St. Antoine, the Quartier au Marais and the Cite are badly built. From the Cite the streets run north to the temple, and south to the pantheon, but without being broad or elegant; in recent times, the direction has been given them south to the suburb St. Germain, and north to the Tuileries. The total number, exclusive of culs de sac, is 1142, mostly narrow. They are not so clean as they might be, since the water is carried off by only one gutter, in the centre of the street; a few of them are paved in the modern style, and provided with footpaths. The Rue de Ilivoli, Rue de Castiglione, and Rue de la Paix, are handsome streets. The eighteen boulevards are broad streets, planted on both sides with trees, and forming beautiful promenades. Those outside of the walls are called the exterior boulevards. The interior boulevards are divided into the old, or northern, and the new, or southern, and are of great length, with many streets running into them. Many of the trees were cut down in July, 1830. Among the finest of the seventyfour public places, are the Place Vendome, and the Place du Carrousel, which separates the Tuileries from the Louvre. The Place Louis XVI, or de la Concorde, in which is a monument erected to the memory of Louis XVI, but which has recently been consecrated to the charter, is also one of the most beautiful in Paris. The Champ de Mars, Place des Victoires, Place de Greve, before the Hotel de Ville, Place du Chatelet, Place des Vosges, &c, deserve mention. The Seine, which flows from east to west, divides Paris into two unequal parts, and is crossed by nineteen bridges. It is not more than half as broad as the Thames, and, as it is not enlivened by shipping, it presents little attraction, except in the quarter of the Tuileries. Here, on one side are the Louvre and the Tuileries, with its gardens, and on the other, from the Palais Bourbon to the Pont Neuf, a succession of fine buildings. The older bridges were all constructed at points where the river is divided by islands. The Pont Neuf has twelve arches, and is 1020 feet long; the Pont Royal, with five arches, was built by Louis XIV; the Pont de Louis XVI, or de la Concorde, completed in 1790, has five arches: lower down the river, and opposite the Champ de Mars, is the Pont d'Jena; and higher up, opposite the Jardin des Plantes, is the Pont d'Austerlitz, a fine iron bridge. The Pont des Arts, opposite the Louvre, is also of iron, but is intended merely for foot passengers. The last three were built during the reign of Napoleon. The Pont de l'Archeveche, of three arches, was built in 1828; the Pont des Invalides, an iron bridge, in 1829; and the Pont d'Arcole, also of iron, in 1828. The quays are fortynine in number; they are stone embankments, on both sides of the river, and around the islands ; the whole extent is about fifteen miles. The sewers fall into the river through arches under the quays. Many passages, or covered streets, with shops fitted up in an elegant style, have been constructed within a few years. Paris is supplied with water, partly by aqueducts, and partly from the Seine ; there are eightysix fountains in the public places and boulevards, some of which are distinguished for their architecture. The houses are generally very high (seven or eight stories), and mostly of stone. For the magnificence of its palaces, the French capital surpasses every other city in Europe, The Louvre, the Tuileries, the Luxembourg, the Palais Royal, are described in separate articles. The Palais Bourbon ties; the Garde Meuble, on the Place Louis XV, designed for the safekeeping of the crown jewels, and costly articles of all sorts; the Hotel des Invalides; the military school; the Palace of the Legion of Honor; the mint; the Hotel de Ville ; the Palais de Justice; the corn market (Halle au Ble); and the new Bourse (exchange), are among the other most remarkable public buildings. Of the churches, Notre Dame (q. v.), Ste. Genevieve, now the pantheon (q. v.), St. Sulpice, St. Eustache and St. Roch are the principal. The hospitals and hospices are under good arrangements. (See Hospitals ; Blind, Institutions for the; Dumb and Deaf, Sicard, Hai'% Laahaise; and for the theatres, see the latter part of this article.) The finest public monument in Paris is the column in the Place Vendome, erected under the superintendence of Denon, in commemoration of the victories of the campaign of 1805. It is an imitation of Trajan's pillar, in Rome, 134 feet high and 12 feet in diameter. It is of brass, and the material was furnished by the 425 cannon taken from the Austrians and Prussians in that campaign. It is covered with 378 plates of brass by Lepere, skilfully united, and containing bassreliefs, winding round the pillar, and representing scenes of the campaign. The statue of Napoleon was removed in 1814. The triumphal arch in the Place du Carrousel is 45 feet high, and was erected after the war of 1806. In 1815, the horses of St. Mark's, which had been placed on its summit, were claimed by the Austrians, and carried back to Venice. The Arc de l'Etoile, at the Neuilly barrier, begun in 1806, is still unfinished. The gate of St. Denis, a triumphal arch erected by Louis XIV, is adniired for its fine proportions and its execution. In 1818, a new equestrian statue of Henry IV, in bronze, was erected on the Pont Neuf. In the Place des Victoires, there is an equestrian statue of . Louis XIV. In the new quarter, called Villa Trocadero, on the heights of Chaillot, is an obelisk 120 feet high, in commemoration of the campaign of 1823, in Spain. Paris has numerous public libraries, and the access to ail is free. The royal library, in the Rue Richelieu, one of the first in Europe, is rich in literary treasures and rare manuscripts: it also contains a large collection of coins and medals. The library of the national institute is small but select. The Bibliotheque Mazarine, those of the arsenal, of the mining school, and and that of peers, also, have good libraries. (See Libraries.) (Concerning the museum of arts in the Louvre, see Louvre, and Museum.) The museum of natural history, the richest of the kind in Europe, is in the buildings of the Jardin des Plantes. The extent of this collection, the rarity and richness of many of the specimens, and the excellent arrangement of the whole, deserve all praise. The garden itself, and the menagerie attached to it, are not less worthy of attention. The museum of French monuments was intended for the preservation of the memorials of French history, taken from the different monasteries, churches and public buildings at the time of the French revolution (see Lenoir); but after the restoration, this collection was broken up. The conservatory of arts and manufactures is a large collection of models, of high interest to every artist. Paris is also the literary capital of France. At the head of the public literary institutions is the national institute. (See Institute.) At the Bureau des Longitudes are the most distinguished astronomers and geometricians. Numerous learned societies are devoted to the cultivation of particular departments medicine, surgery., agriculture, the fine arts, manufactures, &c. The university of PARIS, abolished during the revolution, but restored by Napoleon, is divided into five facultiestheology, jurisprudence, medicine, philology, and natural science. The lectures are gratuitous; the number of students is about 4000. There are also in Paris four lyceums, called colleges those of Louis XIV and Henry IV, the College Bourbon, and that of Charlemagne. TheCollegeRoyaldeFrancehas professors of mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, history, law, Oriental languages, &c. The, school for medicine and surgery is a well endowed institution. In the Jardin des Plantes, and the museum of natural history, thirteen different courses of lectures on zoology, mineralogy, geology, botany, &c, are delivered. In addition to these institutions, there is also a school for the fine arts. The normal school is designed for the education of instructers in the secondary schools throughout the kingdom; th \ military school for the education of 500 youths whose fathers have fallen in the service of their country; the polytechnic school, a favorite project of Napoleon, for the education of engineers, architects, &c. The veterinary school at Alfort also deserves to be mentioned. There are also numerous private societies, such as the four Protestant religious and philanthropic societies; the Bible society, with 120 branches; the missionary society; that of Christian morality, &c. The societe des bonnes lettres has been known for its absolute monarchical principles; that of the AtMnee de Paris for its constitutional principles. Some of the most noted prisons are the Conciergerie; La Force; St. Pelagie, in which are confined persons guilty of political offences; the Madelonnettes, for females; the Bicetre, where criminals condemned to death and perpetual imprisonment are confined temporarily. The population of PARIS, in 1791, was 610,620 : the revolution, the emigration, the reign of terror, and the long wars, diminished the number, and, in 1804, it amounted to only 547,756; in 1817, it was 713,996; and, in 1827, 890,451. The movement of the population (to use a French expression) gave, in 1828, the following results: Births $ 15'117 h°yS mrtlis } 14,484 girls 29,601of which 10,474 were illegitimate ; marriages 7282; deaths 24,557. Paris is divided into twelve arrondissements, over each of which presides a mayor [maire); each arrondissement is divided into four quartiers; in each quarter is a commissary of the police, and in each arrondissement a justice of the peace. The municipal council of Paris is the councilgeneral of the department of the Seine, at the head of which is the prefect of the department, who, previous to the late revolution, was appointed by the crown. A prefect of the police, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole department, has the charge of the public safety and of the health department; he has under him a municipal guard, and a corps of sapeurspompeurs (firemen). The national guard maintains the public peace of the city, preserves order, and defends the national liberties; their number is about 80,000. The consumption of some articles of food for 1829 was as follows:72,590 oxen; 14,500 cows; 66,580 calves; 380,730 sheep; 85,180 hogs ; and others in proportion. The expenditure for the city, in 1829, amounted to 51,748,117 francs ; the revenue was 51,748,547. Since the beginning of the present century, the manufactures of Paris have rapidly increased, and it is now the principal manufacturing city in the kingdom. The value of exports for 1829 was 42,493,341 francs. Among the principal articles manufac^ tured are Salts, acids and oxides, to the Fr™™ amount of.......... 3,500,000 Refined sugar,.........28,300,000 Cotton goods,..........18,200,000 Silks and cashmeres, .....12,500,000In horology,..........19,765,000In typography,......... 8,800,000 Bronzes, . ............ 5,250,000&c, &c. All sorts of articles of luxury and fashion are made with the greatest elegance and taste. It is estimated that 40,000 letters leave Paris daily, and 30,000 arrive during the same period. Numerous diligences (900) run to all quarters of the kingdom, and a ready communication between all parts of the city is kept up by the fiacres, omnibuses, favorites, cabriolets, &c, &c. Those who suppose Paris to be merely a theatre of frivolity and amusement will find themselves much mistaken. That, in a population of nearly 900,000, of which above 50,000 are strangers who resort to Paris merely for pleasure, there should be a great number of licentious individuals, is to be expected ; but who would judge of the character of the Parisians from the public promenades of the Palais Royal ? The truth is, that, in these haunts of vice, the greatest number of visitors are the strangers. In the higher classes, there is little difference in the character of society throughout Europe. In PARIS, however, it is distinguished for delicacy, polish, refinement and ease. The middling class in PARIS, as in all France, is strongly characterized by the strictness and elevated tone of its manners. The lower class is industrious, but improvident, and shows none of that ferocity which the excesses of the revolution of 1789 lead some people to expect; and the events of the revolution of July, 1830, exhibit the Paris populace in a very favorable light. Gayety, wit, intelligence, with decency and politeness of manners, are common to all classes of the French, particularly of the Parisians. The women in Franc 3 have a great influence on the character of society, and are distinguished for their grace and fascination of manner. Among the best French works on Paris are Dulaure's Histoire civile, physique et morale de Paris (3d edit., 8 vols., with plates, Paris, 1825); the Description de Paris, by the same ; Mercier's Tableau de Paris, well done, and witty, but antiquated ; Jouy's Mozurs de Paris, under the titles of JJHermiie de la Chaussee d'Antin, Le franc Parleur, &c.; Landon's Descriptionde Paris; Lachaise's Topographic Medicate de Paris (Paris, 1822) ; count Chabrol's Recherches statistiques sur la Ville de Paris, &c. ; the annual Itineraires, &c. Paris, History of, A GalloCeltic tribe, the Parisii, built the ancient Lutetia, on a swampy island in the Seine, before the birth of Christ. The name Lidetia, or city of mire, is said to have been given to the place on account of its muddy character. The inhabitants burnt it when the Romans invaded Gaul. The latter rebuilt Lutetia, fortified the place, erected an aqueduct leading to it, and founded warm baths (thermal). But Lutetia remained insignificant until the emperor Julian (360 A. D.) went into winter quarters there, and built a palace for himself. In 486, the Franks conquered it, and made it, in 508, the capital of their kingdom. Clovis embraced the Christian faith, and lived in the palace of the thermal, of which ruins are found to this day in the street Laharpe. Clotilda, his wife, completed the church Ste. Genevieve, which he had begun. About 550, Childebert commenced the building of Notre Dame ; 100 years after, St. Landry founded the hospital Hotel Dieu. Towards the end of the eighth century, Charlemagne instituted the schools from which at a later period sprung the university. In 845, the Normans besieged the city, and burnt it about 857. After Hugh Capet, count of Paris, the first king of the third race, ascended the throne, in 987, Paris remained the residence of the kings, until Louis XIV, whom the Fronde (q. v.) had driven from the capital in 1649, made Versailles the royal residence. Hugh Capet resided in the present Palace of Justice. The place increased, and was divided into four quarters. Under Louis the Fat, not more than about twelve francs of taxes were collected monthly at the northern gate, in the neighborhood of the present street St. Martin. In 1163, bishop Maurice de Sully erected the cathedral of Notre Dame, as it is still to be seen. In the same century, the Templars built their palace on the square, where at present is the market du Temple. In 1190 Philip Augustus, who had caused Paris to be paved, ordered a third enlargement, and divided the city into eight quarters. Until that period it had but three gates; now, it received fifteen. In the thirteenth century, St. Louis founded the hospital of the Quinze Vingts for the blind, and a number of convents. After the abolition of the order of the Templars, in 1312, Philip the Fair, in"1314, caused the grand master Molay and several knights to be burned in the Place Dauphine (so called at least before the revolution of 1830; whether the name has been since changed, as inconsistent with the new order of things, we know not). Under Philip of Valois, Paris contained 150,000 inhabitants. The black death, so called, which ravaged Europe about the middle of the fourteenth century, destroyed half of the inhabitants. About this time, the Hotel de Ville, on the Place de Greve, was begun. In 1367, the fourth enlargement of Paris took place, under Charles V. Paris was now divided into sixteen quarters. Twenty years later, the Bastile was begun. Until that time Paris had two bridges; one towards the north, Le Pont au Change ; the other towards the south, Le Petit Pont. In 1378, the third, Le Pont St. Michael, opposite the present street Laharpe, was built. The fourth bridge, Pont Notre Dame, was built soon after. In 1418, Paris was visited by famine and pestilence. 100,000 people perished in three months. In 1420, the capital of France was taken by the English. Charles VII drove them out in 1436. In 1465, some attempts, though very imperfect, were made to light the streets at night. Under Louis XI, Paris contained 300,000 inhabitants. In 1563, the Jesuits established themselves there. Under Francis I, the fifth increase of Paris took place. Henry IV besieged Paris; the city surrendered in 1594, and Henry made a triumphal entry. Henry IV completed, in 1604, the Pont Neuf, begun by Henry III, in 1578. In 1614, the equestrian statue of Henry IV (the first monument of this kind in France) was erected. In 1615, the palace Luxembourg (q. v.) was begun; in 1629, the Palais Royal (q. v.), in its old form; and in 1635, the. Jardin des Plantes. Louis XIV enlarged the city, and did much for the embellishment of it. In 1664, the Tuileries, begun by Catharine of Medici, were completed ; in 1665, Perrault built the colonnade of the Louvre; and almost at the same time, the Hotel des Invalides (q. v.), the observatory, the gate St. Denis. Under Louis XV, the Ecole Militaire was erected, and the church Ste. Genevieve completed. In 1763, the city erected the statue of Louis XV on the place of his name, and a number of magnificent buildings. The revolution interrupted the embellishment of Paris, which Napoleon, zealous as he was to make the French nation the ruling power of Europe, and Paris the capital of the world, pursued with ardor, and accomplished a great deal.A history of Paris is to a considerable degree a historyof France, so much has this city, during the last centuries, concentrated in itself all the vital action of France. This has had several good and many evil consequences (see City); and true liberty, the lifeblood which should animate all parts of the body politic, cannot be domesticated in France until the departments and provincial towns have resumed their proper importance. The preponderance of Paris over all France, not only in a political sense, but in literature, arts, customs, &c, is immense, and was most strikingly manifested during the revolution of the last century. (See France.) March 31, 1814, the taking of Paris concluded the campaign of the allies against Napoleon. The congress of Chatillon had been broken up. (See the article Chatillon, which contains, also, the chief events of the campaign from that time to the battle before Paris, March 30, 1814.) 30,000 men under Marmont, Mortier, and Compans, with 150 cannons, occupied the fortified heights before Paris, in a semicircle, from Charenton and Nogent on the Marne to Neuilly on the Seine. By degrees 120,000 men were brought against them. With the break of day on the 30th, the battle began. After an obstinate struggle, the allies succeeded in taking the heights of Belleville ; the village Lavillette was taken by assault, whilst other troops advanced through Neuilly on the Marne and Nogent sur Marne towards Vincennes, where the bridge of CJiarenton was taken by assault, and where 150 eleves of the veterinary school of Aifbrt died a heroic death. BKicher, at the same time, drew near, passing through St. Denis, and Montmartre was taken by assault at three o'clock in the afternoon. Marmont, in the mean time, had proposed an armistice to general Schwartzeuberg, which was concluded at three o'clock. At six o'clock, counts Nesselrode, Orloffand Paar went to Paris, where the conditions of surrender were concluded on the 31st, at two o'clock in the morning. The corps of Marmont and Mortier were to leave Paris at seven o'clock, and hostilities were not to begin before nine o'clock. The city was recommended to the mercy of the allies. The victory of Paris cost the latter 9000 men; the French lost 4000, besides the prisoners, and 109 cannons. The troops of the allies were kept under strict discipline. The French made loud complaints of outrages, both in prose and verse ; but, though it is impossible that so large an army should take possession of a hostile city without some cases of violence, the behavior of the armies must be allowec to have been very strictly regulated, particularly if compared with that of the French armies in Vienna, Berlin, and other great cities, where cruelty was added to injury. The French even went so fai as to complain bitterly of the allies for taking the works of art which Napoleon had carried from their countries.See, for the military movements, Koch's Mem. pout scrvir a VHist. de la Camp, de 1814 (Paris, 1819, 2 vols.).When, after a series of the grossest blunders on the part of the Bourbons, Napoleon returned to Paris in 1815, and lost the battle of Waterloo, Davoust received the command of about 60,000 men for the defence of Paris. It was difficult to attack the city, as formerly, from the north and east, because the heights and villages were fortified, and well supplied with artillery. The English therefore remained before these lines, and the Prussians passed over the Seine to attack Paris from Versailles. The city is weakest on this side, and might also be forced to surrender by cutting off all the supplies of provisions which come from Normandy. On June 30, therefore, the first and third Prussian corps marched to St. Germain; the fourth remained in its former position until the arrival of the English ; and, on July 2, the third corps marched through Versailles to Plessis Piquet, the first through Vaucresson to Sevres and Meudon; the fourth, which was to act as a reserve, was placed at Versailles. The enemy had been driven back at Sevres and Plessis Piquet, as far as Vaugirard and Montrouge, and had occupied Issy. A council of war, held at Paris, almost unanimously determined that Paris was untenable; but in order to make a last attempt, Vandamme advanced, on the morning of the third, with 10,000 men, and attacked Issy. He was repulsed after several hours fighting, and the surrender of Paris was resolved on. The capitulation was concluded at St. Cloud the same day. The French army was to leave Paris within three days, and cross the Loire within eight days: Montmartre was to be surrendered July 5, and all the barriers on the 6th. July 7, the Prussian army entered the barrier of the military school, and part of the English army that of St. Denis. Louis XVIII arrived the next day.To what has been said in the article France respecting the revolution of 1830, we only add, as concerning Paris more especially, that, during; that short and memorable revolution, the greatest part of the street lamps were broken 3 4055 barricades thrown up with great rapidity, consisting of the pavement torn up for the purpose, of coaches and other vehicles, trees, &c.; 3,125,000 pavingstones were dislodged, and the paving the streets again cost 250,000 francs. (The pavement of Paris consists of large stones.) Treaties concluded at Paris, 1. Peace between France and Spain on one side, and Great Britain and Portugal on the other, concluded Feb. 10, 1763, which ended the seven years' war. France ceded Acadia (Nova Scotia), and Canada and Cape Breton to England; but she retained the right of fishing on the banks of Newfoundland. Great Britain restored Guadaloupe, Martinico and St. Lucia to France, but retained Grenada, Dominica and Tobago, also the colony on the Senegal, and Minorca. To Spain she restored Havana, but received all Florida from .Spain, while France ceded Louisiana to Spain.2. Peace concluded Sept. 3,1783, by Great Britain with France, Spain and the U. States, after several preliminary treaties, and on May 20,1784, with the United Netherlands. Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the thirteen U. States; France received back with St. Lucia the other colonies, and retained Tobago and Senegal; Spain retained Minorca, and received back Florida; the Dutch were obliged to leave Negapatam in the hands of the English.3. The peace of May 30th, 1814, consisting of four separate treaties of France with Austria, Russia, Prussia and Great Britain. (See France since 1814.) The German states were to be united in a federative system ; Switzerland's independence was guarantied ; the house of Orange was to reign in the Netherlands, ajd Belgium to be added to its dominions, &c.4. Peace or treatv of Nov. 20, 1815. (See France since 18*14.) On the same day, Austria, Russia, Great Britain and Prussia renewed the treaty of Chaumont (q. v.), and united for the maintenance of the second peace of Paris that of Nov. 20, 1815. The two last treaties are often spoken of as the " first and second peace of Paris." Paris Theatres, (For the history of the French drama, see the article France, division Dramatic Art and Poetry,) In genteel comedy, comic opera, and the lighter comedy, the French stage is inimitable ; and a visitor in Paris cannot fail to observe the delicate taste of the Parisians in every thing relating to the stage. The Parisian, in his principal theatre, witnesses the constant repetition of the masterpieces of his classic poets, with an occasional novelty in the same style, and is satisfied if the actors perform their parts well; but his judgment of their performance is strict, and his criticism severe. There is no city where the people attend the theatre so regularly. The English and German theatres are much below the French in delicacy and refinement: any thing low or vulgar is instantly condemned in a Paris theatre, and the highest regard is paid to the modesty of the female sex. The constant noise which is heard in the English and German boxes is unknown in France ; the most popular pieces are never interrupted by loud bursts of applause. The police prevent confusion at the entrances, and each person stations himself a la queue of those' already collected; that is, each stands behind another, so that several files are often formed; and no one is suffered to leave his position till the doors are opened. The number of theatres in 1830 was twentyfour. The principal are supported by the government; among them are, 1. The grand opera {Academic Royale de Musique). The richest decorations, an enchanting ballet, splendid costumes, beautiful scenery, and a powerful orchestra of 200 musicians,are all here united to bewilder the senses. The French heroic opera with ballets, the opera seria, and some pantomimic ballets, are represented here. The serious French vocalism can never be agreeable to an ear accustomed to Italian and German music, especially when it is carried to excess, as is often done in this theatre. The rhythmical recitatives and the choruses are more pleasing. On this stage, the operas of Gluck and Sacchini are, as it were, at home; and no where else in Europe have they been represented in such perfection. The dances which accompany the grand operas, and the grand pantomimic ballets which follow the opera, excel every thing of the kind, except the grand Italian opera in London. On no other stage on the continent is the ballet, as a whole, so complete as in the Paris grand opera. The beautiful opera house in the rue Richelieu was closed after the assassination of the duke of Berry (q. v.), in 1820, and finally taken down. The present opera house in the Chaussee d'Antin was opened in 1821; it accommodates 2000 persons. The most celebrated singers and dancers in the rec. ords of this theatre are Mad Guimard, St. Huberty, Arnauld, Armand, Branchu, Madlle. Gardel,andMM.Lais, Lainez,Vestris, Gardel, Milon and Duport. The most eminent recent performers have been MM, Nourrit, Derivis, Dabadie, Bonel, Prevost, and Mad. Grassari, Dabadie, Sainville. The best female dancers were Mad. Bigotini, Hulin, Anatole, Albert, Marinette, Fanny Bias, Elie, Noblet; and the male dancers MM. Paul, Albert, Noblet, Milon, Montjoie, Capelle, Coulon, Gosselin, &c. 2. Theatre Francois (properly called Premier Theatre Frangais), in the rue Richelieu, is connected with the Palais Royal. It was first opened in the Hotel Bourgogne, in the year 1518. In 1650, Moliere became an actor there. In 1689, it was removed to the rue Fosses St. Germain; in 1770, to the Tuileries; in 1782, to the Odeon ; and, in 1799, when this was burnt, to the present edifice, built by Louis. The interior is a sprt of circus. The gallery is supported by twentysix Doric columns, which form a complete semicircle around the pit; and between these columns are the boxes. The theatre was erected in 1787-89, and in 1822 the interior was wholly newmodelled, under the direction of Percier and Fontaine. The repertory of this stage consists solely of acknowledged masterpieces of French classic literature, ancient and modern, both tragedy and genteel comedy. It is very seldom that a young actor ventures to attempt both these branches, and hence the actors are generally attached to one or the other exclusively. The immortal chefd'ceuvres of Corneille, Racine, Voltaire, Crebillon and Moliere are here performed. Genteel comedy seems here to be in its native home. Truth, and nature, and elevated simplicity, conspire to make the performances attractive and interesting. The scenery is truly enchanting. The following performers have rendered their names classic here:Baron, Brizard, Lekain, Clairval, Mole, Larive, Fleury, Aufresne, Dufresne, Grandmenil, Grandval, Monvel, St. Phal, Preville, St. Prix, Vanhove ; and the actresses Lecouvreur, Gaussin, Dumesnil, Clairon, Devienne, Contat, Raucourt. The tragic department is now in the hands of Lafont, and Mad. Duchesnois and Paradol; the comic in those of Damas, Faure, Granville, Michelot, Baptiste, Michot and Armand, in connexion with Mile. Mars (one of the first actresses that ever graced the French stage), Mad. Bourgoing, Leverd, Hervey, Dupuis and Mante. o. The comic opera (called, also, the ComSdie Lyrique and the The'dtre Feydeau) is one of the most fascinating of the French theatres. The principal composers for this opera have been Nicolo,Mehul,Ber*on, Gretry, Dalayrac, Monsigny, Boyeldieu, Blangini, Solie, Dezedes, &c.; the principal writers Etienne and Hoffman, Bouilly, Nanteuil, Sedaine, Duval, Dupa ty, Scribe, &c. Among the best actors are Martin, whose performances, in his own department, are inimitable ; Chenard, Juliet, Ponchard, Huet, Darancourt, Castel; and Mesdames Boulanger, Ponchard, Paul, Pradher, Rigaud, &c. 4. IS Odeon, or Second Theatre Franpais, in the suburb St. Germain, near the Luxembourg, was built in 1791, under the superintendence of Peyre and Wailly. It was then called the The'dtre Frangais, as the first company to which that name had been given performed in it. In 1799, it was burnt, but was rebuilt and occupied by a second company, set up to rival the first French theatre ; it was then called Theatre de V Odeon. In 1818, it was again burnt, but was reopened in 1819. The architecture of the Odeon is rich and beautiful, and its accommodations are excellent. The same pieces are performed as in the Premier Theatre Franpais, and the two stages are engaged in a constant competition. The older repertory of the classic French dramatists is open to both theatres. Of the living poets, each stage has its distinct repertory. Mademoiselle George is th& chief support of the Odeon. In the char acters of Medea, Semiramis, Phsedra, Mer ope, Agrippina, and Salome (in Let Machabees, by Sou met), this actress at tracts the highest applause. In tragedy Joanny, Lafargue and David, and in com edy, Faure and the younger George, are the principal actors. 5. Italian opera This theatre attracts the first society in the fashionable world of Paris. The interioi is convenient and beautiful. The orches tra is considered perfect of the kind. Tht Italian opera is patronised by the gover,n ment, as a school of vocal music, and the managers are careful to maintain a complete and skilful company. The public have here been delighted by the singing and acting of Mad. Fodor, Galli, Pastaano Cinti. The best performers connected with this stage have been Dongelli, Garcia, Graciani, Pellegrini, Levasseur, Bor^ dogui, Zuchelli.Next to these five principal theatres come the three smaller pop* ular theatres, frequented principally by the lower classes. 6. Theatre du Vaudeville, in Chartres street. 7. Gymnase Dramaiique ; and, 8. Thidtre des Varietes, both in the boulevards. These theatres display to perfection the exhaustless gayety of the French people; their wit, and disposition to make themselves merry at the most trifling occurrence, and to make the most of a bon mot or a pun. The small pieces performed in these theatres containno deeplaid plot, and are not accompanied by any magnificent decorations. They are written merely for wit, and seem designed to increase the natural aptness of the nation to laugh at every thing. The lash of satire, indeed, is always heard, but applied for amusement, and not to gratify malice. The songs which animate the performances are of a popular cast, and are heard in every street. Nothing appears in the highest theatres which is not parodied here, and the house is frequently entertained with the tricks of harlequin. The Gymnasc was long the most popular of these three theatres, and its income exceeded that of the first Theatre Frangais. The Vaudeville is at present on the decline. A large number of poets write for these theatres. One of the most popular is Scribe. 9. Theatre de la Porte St. Martin; 10. Theatre de la Gaiete1; 11. Amhigu Comique, in the boulevards, represent chiefly the melodrama, pantomime and ballet. The two latter are designed principally for the lower ranks. 12. In 1.821, the Panorama Dramatique was opened. No pieces are performed here in which there are more than two performers. 13. In 1817, the Cirque Olympique was opened by Franconi, where horses play the chief part. 14. The Soirees de M. Comte, likewise denominated the Theatre de Magie, represents the conjuration of spirits, philosophical experiments, feats of ventriloquism, &c.