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OLYMPIAD ; a period, connected with the celebration of the Olympic games, by which the Greeks computed time. (See Olympic Games.) The Olympiad from which they began to reckon, was, according to Petavius, 777 ; according to Usher, 772; and according to Calvisius, 774 B. C. Gatterer, and most of the moderns, call it 776. The last Olympiad (the 304th) fell on the 440th year of the Christian era. The interval between two Olympiads was about four of our years, or a Greek tetraeIris of 48 moons, and two intercalary months. The Olympiads were first named after the conquerors in the games; but many errors might arise from this method, especially if there was no opportunity of immediately consulting the records at Olympia; therefore, in after, times, they were otherwise distinguished: for instance, in Athens, to the name of the conqueror was added the name of the ruling archon; at Lacedsemon, the name of the ephori; at Argos, the name of the priestess of Juno; at Delphi, the name of the Pythia, &c. The records, thus made and kept under the superintendence of the magistrates, were preserved among the archives of each state, where every one might consult them. In later times, private persons took copies. Unfortunately, none have remained to us.