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NORMANDY ; an ancient province in the north of France, bounded N. by the channel, E. by Picardy and Isle de France, S. by Maine, and W. by Brittany. It was divided into Upper and Lower Normandy; Rouen was the capital of the former, Caen of the latter. It is now divided into five departments (q. v.), containing a population of 2,000,000. It is one of the richest and most fertile parts of France. The Norman is distinguished for intelligence and shrewdness. It derived its name from the Normans, who took possession of it in 912, and became annexed to England, through the accession of William, duke of Normandy, to the English throne. (SeeNormans.) Philip Augustus wrested it from John, and united it to France, in 1203. It was afterwards several times invaded by the English, but filially recovered by the French, in 1450.