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NAMES. These are, 1. given or baptismal names (see Dolz's work upon Baptismal Names, Leipsic, 1814) ; 2. family names, wdnch are added as an hereditary distinction to the proper or baptismal names. The Greeks, with the exception of a few families at Athens and Sparta, had no family names. Among the Romans, each person had commonly three namesa proper name (pr&nomen, the distinction of the individual), the name of the clan (nomen), and the family name (cognomen). Sometimes, also, a surname was added, which was borrowed from some distinguished exploit or remarkable event. The pr&nomcn was placed first, and commonly written with one or two letters; for example, A., Aulus; C, Caius ; L., Lucius ; M., Marcus; P., Publius ; Q., Quintus ; T., Titus ; Ap., Appius ; Cn., Cneius; Sex., Sextus, &c. Then followed the nomen; for example, Cornelius, Fabius, Julius (from the clan {gens), Cornelian, Fabian, Julian). Lastly came the cognomen; for example, Cicero, Csesar, Scipio, and others. In the name M. Tullius Cicero, M. is the pranomen, which distinguishes him from his brother, Quintus; Tullius, the nomen, which distinguishes the clan (gens); and Cicero the cognomen, which shows his family. Instances of surnames (agnomen) are Africanus (see Scipio) and the like. In Germany, and other kindred nations, family names were little used by commoners before the fourteenth century. Every one had a baptismal name only. The most ancient method of distinguishing different individuals of the same name consisted in adding their father's name to their own; hence originated many English, Danish and German names, which end in son, sohn, sen; for example, Johnson, Williamson, Thorwaldson, Wilmsen (that is, Williamsson). To this class belong, without doubt, also, tbose proper names ending in i (the termination of the Latin genitive), which frequently occur as names of a clan, such as Augusti (Angus* ti Jilius), In a similar manner originated the Spanish names ending in ez, such as Fernandez, Rodriguez; that is to say, Ferdinand's, Rodrigo's son. (See the articles Mac, and Fitz.) The Arabians call no one by his own or proper name. Suppose some one wdiose father is named Hali, and whose own name is Zoar; he would be called Ebn IMi (Hali's son), and his son Ebn Zoar. With feudalism, new names were introduced, derived from the districts conferred on the "nobles, or from the feudal relations. The nobility had, every where, family names long before the commoners. Another class of family rumes among commoners was derived from their occupations or the places of their birth; for example, Smith, Miller, FiJier, French, Welsh, Dutch, &c, or from the signs which tradesmen put up before their shops, such as King, Duke. Sometimes striking external peculiarities have given origin to names, which have descended to the posterity of those on whom they were bestowed, such as Brown, Long, Broadhead. In Germany, family names first came into general use among commoners in the seventeenth century. (See Wiarda's Ueber Deutsche Vor und Geschtechtsnamen (Berlin, 1800); Euseb. Salverte's Essai Historique et Philosophique sur les JYoms d'Hommes, de Peuples et de Lieux, consideres principalement dans leurs Rapports avec la Civilisation (Paris, 1824, 2 vols.).