MURRAY

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MURRAY, Alexander, a distinguished commodore in the navy of the U. States, was born in Chestertown, Maryland, in the year 1755. He went early to sea, and, at the age of eighteen, commanded a merchant vessel in the European trade. At twentyone, he was appointed a lieutenant in the navy; but no vessel being in readiness to receive him, he solicited and obtained a correspondent rank in the first Maryland regiment, under the command of colonel Smallwood. His conduct in the battles of Whiteplains, Flatbush and New York was marked by the greatest gallantly. He was promoted to a captaincy, and served unremittingly and bravely to the close of the campaign of 1777. Sickness obliged him to withdraw, for a time, to his father's house. As soon as he recovered, he took command, at different periods, of several wellappointed letters of marque. In these, he fought various desperate battles, that showed him an intrepid and skilful officer. After he had taken an English letter of marque of his own force, and had prisoners on board equal in number to his own crew, he was captured by an English fleet. Before long, he was regularly exchanged. He then volunteered his services as a lieutenant, on board the American frigate Trumbull, which had scarcely cleared the capes of Delaware, when, in the night, and during a terrible storm, she was attacked and taken by two British vessels of war. Lieutenant Murray was severely wounded in this sanguinary engagement. On his recovery and exchange, he was selected as the first lieutenant of the Alliance frigate, commanded by commodore Barry. In this ship he remained until the termination of the revolutionary war. He had shared in thirteen battles in the army and navy. When the new American government organized a navy, captain Murray was one of the first officers recalled into service. The U. States corvette Montezuma was assigned to him for the proection of the American trade in the American seas. On his return from the cruise, public thanks for his conduct were given him by the president of the U. States. He was promoted to the command of the frigate Insurgent, and soon afterwards transferred to that of the frigate Constellation. His next sphere of exertion was in the Mediterranean sea, to which he was despatched with a squadron, to defend the American trade against the Barbaiy powers. Being attacked in nisship when alone, near the bay of Tripoli, by a squadron of Tripoline gunboats,he dashed in among them, and, after a spirited action of more than an hour, drove them into their own harbor. Commodore Murray's last appointment was that of commander of the navyyard in Philadelphia,a post in which he rendered important services, and gave universal satisfaction. He held it during the rest of his life. He died Oct. 6,1821, at his seat, near Philadelphia. He united to the highest firmness and resolution a remarkable mildness and serenity of temper. Few men wrere personally more beloved. His remains were interred with the highest honors. MURRAY, Lindley, author of the most useful and popular grammar of the English language, was born in the year 1745, at Swatara, near Lancaster, in the state of Pennsylvania, of Quaker parents in the middle station of life. He received the rudiments of his education at Philadelphia, in the academy of the society of Friends. In 1753. his father removed, with his family, to New York, where Lindley was placed at a good school. At an early age he entered a countinghouse, being destined for the mercantile profession ; but, having been severely chastised for a breach of domestic discipline, he privately left his father's house, took up his abode in a seminary at Burlington, New Jersey, and there contracted a love of books and study. When brought back, after some time, he prevailed upon his father to procure a classical tutor for him, under whom he applied himself with diligence and success. From the precepts and example of his parents, he imbibed lasting sentiments of morality and religion. He now undertook the study of the law in the office of an eminent counsellor, the celebrated John Jay being his fellowstudent. At the age of 21 or 22, he was called to the bar, and soon obtained practice. Within two years, he married a lady, with whom he lived in the tenderest union for more than half a century. He was very successful and sedulous in his business as a lawyer, until the war broke out between Great Britain and the colonies. About that time, the decline of his health induced him to remove into the country, about 40 miles from New York. In this retreat he passed four years ; and, at the expiration of this time, he was driven back to the city (then in possession of the British) by the necessity of procuring funds for the subsistence of his family. The profession of the law being no longer lucrative, he turned merchant again, and accumulated property enough to enable him to retire from business, about the period of the establishment of American independence. He then purchased a beautiful countryseat, on the banks of the river Bellevue, about three miles from New York; but a severe sickness subjected him to a general debility of the muscles, for the cure of which he was induced to go, with his family, to England. He intended to remain there only two years; but the local attachments which he formed, and his bodily infirmities, detained him for the rest of his life. He bought a very pleasant estate at Holdgate, about a mile from the city of York. Here, rendered sedentary by the weakness of his muscles, he gave himself chiefly to reading and composition. His first book is entitled the Power of Religion on the Mind, &c, and appeared in 1787. It was anonymous, gained much reputation, and has passed through seventeen editions. His Grammar was first issued in 1795. It was greatly enlarged and improved in successive editions, and has not yet been surpassed or superseded. It is still, altogether, the best extant, of the English language. It was succeeded by his English Exercises and Key, intended to correspond with, and illustrate, the Grammar; abridgments of which treatises were published in 1797, and met with an extensive sale, which they still maintain. His next work was a compilation, entitled the English Reader, also extensively used. In 1802, he produced a French compilation of the same kind, entitled Lecteur Franpais, and, subsequently, an Introduction au Lecteur Franpais; and, in 1804, an English Spelling Book. He also published a Selection from Home's Commentary on the Psalms, and the Duty and Benefits of Reading the Scriptures. His publications were lucrative, and acquired public favor, both in Great Britain and the U. States. In 1809, he finished interesting Memoirs of his life, printed since his decease. He lived upwards of 16 years from that period, a martyr to bodily infirmities and diseases, which he bore with the most exemplary fortitude and Christian serenity. He expired Feb. 16,1826, in his 81st year. He had been a highly useful laborer for education, and was a man of a very amiable character.