MUNICH

From Agepedia

Jump to: navigation , search

MUNICH (in German, Miinchen), capital of the kingdom of Bavaria, a royal residence and archiepiscopal see, lies in a plain on the left bank of the Isar (Iser) ; lat. 48° 8' N.; Ion. 11° 35' E. The population, including the suburbs of Au and Haidhausen and the military, is 92,000. It is surrounded with a rampart, but is not a place of great strength; on the outside of the rampart are the suburbs. The streets are generally broad and straight, but not well paved ; the houses high, and of good appearance ; the public edifices numerous; and the city is accounted one of the handsomest in Germany : few of the old towns on the continent make a better appearance. The roj^al palace is a large edifice, plain in its exterior, but in its interior magnificent. The most remarkable apartment is the kaisersaal, or emperor's hall, one of the grandest in Germany. There are several other palaces; twentytwo churches, some of them magnificent; councilhouse, arsenal, barracks, mint, theatres, operas, &c, &c. There are many charitable institutions, which are extensive and well supported. The literary and scientific establishments are numerous, among which are the central library, said to contain 400,000 volumes (20,000 of them incunabula), and 9000 manuscripts; the royal cabinet of medals, containing 10,000 Greek and Roman coins; the museum of antiquities, said to be the most complete in Germany; the academy of sciences, erected in 1759, having an extensive collection of specimens of natural history, models and instruments; the military academy, lyceum, gymnasium ; the veterinary and surgical schools, observatory, cabinet of medals, gallery of pictures, and botanic garden. In 1827, the university of Landshut was transferred to Munich : it has an agricultural chair, a botanical garden, anatomical and chemical institutes, and, in 1829, had 1800 students. The environs of the city are pleasant, being enlivened by gardens and various places of public resort. The Iser is not navigable; and Munich is not distinguished for trade or manufactures. The city has been much embellished and enlarged within the last fifteen years, particularly by the taste of the present king. Among the recent erections are the Odeon (principal hall 130 feet long, 75 broad) ; the New Palace (680 feet long, 150 high), in front of which is a bronze statue of the late king ; the Pinakotheca, or new edifice intended for the reception of the picture gallery, the Boisseree collection, the works of art, which were purchased by the king in Italy, &c, in nine halls and twentythree cabinets ; the Glyptotheca (q. v.) ; All Saints' chapel, painted in fresco, by Hess, &c. Munich was founded in 962, by Henry, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, on an estate belonging to the monks of Scheffelar, whence its name (Miinchen, from the German Monchen, monks). The emperor Louis the Bavarian conferred on the city its privileges in 1315, and in 1392 it became the residence of the younger Bavarian line, which survived the others, and thus rendered Munich the capital of Bavaria. It was captured by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, by the Austrians after the battle of Blenheim (1704), and again in 1741. (See Bavaria.) The French en tered it in 1800.