MONTH

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MONTH ; the 12th part of the year, and so called from the moon, by whose motions it was regulated, being properly the time in which the moon runs through the zodiac. (For the civil division of months, see the articles Calendar, and Epoch.) The lunar month is either illuminative, periodical, or sy nodical. Illuminative month is the interval between the first appearance of one new moon and that of the next following. As the moon appears sometimes sooner after one change than after another, the quantity of the illuminative month is not always the same. The Turks and Arabs reckon by this month. Lunar periodical month is the time in which the moon runs through the zodiac, or returns to the same point again, the quantity of which is 27 days, 7 hours,43 minutes, 8 seconds. Lunar synodicat month, called also a lunation, is the time between two conjunctions of the moon with the sun, or between two new moons, the quantity of which is 29 days, 12 hours,44 minutes, 3 seconds, ll"'. The ancient Romans used lunar months, and made them alternately of 29 and 30 days. They marked the days of each month by three terms, viz., calends, nones, and ides* Solar month is the time in which the sun runs through one entire sign of the ecliptic, the mean quantity of which is 30 days, 10 hours, 29 minutes, 5 seconds, being the 12th part of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, the mean solar year. Astronomical, or natural month, is that measured by some exact interval, corresponding to the motion of the sun or moon; such are the lunar and solar months above mentioned. Civil, or common month, is an interval of a certain number of whole days, approaching nearly to the quantity of some astronomical month. These may be either lunar or solar. The civil lunar month consists alternately of 29 and 30 days. Thus will two civil months be equal to two astronomical ones, abating for the odd minutes; and so the new moon will be kept to the first day of such civil months, for a long time together. This was the month in civil or common use among the Jews, Greeks and Romans, till the time of Julius Csesar. The civil solar month consisted alternately of 30 and 31 days, excepting one month of the 12, which consisted only of 29 days, but every fourth year of 30 days. The form of civil months was introduced by Julius Csesar. Under Augustus, the sixth month (till then, from its place, called Sextilis) received the name Augustus (now August), in honor of that prince ; and, to make the compliment still greater, a day was added to it, which made it consist of 31 days, though, till then, it had only contained 30 days; to compensate for which a day was taken from February, making it consist of 28 days, and 29 every fourth year. Such are the civil or calendar months now used through Europe.Month, in English statutes is a lunar month, of 28 days, unless otherwise expressed.