MODERN

From Agepedia

Jump to: navigation , search

MODERN ; that which; belongs to recent times. The term modern history, is used in different, senses. The ; Germans often date the end of modern history with; the French, revolution, and call the rest, the most recent history. In the history, of art, literature, customs, &c", modern is frequently used in contradistinction to ancient or classical, (q. v.) "Modern ciyilii zation," saySx4.rW. S.chlegel,;'s arose from the blending together, of the elements of Northern origin and: the. fragments of an? tiquity. (See Romantic.) In; science, mod*: em is also used in contradistinctionto,an? cieni,; thus we speak of modern philosophy; MpDiLLioN ; an. ornament resenibling a, bracket^ in the Ionic, Corinthian, and;; Composite cornices. In Grecian arclii? tecture, however, the Ionic; order is withr out; modillions in the cornice,; as;MM also the Roman examples of the saine order, with the exception of the temple^ of Concord, at Rome, which has bothi modillions and dentils,, MpDoN (Mothone) ;a: strong* city; and>; port of the Morea, on the Mediterranean ; fat. 36;?51{ N.; Ion, 21? 4^;&,kds entirely surrounded by. tliesea^ andconnected with .the main land by a. wooden ¦ bridge. T;he port is unsafe, but important on. account; of its road and its proximity to,the, gulf of Corpn. The city; is ;small and; barjly built;; the streets narrow, and dirty. The Greeks became masters., of itin. the war of Grer cian independence, and, in 1825, Miaulis burnt;a Turkish, fleet in the road. Ibrahim Pacha took possession of Modon sppri. after h|s arrival in the Morea, but was corppelledjby the French to evacuate it in 11828, Previously to the war, the inr habitants,amounted to about 7000. (See Morea.) In 1829j they did not exceed 500; MpijULATioN, in music, is, in its most extensive meaning, the, diversified; and proper change of tones in conducting the melody, or the progression of tones in general, and, the; sequences of concords. In jits: .narrower sense, modulation signifies that; succession of tones by w7hich a musical passage proceeds from one key into another. In quite short pieces, also in long compositions, in which the composition remains for some time in the principal tone before it passes to another, good modulation consists, only in continuing for some time melody and harmony in the assumed tone, with proper changes and variety, and at last concluding in that tone. For this it is requisite that, at the very beginning, the concord should become distinctly perceptible by the sound of its essential tones, the octave, fifth and third; andfurtherj that the melody, as well as harmony, should be carried through the tones of the assumed; scale^ and that no tones foreign to it should be heard, either in the melody or in the harmony. A variety of concords, nevertheless, is necessary, that th.e ear may enjoy the necessary variety. The composer ought not, after, the fashion, of some contracted harmonists, to dwell always on two or three concords, or repeat them in transpositions, much less to return and conclude in the principal tone., before the piece or the first strain is finished.; The rule to let only those, tones be heard which belong to the assumed scale is; to be understood thus,that; a tone foreign, to the scale ought to, be used merely in;passings and to be left again immediately; thus, for instance, in the scalevO sharp, one could certainly go through G: sharp into. A flat, and through F sharp to the/dominant, and from this back again,to the principal tone, without violating,, by theses two tones, foreign; to the fundamental tone, C sharp, the effect of this, scale j or destroying it. It is,; only, necessary to avoid; tones totally foreign to the scale of C sharp; as, for instance, C sharp or D sharp* The second kind of modulation, or that which is so called, in a more restricted sense, requires more knowledge of harmony, and is subject to greater difficulty. It consists in the art of giving to longer pieces the necessary variety, by more frequent change of tones, and, requires a knowledge of the relation among the various keys, and of the tones connecting 'them. As it is indispensable, in longer pieces, to carry melody and, harmony through several keys, and to return at last to the fundamental,, it is necessary, in respect to such modulation, duly to consider the character of the composition, and, in general, whether, the modulation has merely in view a pleasing variety, or whether it is intended to serve as the support of a grand and bold expression; Considerations of this kind give to the composer the rules for particular cases, and show where he may depart widely from the principal tone/and where he may remain near it; where he may thus depart suddenly, and perhaps with some harshness, and where his departures ought to be slow arid gradual; because such departures are the most important means of musical expression. In pieces of a mild and quiet character, it is not permitted to modulate so often as in those which have to express violent and great passions. Where every thing relating to expression is considered, modulation also must be so determined by the expression that each single idea in the melody shall appear in the tone which is most proper for it. Tender and plaintive melodies ought only to dwell on the flat tones, while the lighter sharp tones, which must be touched in the modulation, on account of the connexion, ought to be left immediately afterwards. It is one of the most difficult parts of the art to remain steadily without fault in a modulation. It is therefore to be regretted that those who write on the theory of the art, dwell so little on this important subject, and believe themselves to have done enough, if they show how the composer may gracefully leave the principal tone, pass through the circle of all the twentyfour tones, and return at last to the first tone. Ficeini had the best views of modulation. "Modulating," he; says, "is to pursue a certain, path. The ear will follow you ; nay, it wishes to be led by you, yet upon condition that, after you have led it to a certain point, it shall find something to reward it for its journey, and to occupy it for some time. If you do not consider its claims, it suffers you to go on, at last, without regard, and every endeavor to attract it again is but lost labor." To conduct a melody according to a given modulation; never to deviate from it, except for good reason; and in the right time to return to it in the proper way, and without harshness; to make use of changes in the modulation only as means of expression, and, perhaps, for, the necessary variety,such are the real difficulties of the art; while to leave immediately a key which has hardly been perceived, to ramble about without reason or object; to leap about because the composer does not know how to sustain himself; in one word, to modulate in order to modulate, is to miss the true aim of the art, and to affect a richness of invention in order to hide the want of it.