MODEL

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MODEL ; an original of any kind proposed for copy or imitation. It is used, in building, for an artificial pattern formed in stone or wood, or, as is most commonly the case, in plaster, with all due parts and proportions, for the more correct execution of some great work, and to afford an idea of the effect to be produced. Models in imitation of any natural or artificial substance are usually made by means of moulds of plaster of Paris. In painting, this is the nanie given to a man or woman who is procured to exhibit him or herself, in a state of nudity, for the advantage of the students. These models are provided in all academies and schools for painting, and the students who have acquired a tolerable use of the pencil are introduced to this kind of study. By this means, the details and proportions of the human shape, the play of the muscles, the varieties of expression, &c, are displayed and inculcated far better than by any course of lectures or any study of former works. It is desirable that the living models used in an academy, or even in a private painting room, should be changed as frequently as possible, or the student is in danger of;falling into mannerism. Milhn speaks of a model, of the name of Deschamps, who did duty in this way upwards of 40 years in the academy at Paris, and comments on the facility with which this person's form and features might be recognised, in every variety of subject or of expression, in the paintings of the students of that period. In sculpture a model implies a figure made of wax or terra cotta, or any other malleable substance, which the artist moulds to guide him in fashioning his work, as the painter first makes a sketch, or the architect a design. When a model of any existing object is to be taken, the original is first to be greased, in order to prevent the plaster from sticking to it, and then to be placed on a smooth table, previously greased, or covered with a cloth, to guard against the same accident; then surround the original with a frame or ridge of glazier's putty, at such a distance as will admit of the plaster resting upon the table, on every side of the subject, for about an inch, or as much as may be thought sufficient to give the proper degree of strength to the mould. An adequate quantity of plaster is then to be poured as uniformly as possible over the whole substance, until it is every where covered to such a, thickness as to give a proper substance to the mould, which may vary in proportion to the size. The whole must then be allowed to continue in this way till the plaster shall have attained its firmness; when, the frame being removed, the rriouJd may be inverted, and the subject taken from it; and when the plaster is thoroughly dry, it should be well seasoned. MODENA ; a sovereign duchy of Italy, lying in a fruitful plain of Lombardy, watered by the Panaro, and bordering on Tuscany, Lucca, Bologna, Mantua and Parma. By an act of the congress of Vienna, Reggio, Mirandola, Correggio (birthplace of the celebrated painter), Carpoli and Rivoli, together with Massa and Carrara, and the former Imperial Fiefs, are united with the duchy of Modena proper to constitute one government; superficial extent of the whole, 2000 square miles; population,375,000. The territory is fertile and well cultivated, the climate, in general, temperate and healthy, and the principal productions corn, rice, fruits, wine, oil, silk, honey, iron, marble, &c. The income of the state is about 1,500,000 florins; the armed force 2080 men. The ruling house is of the Austrian line of the house of Este (see Este), the government is absolute, and the administration is conducted by one minister and two secreta ries; the Austrian civil code is in force. The present ducal house is descended from Csesar of Este, a cousin (by a morganatic marriage) of the last duke of the former line of Este, which became extinct in 1598. The pope Clement VIII then took possession of Ferrara, which had previously formed a part of the Modenese territories, as a reverted fief of the papal see. In 1653, Correggio was added to the duchy by grant of the emperor of Germany, Mirandola, in 1710, and Novellara, in 1737. Hercules III (died in 1803) married the heiress of the duchy of .MassaCarrara, and left an only daughter, who was married to Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, brother of Leopold II. In 1796, the French took possession of the countiy, and it was included in the Cisalpine republic, and afterwards in the kingdom of Italy. The present duke Francis IV, the son of the archduke Ferdinand, is prince of Hungary and Bohemia, and archduke of Austria. He was born in 1779, and, in 1812, married a daughter of the king of Sardinia. In 1814, he entered into possession of the estates of his grand father, by virtue of a reversionary invest ment conferred on his father by the emperor, and his claims were confirmed by the congress of Vienna. He assumed the name of Este, and thus became the founder of the Austrian line of Este. His mother also entered upon the government of the duchy of MassaCarrara, which she inherited from her mother, and to which the congress annexed the fiefs in the Lunigiana: on her death, in 1829, these passed to her son. The house of ModenaEste also holds the rich jideicommissa (see Fideicommissum) of the house ofObizzi, in Treviso. The present duke has a son, born in 1819, and two brothers. In consequence of the arbitrary character of the duke's government, an insurrection was organized, and the citizens of Modena, Reggio, MassaCarrara and other places took arms, with the purpose of extorting from their rulers a more liberal form of government, in February, 1831. The duke was obliged to flee; but in March the Austrian troops entered Modena, at the request of the duke, and restored the authority of the government.