MISSISSIPPI

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MISSISSIPPI 1817. TENNESSEE. 1796. | KENTUCKY. 1799. | OHIO. 1802. Date of || Constitution. 1 General assembly; senate one third annually, house of representatives annually. General assembly; senate and house of representatives, chosen biennially. General assembly; the house of representatives and one fourth of the senate, chosen annually. General assembly; house of representatives and one half the senate, chosen annually. Name 11 and Term 1 of Office. First Monday in November. Third Monday in September, every second year. First Monday in November. First Monday in December. Time of stated II Meeting, tjj Citizenship; freehold, or an interest in real estate. Senators, age 26,4 years'state, 1 district residence ; representatives, age 22, 2 years' state, 1 district residence. Three years' state, and 1 county residence, and a freehold of 200 acres. Citizenship. Senators, age 35, 6 years' state, 1 district residence; representatives, age 24, 2 years' state, and 1 district residence. Citizenship; payment of taxes. Senators, age 30, 2 years' district residence; representatives, age 25,1 year's county residence. " *< 1> Qualified O [ tions. g j]In proportion to white population.In proportion to the number of taxable inhabitants. In proportion to the number of qualified electors. In proportion to Nvhite male population, above 21 years of age. Jlppor (1 tionment. IIBy the people ; biennially. By the people ; biennially. Eligible 6 out of 8 years. By the people; quadriennially. Eligible 4 out of 11 years. By the people ; biennially. Eligible 6 out of 8 years. Election; 1 Term of \\ Office. 1 Freehold; age 30; 20 years' citizenship; 5 years' residence. Freehold of 500 acres; age 35; 4 years' residence. Age 35; citizenship; 6 years' residence. Age 30; 12 years' citizenship; 4 years' residence. Qualifica 1 tions. II Qualified negative ; the pardoning power, except for treason, for xvhirth consent of sens** necessurj The pardoning power. Qualified negative; official patronage, with consent of senate ; the pardoning power; reprieves only in cases of treason. ' The pardoning power. K ]O 1 Powers. C 1^ 1"! 11 < 1 all Lieutenantgovernor, who is, ex\ officio, president of the senate. Speaker of senate. Lieutenantgovernor, who is, ex officio, speaker of the senate. Speaker of senate. 8ucm"or or. I ') Death, Ab J [1 sence, yc. J 11 None. None. None. None. COUNCIL; 1 Number; 1 Election; I }j Qualifica I II tions; 1 Powers. [1 SBy legislature; good behavior, Ntill 65. Justices of the peace for such term as may be fixed by law. By legislature; good behavior. By governor; good behavior. By legislature for 7 years. Justices of the peace by the people for 3 years. oAppoint 1 1 ment and 1 1 Term of <_ 1 Office. Cf 1 o IIBy impeachment; and by governor, on address of f of leg. The judge must be heard in defence. By impeachment. By impeachment; ami by governor on address of two thirds of legislature. By impeachment. IARY. J1 if] Citizenship; 1 year's state, and 6 months' district residence, payment of taxes, or enrolment in the militia. Blacks excluded. A freehold, or 6 months' county residence. Citizenship; 2 year's state, or 1 district residence. Blacks excluded. One year's residence and being assessed with taxes, or laboring on highway. Blacks excluded. Qualifications of VoU ters. || First Monday in August, and day following. Biennially; on the first Thursday in August, and day following. First Monday in August; may be continued 3 days on request of any one of the candidates. Second Tuesday in October. Day of Oen\\ eral Election.]] The sense of the people may be taken for calling a convention, when two thirds of the legislature deem it necessary. The sense of the people may be taken for calling a convention, when two thirds of the legislature deem it necessaiyr The sense of the people may be taken for calling a convention, when the legislature pass a law for that purpose within the first 20 days of their stated annual session. The sense of the people may be taken for calling a convention, when two thirds of the legislature deem it necessary. Provision for\\ amending Constitutvon.ll ill MISSOURI. 1 1820. ILLINOIS. | 1818. INDIANA. 1 1816. LOUISIANA. | 1812. ALABAMA. , 1819. Date of Constitution. General assembly; the house of representatives and one half of senate, chosen biennially. General assembly; the house of representatives and one half of the senate, chosen biennially. General assembly; house of representatives and one third of senate, chosen annually. General assembly; house of representatives and one half the senate, chosen biennially. General assembly; house of representatives and one third of senate, chosen annually. Name and Term of Office. First Monday in November, every second year. First Monday in December, every second year. First Monday in December. First Monday in January. Fourth Monday in October. Time of 1 stated 1 Meeting f< Citizenship; 1 year's district residence; taxation. Senators, age 30, 4 years' state residence; representatives, age 24, 2 years' state residence. Blacks excluded. Citizenship ; a year's district residence; payment of taxes; senators, 25 years of age. Citizenship; 1 year's district residence; payment of taxes. Senators, age 25, 2 years'state residence. Citizenship; freehold. Senators, age 27, 4 years' state, 1 district residence ; representatives, 2 years' state, 1 city residence. Blacks excluded. Citizenship; 2 years' state and 1 district residence. Senators 27 years of age. Blacks excluded. WIiUl Qualifica > tions. 2In proportion to white male population. In proportion to white population. In proportion to white male inhabitants above 21 years of age. Representatives in proportion to qualified electors; senators by permanent fixed districts. In proportion to white population. Apportionment.By the people; quadriennially. Ineligible every second term. By the people; quadriennially. Ineligible every second term. By the people; triennially. Eligible 6 in any term of 9 years. By the people ; quadriennially. [The legislature select one of the two highest on the poll.] Ineligible every second term. By the people; biennially. Eligible 4 out of 6 years. Election ; Term of Office. Age 35; native born citizen of the U. States, or an inhabitant, of Missouri at the time of cession to the U. S. Age 30; 30 years' citizenship ; 2 years' residence. Age 30; 10 years' citizenship ; 5 years' residence. Freehold of $5000; age 35; citizenship; 6 years' residence. Age 30; a native citizen of the U. States; 4 years' residence. Qualifications. ¦1 3< Qualified negative; official patronage, with consent of senate; pardoning power. Qualified negative (see Council). Official patronage, with consent of senate ; the pardoning power.i Qualified negative; official patronage, with consent of senate; pardoning power. 1 Qualified negative ; official patrdhage, and pardoning power, with consent of senate; reprieves only in [cases of treason. Qualified negative; the pardoning power; in cases of treason, consent of senate necessary. ii Powers, y Lieutenantgovernor, who is, ex officio, president of the senate. Lieutenantgovernor, who! is, ex officio, speaker of the senate. Lieutenantgovernor, who is, ex officio, president of the senate. President of the senate. President of the senate. Successor on II Death, Ab II saice, 4'C. || None. The judges of the supreme court, with the governor, form a council, which possesses a qualified negative on legislative acts. None. None. None. COUNCIL; 11 JVumber; II Election; II Qualifka 1 tions; I II Powers. II"" flBy governor; good behavior until aged 65. By legislature; good behavior. By governor for 7 years. Justices of the peace elected by the people for 5 years. By governor; good behavior. By legislature; good behavior, till 70. Appoint I II ment and | || Term of "_ j| Office. C l|2______c |Ml 3 1 How re ^ || movable. I ||By impeachment; by governor, on address of jf of legislature. The judge must be heard in defence. By impeachment; and by governor, on address of Itwo thirds of legislature. By impeachment. By impeachment; and by governor, on address of three fourths of the legislature. By impeachment; and by governor, on address of § of legislature. The judge must be heard in defence. Citizenship; a year's state and 3 months' district residence. Blacks excluded. Six months' residence. Blacks excluded. Citizenship ; 1 year's residence. Blacks excluded. Citizenship; 1 year's county residence; payment of taxes. Blacks excluded. Citizenship; 1 year's state, and 3 months' district residence. Blacks excluded. Qualijica | tions of Vo1| ters. || Biennially; on the first Monday in August. Biennially; on the first Monday in August. First Monday in August. Biennially; on the first Monday in July. First Monday in August, and day following, until altered by law. Day of Gen\\ eral Election. | Two thirds of the legislature may propose amendments, which may be ratified by two thirds of the next legislature at their first session. The sense of the people may be taken for calling a convention, when two thirds of the legislature deem it necessary. The sense of the people to be taken every twelfth | year, as to calling a convention. A convention to be called, if voted for by the people two successive years; the vote being previously authorised by legislature, within the first 20 days of their annual session. Two thirds of the legislature may propose amendments ; which, if ratified by the people at the next election, and by two thirds of the subsequent legislature, become valid. Provision 1 for amending]] Constitution. | REMARKS.Legislature. The powers of the legislature, being well known, and nearly similar in all the states, are not enumerated in the preceding table. It may be proper to mention here, however, that the senate have no power to originate money bills, excepting in the states of Connecticut, New York, Ohio, North Carolina, Tennessee, Illinois and Missouri; and that, in New Jersey and Maryland, the senate can neither originate nor alter such bills. In Virginia, all laws originate in the house of representatives. The power of impeachment before the senate is vested in the house of representatives by all the state constitutions, except those of Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. Maryland appears to have no court of impeachment, judicial officers being removable by conviction of misbehavior in a court of law. In Virginia, the house of delegates impeach before the court of appeals. In North Carolina, state officers may be impeached before any state court of supreme jurisdiction, either by the general assembly, or by presentment of the grand jury of the court. No pardoning power any where exists in cases of impeachment.In Alabama, a revision and new digest of civil and criminal law is to be made decennially. In Alabama, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, the legislature are restricted in their power of erecting banks. Executive. The duties of the executives, in addition to those enumerated in the table, are, to superintend the execution of the laws, and to act as commandersinchief of the militia. In Louisiana, the governor must visit the different counties at least once in two years, to inform himself of the state of the militia, and the general condition of th; country.Massachusetts is the only state whose constitution gives titles to the officers of government. The governor is entitled his excellency, the lieutenantgovernor his honor. Religion. In the United States, every denomination of religion is equally under the protection of the law. In a few of the states, however, certain modes of belief are required as qualifications for office. In Massachusetts and Maryland, the declanation of a belief in the Christian religion is required to qualify for office. In New Jersey, no Protestant can be denied any civil right on account of his religious principles. In Pennsylvania, MISSISsippi and Tennessee, the belief in a God, and a future state of rewards and punishments, is required as a qualification for office. In N. Carolina, no one denying the truth of the Protestant religion, or the divine authority of the Old or New Testament, or whose religious principles are incompatible with the freedom and safety of the state, can hold a civil office. In the other states, no religious test is required. Persons conscientiously scrupulous of taking an oath, are every where permitted to substitute a solemn affirmation; and this is recognised by all the constitutions, except those of Virginia and North Carolina, and the charter of Rhode Island, a hiatus which is supplied in those states by law.Those who are conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, are every where allowed to pay an equivalent for personal service. In Tennessee, the legislature are enjoined to " pass laws exempting citizens belonging to any sect or denomination of religion, the tenets of which are known to be opposed to the bearing of arms, from attending private and general musters." In Maine, " persons of the denominations of Shakers or Quakers" may be exempted from military duty. Ministers of the gospel are not eligible as legislators in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. In South Carolina, Kentucky and Mississippi, they are eligible neither as governors nor legislators. In Missouri, the only civil office they can hold is that of justice of the peace; while in New York, Delaware and Louisiana, they are not eligible to any office whatever.New Hampshire and Massachusetts are the only states whose constitutions make provision for religious establishments. In New Hampshire, the legislature is empowered to authorize, and in Massachusetts the legislature is enjoined to require, the several towns, parishes, &c, in the state, to make adequate provision, at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of Protestant ministers of the gospel.In Central and South America, a number of constitutions have been established within this century. All, with the exception of the monarchical constitution of the Brazils, and the transient imperial system of the Mexican empire under Iturbide, who was elected emperor May 18, 1822, are republican, modelled, in most respects, after the constitution of the U. States, in regard to the division of powers among the legislative, judiciary and executive bodies, &c. In Mexico, Central America, and the United Provinces of La Plata, there exist federal governments, i. e. unions of different states, like that of the U. States: the other republics have central governments. The government of Spain, in her South American colonies, was so defective, the territory of these so immense, and the population so scattered, that, when the Spanish yoke was thrown off, the elements of an independent and free government, in the new states, were necessarily so few, that, ever since their respective declarations of independence, they have been in a state of agitation; and many of them are likely to remain so for a long time to come, because the people are womlly deficient in education and industrytwo of the main grounds of real liberty and of a settled order of things; and it is one of the most difficult tasks for a nation, from which tyranny has withheld the means of education, to acquire the habits which fit men for independence, after shaking off the yoke of their oppressors, which is generally the easiest part of a revolution. History shows that far more internal convulsions are caused by ignorance, and the violence which springs from it, than by the ambition of aspiring individuals. Since the condition of South America is, at present, so unsettled, it would be of little use to enumerate the different constitutions existing there, which will probably undergo many changes; and we must refer the reader to the articles on the respective countries, in which he will find their history brought down to the time of the preparation of the articles. Brazil received its present constitution in 1824. It was sworn to by the emperor March 25 of that year. It has several new features. The four branches of civil authoritythe legislative, the mediative, the executive and the judicial originate from the transfer of power by the people. The government is monarchical, hereditary and representative. The representation of the Brazilian nation consists of the emperor and the general assemblya body composed of two chambers, that of the deputies, chosen for four years, and that of the senators, chosen by the emperor from the electionlists. With the former rests the power of originating bills for the imposition of taxes and the levying of soldiers, as well as of proposing a change of dynasty. The latter retain their dignity for life. The emperor has the executive and mediatorial authority, but his veto is not absolute. He cannot refuse his sanction to a bill equally approved by two legislative assemblies. The press is free. The treaty with Portugal, Nov. 15,1825, has somewhat of the char? acter of a fundamental law. Paraguay is governed by doctor Francia, without a con stitution, and the former kingdom of Hayti received a constitution in 1811. The democratic constitution of the republic of Hayti, dated Jan. 27, 1807, was renewed in 1816; and when the kingdom was abolished in 1820, and the Spanish part of the island was united with the republic, in 182£, the constitution of 1816 was established for the whole island. It is fashioned after the constitution of the U. States; has a house of representatives, a senate and president. Indians, Negroes, Mulattoes and Mestizoes only are allowed to become citizens.* (See the articles Corporation and Estates.)