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LONDON, the metropolis of the British empire, stands in lat. 51° 31' N., and lon.5/ 37V "w# from the observatory at Greenwich. It is situated about 60 miles west from the sea, on the banks of the Thames, the mean width of which, at LONDON, is about a quarter of a mile, and its average depth about 12 feet. The northern bank slopes gently upward, and its soil is chiefly gravel and clay, with a mixture of loam and sand. On the southern side, the surface is almost uniformly flat. The buildings on the northern, or Middlesex shore, follow the natural bend of the river, and rise somewhat amphitheatrically, from east to west, stretching northward, on an average length, to three miles from the river; and those on the southern or Surrey side, forming the chord of the semicircle, penetrate southward to an extent varying from one to three miles. The length of this vast aggregate, from east to west, i. e. from Hyde Park Corner to Mile End or Poplar, may be taken at seven miles and a half. Its circumference may be estimated at 30 miles; and its area, extending over 11,520 square acres, of which the river occupies 1120, is about 20 miles. Fashion and convenience have united to furnish various modes of designating the several parts of this colossal mass. Thus the ideal line, which is progressively moving more and more westerly, separates the world of fashion, or the West End, from the world of business. The city, so called, includes the most ancient and central division of the metropolis. It is rapidly being depopulated; as the chief traders and merchants occupy merely countinghouses and warehouses in the city, and, in proportion as wealth accumulates,1 flow towards the western regions of. fashion. In the East End are found the docks and warehouses connected with shipbuilding and commerce, and every collateral branch of naval traffic. Southwark, or the Borough, on the southern bank of the Thames, the trans Tiberim of LONDON, abounds with huge manufactories, breweries, ironfounderies, glasshouses, &c. It is the abode chiefly of workmen, laborers, and the lower classes of society, but interspersed with some considerable buildings, hospitals, prisons, and charitable foundations. The city of Westminster, including the houses of lords and commons, the law courts, royal palaces, and many government offices, may be designated as the Court End of London. The remaining portion can hardly be classified, or specifically denominated. It is a nondescript accumulation of streets, crescents, polygons, terraces and squares, occupying the northern portions&t the present day (1830), London contains 80 squares and about 9000 streets, lanes, rows, alleys, courts* &c.; the houses in which are said to amount to 170,000. The parliamentary census of 1821, the latest authentic document to which we can refer, furnishes the following particulars of its population: London within the walls,. .... 56,174 London without the walls, . . .69,260 Westminster and its liberties, . 182,085 Southwark,............ 85,905 Finsbury Division, exclusive of Friarn, Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey and StokeNew ington,............110,127 Holboni Division, .......276,630 Parish of Bermondsey,.....25,235 Parish of Lambeth, ....... 57,638 Parish of Newington Butts, . . 33,047 Parish of Rotherhithe, ..... 12,523 Tower Division,........291,650 Total, 1,200,274 All the streets of London are paved with great regularity. The carriageroad is either laid with cubes of granite, accurately jointed and embedded in clay, or else Macadamized. Macadamizing is greatly in vogue in the squares and wider outlets of the West End, but it seems to have failed in the narrower and more carttrodden streets of the city. The number, variety and magnificence of the squares in London deserve a cursoiy notice. The largest square in London is Lincoln's Inn Fields, its area being computed equal to 770 feet square; but, the tide of fashion having long set westward, this square is chiefly occupied by members of the legal profession. The college of surgeons forms a prominent object on the southern side, and the eastern is adorned (with the intervention .of a garden) by the range called stone buildings, part of Lincoln's Inn. Russell square is nearly equilateral, each side being about 670 feet long. The houses are spacious. It communicates with Bloornsbury square by a street, at the northern extremity of which is a colossal bronze statue of the late duke of Bedford, by Westmacott, opposite to which, at the southern end, is a similar statue of Charles James Fox, by the same artist. Belgrave square, begun on the estate of earl Grosvenor, at Pimlico, in 1825, is one of the most spleiidid in architectural decoration. The squares chiefly distinguished by residences of the nobility are Berkley, Cavenin the last seven years, the use of coal gas, instead of oil, in lighting the streets and public edifices of LONDON, has become almost universal. The consumption of coals, by three of the gas companies, amounts to 32,700 chaldrons per annum, and their length of main pipe extends nearly 200 miles, communicating with more than 40,000 lamps. There is not a street, lane or alley, in this vast metropolis, which is not perforated, so to speak, with arched excavations. Every house communicates, by one or more drains, with the main sewers, which again empty themselves into larger tunnels, and ultimately into the Thames. London is plentifully, though not very purely, supplied with water. The New River company was incorporated under James I, in 1619. Mr. Hugh Middleton, a goldsmith and citizen of London, after many obstructions, succeeded in conveying a stream from a spring at Chadwell, near Ware, 20 miles from London, by a devious course of 40 miles in length, terminating in two capacious basins, which cover five acres, arid average 10 feet in depth. These reservoirs are 85 feet above lowwater mark; but, by means of siphons and steamengines, water can be raised 60 feet above that level. It is chiefly conveyed by main and branch pipes of cast metal, which communicate with the houses by leaden pipes of an inch diameter. The total supply to 177,100 houses, is 28,774,000 gallons per day. M. Dupin observes, that the water distributed by one of these companies (the New River company) costs the consumer about 2c?. for every 6300 pints; and that the system of pipes, for water and gas lighting jointly, stretches out in a line exceeding 400 leagues in extent, beneath the pavement of London. Fuel is sufficiently abundant, but extravagantly dear, in London. Goals can be brought to the mouth of the river Thames for comparatively moderate cost. But by certain local regulations, there are enormous duties levied on all coals coming to the port of London; and duties, amounting almost to contraband, on coals con veyed by inland navigation or otherwise The average price of coals in London, winter and summer, is, to the consumer about 405. per chaldron of 28£ cwt About 2,000,000 chaldrons per annum are consumed in Middlesex and Surrey, and, considering the vast supplies required for the steamengines and manufactures of London, perhaps nearly two thirds of that quantity are devoted to the metropolis alone. The coals brought to the London market are chiefly from Newcastle, in Northumberland, in coasting vessels, to the number of 4500. The average consumption of the principal articles of food, in London, has been calculated as below: Oxen, . . . 160,000 ~\ . ' ,, Sheep, ..1,500 000 TA™^ ,Tfn Calves,. ..21 000 > atSmithfield Hogs, ... 20,000) market only. Milk, . . 8,000,000 gallons. Butter, .... 11,000 tons. Cheese, . . . 13,000 " Wheat, . 1,000,000 quarters, of which four fifths, made into bread, form . 15,000,000 quartern loaves.By a return from the corn exchange, it appears that the quantity of British and foreign corn and flour in bond, on the 1st June, 1830, was as follows : Wheat,......295,107 quarters. Oats,........430,332 " Flour,.......173,059 cwts. Foreign ditto: Wheat,...... . 21,129 quarters. Oats,.........13,343 " The value of poultry, annually consumed, amounts to nearly £80,000, exclusive of game, the supply of which is variable. The principal market for live cattle is at Smithfield, held every Monday and Thursday. The markets for countrykilled cattle, pigs and poultry, are Leadenhall (where skins and leather, also, are exclusively sold); Newgate, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; and Fleet (now Farringdon) market, rebuilt on a large scale, and opened in 1829. The supply of fruit and vegetables is equally abundant. The chief mart is Covent garden, where ranges of handsome shops have lately been erected on the estate of the duke of Bedford. There are at least 2000 acres, in the immediate vicinity of London, continually under spadecultivation as kitchengardens; which, by judicious management, yield an interminable succession of valuable esculents. It has been calculated, that the cost of fruit and vegetables consumed annually in London, exceeds £1,000,000 sterling. The fruitgardens, exclusive of those belonging to private residences, are computed to occupy about 3000 acres, chiefly on the banks of the Thames in Surrey and Middlesex. Few cities are more abundantly supplied with fish of every description and quality. Turbot and brill of the finest quality are procured from the coast of Holland; sal mon in profusion from the great rivers a! Scotland and Ireland, and, occasionally from the Thames; mackerel, codfish, lobsters and oysters, from the river mouth. A calculation makes the supply of fish at Billingsgate, in the year 1828, as follows: Fresh salmon,.... 45,446 Plaice, skate, &c, . 50,754 bushels. Turbot,.......87,958 Cod (fresh), .... 447,130 Herrings, .... 3,336,407 Haddocks,.....482,493 Mackerel, .... 3,076,700 Lobsters,.....1,954,600 And the number of fishingvessels engaged in furnishing this supply, was registered, in the same year, at 3827. The consumption of ale and porter may be estimated from the following facts: It appears by the annual statement of the London brewers, for the year ending July 5, 1830, that the quantity of porter brewed by the ten principal houses, amounted to 1,077,285 barrels. The ale annually brewed, by the six principal alebrewers, amounts to about 80,000 barrels. Still the consumption of malt liquor has decreased within the last three years; for, in 1827, the quantity returned, by the ten principal brewers, was 1,129,772 barrels. The decrease is owing, perhaps, partly to the deteriorated quality; for it appears, that, while the quantity actually brewed throughout England amounted, during the last ten years, to 6,170,000 barrels, the actual quantity of malt used decreased annually in a remarkable degree. But, besides this, the comparative cheapness, and more rapid excitation produced by ardent spirits, especially that deleterious compound called English gin, have induced the most destructive habits of intemperance among the lower classes" It is stated that there are about 11,000 public houses, i. e. houses for the sale of beer and spirituous liquors, in London alone, averaging a profit of 20 to 30 per cent, upon the property vested in them. The total consumption of gin, in London, has risen, during the last two years, from 12,000,000 to 24,000,000 gallons! The temperature of the atmosphere in London is considerably above that of the mean temperature of Middlesex, or the adjoining counties. It is generally humid, liable to sudden variations, and, occasionally, to fogs of extraordinary density during the winter months. The mean temperature is 51° 9; Fahrenheit. The extreme range of the thermometer may be taken in January, 1795, when it sank to 38° below ages 4\)§ inches. A considerable part of the metropolis, viz. the city of Westminster and the borough of Southwark, is below the level of the highest watermark. The soil, in general sound and dry, the sewers and drains, which convey away all impurities, the broad tidecurrent of the Thames, the wholesome and abundant supply of provisions, and the precautions for cleanliness, combine to render London, perhaps, the healthiest metropolis in the world. The average duration of human life has increased with the improvements in domestic economy, insomuch that the rates of premiums on lifeinsurances have universally been lowered. The diseases of London are in nowise peculiar to it as a city. Those of a cutaneous nature are comparatively rare. Many result from the nature of the employment, in manufactures of various kinds; others are the offspring of intemperance. The annual mortality in London, which, in the year 1700, was as 1 in 25, may now be taken at 1 in 40 persons. The number of registered births amounted, in the year ending Dec. 15, 1829, to, males 13,764 ; females, 33,354 ; total, 27,118. The number of registered burials, in the same year, was, males, 12,015; females, 11,509; total, 23,524. The table of baptisms does not include the children of Dissenteis from the establishment. It was stated, in a meeting lately held for the purpose of forming a grand national cemetry, in London, that the annual interments amounted to about 40,000.Civil government The chief civic officer of London is the lord mayor, annually elected from among the aldermen on the 29th September. The powers and privileges of this officer are very extensive. The court of aldermen consists of 26 members. They are chosen for life by the householders of the 26 wards into which the city is divided, each being the representative of a several ward. They are properly the subordinate governors oY their respective wards, under the' jurisdiction of the lord mayor, and preside in the courts of Wardmote for the redress of minor grievances, removing nuisances, &c, assisted by one or more deputies, nominated by them from the common council of the respective wards. Such as have filled the office of lord mayor, become justices of the quorum, and all others are justices of the peace within the city. The sheriffs, two in number, are annually chosen by the livery, or general assembly of the freemen of London. common council is a court consisting of 240 representatives, returned by 25 of the wards, in proportion to their relative extent ; the 26th, or Bridge Ward Without, being represented by an alderman. The general business of this court is to legislate for the internal government of the city, its police, revenues, &c. It is convened only on summons from the lord mayor, who is an integral member of the court, as are the aldermen also. The , decisions are, as in other assemblies, dependent on a majority of voices. The recorder is generally a barrister of eminence, appointed, for life, by the lord mayor and aldermen, as principal assistant and adviser to the civic magistracy, and one of the justices of Oyer and Terminer, for which services he is remunerated with a salary of £2000 per annum from the city revenues. The subordinate officers are the chamberlain, town clerk, common sergeant, city remembrancer, sword bearer, &c. The livery of London is the aggregate of the members of the several city companies, of which there are 91, embracing the various trades of the metropolis. They constitute the elective body, in whom resides the election, not only of all the civil officers, but also of the four members who represent the city in parliament. The local jurisdiction of Westminster is partly vested in civil, partly in ecclesiastical officers. The high steward has an understeward, who officiates for him. Next in dignity and office are the high bailiff and the deputy bailiff, whose authority resembles that of a sheriff in summoning juries and acting as returning officers at the election of members of parliament, of whom the city of Westminster returns two. These officers are chosen by the dean and chapter of Westminster, and appointed for life. The borough of Southwark is one of the city wards, and denominated Bridge Ward Without. It is subject to the jurisdiction of the lord mayor. It returns two members to parliament. The military force supplied by London comprises two regiments of militia, amounting to 2200 men, whom the city is authorized to raise by ballot; the officers being appointed by the commissioners of the king's lieutenancy for the city of London, according to a, parliamentary act in 1794. The year 1829 witnessed the almost entire remodeling of the ancient system of police and nightly watch. These latter guardians of the public were heretofore appointedby the several wards in the city district, and by the parochial authorities in other parts.of the metropolis. But a recent act of parliament established a body of metropolitan police, divisioned and disciplined somewhat like the gens d'armerie of France, and subjected to the control of a board, consisting of three commissioners, who superintend and are responsible for all acts of their inferiors. The metropolis being subdivided into sections, each has a station or watchhouse, and a company of police, consisting of 1 superintendent, 4 inspectors, 16 sergeants, and 144 police constables. They are dressed in a blue semimilitary uniform, and are on duty at all hours, night and day. This new police commenced its duties, in several of the parishes of Westminster, on Sept. 29,1829, and is becoming gradually extended to the other districts. The present number employed is estimated at 5000 men. But the city retains its special establishments, under the control of its own magistracy. It comprises marshalmen, day and night patrols, constables, watchmen and streetkeepers, altogether amounting to 800 or 900 men, appointed by the several wards. The principal city police offices are at the Mansion house and Guildhall, where aldermen preside in rotation. In the districts not within the city jurisdiction, there are eight different offices, presided over by 27 magistrates, usually selected from among the barristers. There are also 100 footpatrols, < and, in winter, 54 horsepatrols, the former continually, the latter only by night, protecting the streets and environs of the metropolis. Independent of these is the Thames police, established in 1798, for the protection of persons and property connected with the shipping, from Vauxhall bridge to Woolwich. The chief office is at Wapping, and the importance of such an establishment may be estimated, by considering that there are upwards of 13,000 vessels of various sizes engaged on this river, annually discharging and receiving more than 3,000,000 packages of goods of every description. The chief prison for criminals is Newgate in the Old Bailey. It is the common gaol for London and Middlesex. The number of its inmates varies from 900 to 350. The Compter is situated in Giltspur street, close to Newgate, and destined for the. reception of vagrants and persons committed previous to examination, or as a house of correction for the confinement of persons sentenced to hard labor or imprisonment. Clerkenwell prison, in Spafields, receives prisoners of every description, for the county of Middlesex. Its average num ber of inmates is about 200. The Fleet prison, in what was lately Fleet market, is a receptacle for debtors and persons guilty of what is technically called contempt of the court of chancery. It is intended to remove this nuisance, and to build a substitute in St. George's fields, in the borough. The prison usually contains 250 indwellers, and keeps ward of about 60 outpatients, i. e. prisoners privileged to live within the rides. The King's Bench prison is a spacious gaol for debtors and minor criminals. It has about 200 separate apartments. The other prisons of note are in Southwark, viz. Horsemonger lane or the Surrey county gaol, appropriated to felons and debtors; the Borough Compter, for various classes of offenders; the New Bridewell, erected in 1829, near Bethlehem hospital, as a house of correction, in which the prisoners are chiefly employed at the treadmill; and the Marshalsea prison, in Blackmail street, for persons committed by the Marshalsea court. The principal houses of correction are the Bridewell hospital, Cold Bath fields, and the penitentiary at Milbank. The ecclesiastical division of London comprises 97 parishes within the walls, 17 without, 10 in Westminster, besides 29 outparishes in Middlesex and Surrey. It contains one cathedral (St. Paul's), one collegiate church (Westminster abbey), 130 parish churches, and 70 Episcopal chapels; nearly 200 places of worship belonging to Protestant Dissenters ; 18 churches or chapels of foreign Protestants, viz. 1 Armenian, 1 Danish, 2 Dutch, 5 French, 7 German, 1 Swiss, and 1 Swedish ; 6 meetinghouses of the Friends (or Quakers) ; 10 British Roman Catholic chapels ; 5 ditto for foreigners of that persuasion, viz. 1 Bavarian, 1 French, 1 German, 1 Sardinian, 1 Spanish ; and 6 Jewish synagogues, one of which is for Portuguese, and another for German Jews. (Westminster abbey and St. Paul's cathedral are described in separate articles.) " London owes not merely its magnificent cathedral, but 53 other churches, to sir Christopher Wren. The multiplication of churches has nearly kept pace with the rapid extension of the metropolis. The commissioners, appointed for the purpose, are gradually removing the stigma "#fpon an opulent church establishment, that religious accommodation was unprovided for the poor. Many of the churches possess much architectural beauty. There are, in London, 45 free schools, endowed in perpetuity, for educating and maintain schools, in which clothing and education are supplied to about 12,000 children. The chief public endowments, of the first description, are, St. Paul's school, Christ's hospital, Westminster school, Merchant Tailors' school, and the Charter house. St. Paul's school, founded in 1509, bestows a classical education upon 153 pupils. Christ's hospital, founded by Edward VI, in 1547, can accommodate about 1100 children, of both sexes, who are clothed, boarded and educated for seven years. Some of the boys are prepared for the university, most of them for commerce. Westminster school, founded in 1560 by queen Elizabeth, receives a large number of pupils of high rank and respectability. Merchant Tailors' school, founded by the company of merchant tailors in 1561, educates about 300 pupils at a very low rate of payment. The company nominate to 46 fellowships in St. John's college, Oxford. The Charter house, endowed in 1611, supports and educates scholars for the university (where they receive a liberal annuity), or for commerce, besides instructing about 150 other pupils. Many other charitable institutions for education are supported by voluntary contribution, as are, also, the parochial schools, which usually provide clothing and elementary instruction for the poor children of the respective parishes. The children of these schools are annually assembled in the vast area of St. Paul's, on the first Thursday in June. The central national school, with its 40 subsidiary schools in London, educates there about 20,000 children. The British and foreign school society, at its central and subsidiary schools, of which there are, in London, 43, educates about 12,000 children. The Sunday schools, taught by about 5000 gratuitous teachers, instruct between 60,000 and 70,000 children. The foundling hospital is capable of receiving about 200 children. There are also orphan asylums, an asylum for the deaf and dumb, one for the indigent blind, and many others. Almshouses are numerous. There is a small debt relief society, a mendicity society, a philanthropic society for giving employment to the industrious poor, a prison discipline society, &c. There are also various hospitals; St. Thomas's, with 490 beds; St. Bartholomew's, capable of accommodating between 400 and 500 patients; Guy's hospital, with 400 beds; St. George's, with 350; Middlesex hospital, able to contain 300 pa Bethlehem hospital and St. Luke's hospital receive insane patients. The humane society has 18 receivinghouses in different parts of London, with apparatus for restoring suspended animation. Dispensaries relieve more than 50,000 patients annually. There are at least 30 of them, besides 12 for the sole purpose of vaccination. The college of physicians and the college of sufgeons examine candidates for the professions of physic and surgery, in the metropolis and the suburbs. The museum of the latter body contains the collections of the celebrated John Hunter, amounting to 20,000 specimens and anatomical preparations. The apothecaries' company grant certificates, without which no one can practise as an apothecary in England or Wales. The number of booksellers and publishers is more than 300. The number of newspapers is 55. (See Newspapers.) The British museum (q. v.) is a spacious brick structure, in the French style of architecture. It was, originally, the palace of the first duke of Montague, built in 1677; its dimensions, 216ft. length by 70 ft. depth,and 57 ft. height. The ground floor is appropriated solely to the reception of the library of printed books. The principal or upper floor contains the miscellaneous articles of curiosity for public inspection ; such as collections of minerals, lavas, volcanic productions, shells, fossils and zoological specimens, British and foreign, and also various articles from the South sea Islands, and North and Western America, &c. The ground floor is connected with, a more modern building, called the gallery of antiquities, divided into 15 apartments, in which are distributed nearly 1000 pieces of sculpture, Greek and Roman, a fine collection of terra coitas, Roman sepulchral urns, cippi, sarcophagi, &c. In a temporary room are deposited the Elgin marbles, purchased by government for £35,000. The upper floor of this gallery contains the collections of Herculanean and Pompeian antiquities made by sir William Hamilton, cabinets of coins and medals, and also a rare collection of prints and engravings by the most eminent artists. The present building is destined to be razed to the ground as soon as a splendid edifice, now constructing, is completed. There are various other public libraries. King's college (q. v.) was founded in 1828. The London university founded in 1825, is not a chartered institution. Its course of instruction compre hends languages, mathematics, physics, ethics, law, history, political economy and medical science, communicated in public lectures, examinations by the professors, &c. The building is yet incomplete, the central part alone being finished, which extends 400 feet in length, and 200 in depth. The front, to Gower street, is a handsome faQade, adorned with the noblest portico in London, of 12 Corinthian columns, ascended by a flight of steps, surmounted by a dome and lantern. On the principal floor is a spacious examination hall, a museum of natural history, a museum of anatomy, professors' apartments, a grand library, 120 feet by 50, and a smaller library, 41 feet by 22; and at each end is a semicircular theatre for lectures, 65 feet by 50. The ground floor is portioned into lecturerooms, cloisters, two theatres, chemical laboratory, museum, offices and councilroom. The number of students, in this university, in the year 1829, was 680. The royal society of literature was instituted in 1823 ; the royal society for improving natural knowledge, in 1663; the society of antiquaries, in 1572; the royal institution, in 1800, for diffusing mechanical knowledge, and the application of science to the various purposes of life; the society of arts, in 1574, to award premiums and bounties to useful inventions and discoveries; the royal academy, in 1768, for the promotion of the fine arts. It provides students with busts, statues, pictures and living models, and has professors of painting, architecture, anatomy, perspective and sculpture. Their annual exhibition of new paintings, drawings, sketches, sculptures, &c, the admission to which is one shilling per head, averages £6000 per annum, and supports all the expenses of the establishment. There are several other societies for the promotion of the fine arts, and the private collections of works of art are numerous and splendid. The number of theatres and amphitheatres is 12, of which the principal are, the King's theatre or Italian operahouse, Drury.lane and Coveut garden theatres. Vauxhall gardens are a favorite place of summer resort for the lovers of music, singing and fireworks. The principal promenades are St. James's park, Green park, Hyde park (q. v.), (which comprises nearly 400 acres) Kensington gardens, and the Regent's park, which is laid out in shrubberies and rich plantations, adorned by a fine piece of water, studded with villas and intersected by rides and promenades. The Zoological gardens, in this park, contain many different sorts of animals, in paddocks, dens or aviaries. The commerce of London was so extended, even in the fourth century, that 800 vessels were employed in its port, for the exportation of corn only. In the seventh century, it is characterized by Bede as the emporium of traffic to many nations; and, in the twelfth century, it appears that the products of Arabia and the East were largely imported. In the thirteenth century, the company of merchant adventurers was incorporated by Edward I; in the sixteenth, the Russia company received its charter from Mary, which was confirmed by her successor, Elizabeth; and the Levant or Turkey company was established. The increase of commerce in this century led, also, to the erection of the royal exchange, by sir Thomas Gresham. The beginning of the seventeenth century witnessed the first patent granted to the East India company, the incorporation of the company of Spanish merchants, and the establishment of assurance and insurance companies. (See Companies, and Commerce of the World.) The number of vessels belonging to the port of London, in 1701, was 560 ships, containing 84,882 tons; in 1829, 2663 ships, containing 572,835 tons. The value of the imports and exports of London, in 1806, was £36,5P7,000; in 1829, £107,772,805. The customs of London amounted, in 1710, to £1,268,095 ; in the year ending July 5, 1829, to £15,597,482; ditto, 1830, to £16,385,049. The number of vessels employed in the coasting trade, was, in 1796, 11,176; in 1827, 17,677. The number of vessels employed in the foreign trade, in 1827 was, British, 4012; foreign, 1534; total, 5546; in which it is calculated, that one sixth of the tonnage and one fourth of the men were employed in the East India trade, and one sixth of the tonnage and one third of the men in the West India trade. The vessels employed in the river navigation, in 1827, were 3000 barges, 350 punts, and 3000 wherries, the total tonnage of which was 110,000 tons, employing 8000 men. There are 50 steamvessels, of different descriptions, belonging to the port of London, and the year 1830 is remarkable for the successful voyage of the first steampacket from India. The customhouse, in Lower Thames street, is a spacious building. The principal front to the river presents a facade of 480 feet in length ; the depth is 100 feet; and the principal or Long room is 180 feet by 60. The building affords accommodation to 650 clerks and officers, besides 1000 land mensurate with the extent of its commerce. (See Docks.) St. Catharine's clocks were commenced in 1827, with a capital, of which £1,000,000 sterling was subscribed by 19 persons only. They communicate with the river by a canal 190 feet long and 45 broad, and cover a surface of 24 acres, originally occupied by 1250 houses, situate between London docks and Tower hill, including St. Catharine's church and hospital. They are calculated to accommodate 1400 merchant vessels, annually, in the w^et docks and basin, the former covering 11 acres. The cost of completing these great works was £2,000,000 sterling. In noticing the manufactures and trade of London, we shall merely observe, that as early as the fourteenth century, it was celebrated for its excellent cloths and furs, the skinners and clothworkers forming a numerous and wealthy class of citizens. In the sixteenth century, the manufacture of fine glass, silk stockings, knives, pins, needles, pocketwatches and coaches, was extensively established. In the seventeenth, it was noted for the manufacture of saltpetre ; and the silk manufactures, on an extensive scale, commenced under the industrious French refugees, great numbers of whom settled in Spitalfields, after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. The printing of calicoes was also commenced, and weavinglooms were introduced from Holland. From that time to the present, the productions of London have increased with extraordinary rapidity, and include every article of elegance and utility. No city can boast more splendid shops, or in greater number, than London ; these, with the vast warehouses in the city, where the wholes sale trade is chiefly carried on, excite the astonishment of foreigners. Previously to the year 1694, the pecuniary transactions of London were chiefly carried on by the aid of the wealthy goldsmiths, who were the principal bankers during the disturbances of the civil wars. In 1694, the bank of England was incorporated, under the title of the governor and company of the bank of England, in consideration of a loan of £1,200,000 advanced to government, at the rate of £8 per cent. The amount of bankstock capital, in the year 1750, was £10,780,000; it is now £14,553,000. The average price, during the year 1829, was £213. (See Bank.) In no part of the world is the postoffice system conducted on a scale of such magnitude, excellence, security, and speed of commu6* building. The increase of revenue, from this department, will be apparent from the following comparative statement:In 1651, it amounted to £10,000 per arm. 1690, .......... 83,319 " 1783,.........146,000 . " 1829,........1,337,000 "It is stated, that the average number of letters which pass through the postoffice exceeds half a million weekly : 30,000 letters were put into the postoffice on the 26th of June, 1830, the day of king George IV's death. The chief offices of the East India company are comprised within the precincts of the East India house, in Leadenhall streeta spacious edifice, ornamented by an Ionic portico of six columns, and presenting a stately front of 200 feet length. Insurances on ships are chiefly effected by underwriters, whose principal place of resort is Lloyd's coffeehouse, on the north side of the royal exchange. Insurances on lives, and against loss of property by*fire, are effected by 37 insurance companies. (For the bridges, see Bridge). The Thames tunnel was commenced in 1825, and was intended to form a communication, under the bed of the river, between Rotherhithe and Wapping. It was to consist of two parallel archways, each 1300 feet long and 14 feet wide, having the partition wall pierced by a series of arched passages, to allow ac cess from one road to the other. The crown of the tunnel is 15 feet below the bed of the river, and the approaches are formed by spiral descents of easy declivity. The progress of the work is suspended at present; but the portion of it complete extends above 600 feet in length, and is accessible to visitors. If ever it be finished, it will form one of the most extraordinary substructions of ancient or modern times. The projector was Mr. Brunei, a skilful and enterprising engineer. The Monument, on Fish street hill, is a lofty column of the Doric order, erected to commemorate the dreadful fire of London, in 1666. Sir Christopher Wren furnished the design. The altitude is 202 feet from the pavement, the diameter of the shaft 15 feet, the pedestal 40 feet high, and its plinth 28 feet square. The inscription, ascribing the fire to the Catholics, has been lately effaced. Besides the public edifices already noticed, are the new palace of Buckingham house, Y7estminster hall, the council office, the banqueting house at Whitehall, and private residences, Melborne house (Whitehall), and Burlington house (Piccadilly). St. James's palace, Pall mall, is an irregular brick building, originally built as an hospital for lepers. Though totally destitute of external beauty, its internal arrangements are well calculated for state purposes, and it contains many spacious and superb apartments, where the royal court levees and drawingrooms are held. The archiepiscopal palace of Lambeth is a pile of great antiquity, forming the town residence of the archbishops of Canterbury, and at present being almost entirely rebuilt. The grounds are extensive and beautifully laid out. It contains, among other apartments, a chapel, gallery, library, containing 25,000 volumes, and the Lollards' tower, used in popish times as a prison for the reformers of that designation. The Admiralty is fronted by a lofty and most illproportioned Ionic portico, and separated from Whitehall by a light screen. It contains the offices and residences of the commissioners of the admiralty, and is near the Horseguards, a hideous edifice, wherein the commanderinchief holds his levies, and transacts militar}'affairs. An arched gateway communicates with St. James's ,park. The house of lords, in Old Palace yard, is not remarkable for architectural beauty. The peers assemble in a room, the walls of which are hung with tapestry representing the defeat of the Spanish armada. The house of commons holds its meetings, in an ancient chapel, called St. Stephen's, adjoining Westminster hall, plainly fitted up, and affording but stinted accommodation for the 650 members of whom that body is composed. It was originally founded by king Stephen, and rebuilt by Edward III, in 1347. It communicates with the speaker's house, a commodious and handsome residence. The Tower of London is an extensive pile, situated on the northern bank of the Thames, below London bridge, separated from the river by a platform, and environed by a ditch of considerable depth and width. Its walls enclose an area of 12 acres, having the principal entrance on the west. (See Tower.) The general destination of the Tower was altered on the accession of queen Elizabeth, for it had been a royal palace during 500 years previous to that event. Another class of edifices, partaking somewhat of a public character, are the clubhouses^ situated, chiefly, within the precincts of St. James's street, Pall mall, and Regent street. Crockford's, in St. James's street, is unri valled in the splendor of its internal decorations, and presents an external elevation of chaste architectural elegance; but its object is avowedly gambling, and its fascinations have been the ruin of many. The athenaeum is a very beautiful structure, erected by Mr. Burton on part of the site of Carlton palace, and opposite to the senior united service club. The university, the union, the oriental, Brookes', and the junior united service club houses, are also handsome and commodious.Ancient London. The origin of London is involved in deep obscurity; but it certainly was a stronghold of the Britons before the Roman invasion. The etymology of its name is varicusly traced; the most probable supposition deriving it from two British words, llyn and din, signifying the town on the lake. Its Roman designation, Augusta, marks it as the capital of a province; and Tacitus speaks of Londiniwm, or Colonia Augusta, as a commercial mart of considerable celebrity in the year 61. It was subsequently noted as a large and wealthy city, in the time of the emperor Severus, and regarded as the metropolis of Great Britain. A few vestiges of the original walls are still discoverable in London wall, in the courts between Ludgate hill and the Broadway, Blackfriars, and in Cripplegate churchyard. It had four principal gates, opening to the four great military roads, and others were subsequently formed, but their names alone commemorate their existence. After the Roman forces had been withdrawn from Britain, in the fifth centuiy, London fell successively under the dominion of the Britons, Saxons, and Danes. It was nominated a bishop's see, on the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, in 604, and a cathedral church was erected in 610, where St. Paul's now stands. Its importance in the year 833, appears from a Wittenagemot having been held here ; and under the reign of Alfred, who gained possession of it in 884, its municipal government was planned, which has since been gradually moulded into the form described in a preceding part of this notice. Its wealth seems to have rapidly increased during the reign of Edward the Confessor: and, on the conquest by Wil liam I, in 1066, it assumed that station which it has ever since retained, as the metropolis of the kingdom, having received from that monarch a charter, still preserved in the city archives, and beautifully written in Saxon characters. The privileges of the city were further extended by a charter of Henry I, in 1100; and, which had previously designated the chief magistrate of London. In the reign of Edward III (1348), it was ravaged by a pestilence, during which 50,000 bodies were interred in the ground now forming the precincts of the Charter house. The year 1380 was marked by the insurrection headed by Wat Tyler, and suppressed by the courage of sir William Walworth, mayor of London. A similar, but equally unsuccessful attempt, threatened the safety of the metropolis in the year 1450, when it was assailed by Jack Cade and a powerful body of malecontents. During the reign of Edward IV, we have the earliest notice of bricks being employed in the building of houses in London. Cisterns and conduits for water were constructed, and the city was generally lighted at night by lanterns. A dreadful visitation, called the sweatingsickness, desolated the city in 1485, soon after the accession of Henry VII, during whose reign the river Fleet was made navigable to Holborn bridge, and the splendid chapel, called after that monarch, was appended to Westminster abbey. Many valuable improvements in the municipal regulations of the city, its police, streets, markets, &c, were effected during the reign of his successor, Henry VIII. The reign of Edward VI witnessed the establishment of Christ's hospital, Bridewell, and St. Thomas's hospital ; and, under the sway of Elizabeth, the metropolis increased, with surprising rapidity, in commercial enterprise and general prosperity. The plague renewed its ravages soon after the accession of James I, in 1603, when upwards of 30,000 persons fell victims to it. Sir Hugh Middleton, about that time also, commenced his great work of supplying the inhabitants with water from the New river; and the pavements were improved for the comfort of pedestrians. The reign of Charles I was marked by a recurrence of the plague, which carried off 35,000 of the inhabitants. It returned in the year 1665, with unparalleled fury. This awful visitation swept away 100,000 of the inhabitants within 13 months. It was ?shortly after followed by the great fire, which broke out on the 2d September, 1666, and raged with irresistible fury, until it consumed 89 churches, 13,200 dwellinghouses, and 400 streets, the city gates, Guildhall, numerous, public structures, hospitals, schools, libraries and stately edifices, leaving a ruined space of 436 acres, from the Tower to the Temple and destroying property to the estimated amount of £10,000,000. Within less than five years after this terrible calamity, the city was almost wholly rebuilt, in a style of far greater regularity, security, commodiousness and salubrity. After the revolution of 1688, the metropolis rapidly expanded, and, in 1711, the population was found to have so greatly increased, that an act of parliament passed for the building of 50 new churches. The winter of 173940 is memorable for the occurrence of the most intense frost recorded in the annals of England; it continued for eight weeks, and the Thames, above London bridge, became a solid mass, on which thousands of the citizens assembled daily as to a fair. The reign of George III witnessed a great extension of the splendor, comforts and elegances of social life in London. The north of the metropolis became covered with spacious streets, squares, churches and public edifices. The thoroughfares were rendered safe and clean; the enormous signs and protruding incumbrances of the shops were removed. Blackfriars, Southwark and Waterloo bridges, Somerset house, Manchester, and other squares, at the West End, were erected, and the vast parish of Marylebone almost covered with buildings. In 1780, an insurrection, composed of the lowest rabble, threatened very alarming consequences to the peace of the city. The prisons of Newgate, the King's Bench and the Fleet were burned, and military interference was necessary to quell the disturbances. In 1794, a dreadful fire broke out in Ratcliffe highway, and consumed 700 houses. The jubilee of George Ill's accession was commemorated on the 25th October, 1809, and the grand civic festival to the emperor of Russia, king of Prussia, and other distinguished foreigners, .was given, by the cor poration of London, in Guildhall, at an expense of £20,000, in the year 1814, the winter of which was memorable for a frost of six weeks' continuance and extreme intensity. During the regency and reign of George IV, the grand avenue of Regent street, the unfinished palace of Buckingham house, the splendid terraces on the site of Carlton gardens, the widenings of Charing cross, Pall mall, and the Strand, wrought a great change in the West End of the metropolis. Much curious information upon the history, an tiquities and progressive improvements at London will be found in the works of Stowe and Maitland, in Pennant's "Some Account of London," and in the work of Brayley, Brewster and Nightingale, entitled " London, Westminster and Middlesex described," in 5 vols. 8vo.