LOMBARDY

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LOMBARDY, in the sixth century, when the Lombards had conquered a great part of Italy, comprehended the whole of Upper Italy. At a later period, the Austrian provinces in Italy (the duchies of Milan and Mantua) have been called Austrian Lombardy. These, with other countries, were formed by Bonaparte into the Cisal pine, then into the Italian republic, and, lastly, in 1805, into the kingdom of Italy, and the name of Lombardy ceased to be used. By the peace of Paris, in 1814, Austria came into possession of much of that part of Upper Italy which had constituted the kingdom of Italy, and, in 1815, it. formed of its Italian provinces a LombardoVenetian kingdom. In this are comprehended the territories of the Tormer republic of Venice (with the exception of Istria, and the canton of Civida, which are united to the new kingdom of lllyria), the Austrian portion of the duchy of Milan, Mantua, a small part of Parma, Placentia, and the papal territories, and those formerly belonging to Switzerland, viz. the Valteline, Bormio and Chiavenna. It is bounded by Switzerland, Germany, the Adriatic sea, the Pa|$al States, Modena, Parma and Sardinia. It contains 17,600 square miles, and 4,176,000 inhabitants, among whom are 66,500 Germans, 5600 Jews, and some Greeks. It is watered by the Tagliamento, the Piave, the Brsnta, the Adige, the Po, Ticino, Mincio and adda. The principal lakes are those of Como, the Lago Maggiore, and the lakes of Iseo and Garda. Its canals are also numerous. The country is, for the most part, level, but towards the north, it is broken by spurs of the Alps, and to the west of Padua, lie the Euganean mountains, mostly of volcanic origin, and from 1700 to 1800 feet in height. This province is, in most parts, well cultivated, and resembles a garden. The climate is cool in the northern districts, near the Alps; but is, in the remaining parts, warm, mild and healthy, although not free from frosts in winter; and, on this account, it sometimes happens that the olive, orange, citrons, and other tender plants, as well as the vineyards, are injured by the cold, and the rivers frozen. Even the lagoons at Venice are sometimes frozen so hard, that you may walk a considerable distance, or even drive carriages, upon them. The animals of the country are neat cattle, tolerable horses, sheep with coarse wool, numerous birds and fish. The silkworm is also raised. Agriculture is the chief dependence of the inhabitants. The soil is fertile, and very productive in maize, and other species of grain, leguminous plants, garden fruits, flax, &c. Lands that are swampy are devoted to the cultivation of rice, of which part is consumed in the country, and part exported to Germany. The production of oil anal wine is also much attended to. Besides the fruits abovenamed, chestnuts, almonds, figs, and many other fruits, grow here. A considerable trade is carried on in figs, oranges and citrons. The mineral kingdom produces iron, copper, marble, salt. There are some mineral wa ters. Manufactures no longer sustain the rank which they once held : the principal are those of glass, silk and iron. The production and manufacture of silk are attended to throughout the country. All kinds of silk stuffs, ribbons, hose and sewingsilk are exported. The manufacture of glass at Venice and Murano was once important, and their mirrors much celebrated ; and, even now, artificial pearls, and glass work of all kinds, are executed in great perfection. The manufactories of steel and iron are chiefly to be found at Brescia, where many firearms, sabres, knives, &c, are made. The manufacture of woollens has much declined. The gold and silver works at Venice and Milan are celebrated; porcelain, pottery, carpets, paper, many articles of luxury, as masks, artificial flowers,pomatum, confectionary, perfumes, sausages, candied fruits, vermicelli, and Parmesan cheese, are also produced. Cremona is noted foi her violins, flutes, lutes, &c. The exports exceed the imports in value. This country is dependent upon the Austrian government, but, in April, 1815, the emperor gave it a constitution. (See article Constitution, vol. iii, p. 468.) It is governed by a viceroy, who resides at Milan, and is divided into the governments of Lombardy and Venice. The administration of each is intrusted to a governor and a council, dependent upon the highest authorities at Vienna. The government of Lombardy contains nearly 2,200,000 inhabitants, on 8270 square miles of territory, and its capital is Milan. Venice is the capital of the government of the same name, which contains 2,000,000 inhabitants, upon 9330 square miles. The sub divisions are called delegatioiis. With the authorities are connected permanent colleges, composed of individuals from various classes.