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LEYDEN (Lugdunum Batavorum) ; a large and beautiful city in the government of South Holland, in the province of Holland, kingdom of the Netherlands, situated on a branch of the Rhine, with 3000 houses and 28,600 inhabitants ; Ion. 4° 29' E.; lat. 52° 9' N. It has wide streets (the one called Broad street is among the finest in Europe) and numerous canals. The university of Leyden, formerly very celebrated, was founded in 1575, and is distinguished for its botanical garden, anatomical theatre, observatory, and valuable library with 60,000 volumes and 14,000 manuscripts. The number of students, in 1827, was 323. The Annates Acad. Lugd. Bat. are still continued. Cabinets of philosophical, surgical, chemical instruments, and one for natural history, belong to the university. Among the buildings, the principal are St. Peter's church, with the tombs of Boerhaave, Peter Camper and Meermann, and the stadthouse, which contains Luke of Leyden's excellent picture of the last judgment. A fine view of the whole city is enjoyed from the ancient castle, considered, traditionally, a Roman work. The printing establishments formerly constituted an im portant branch of the industry of Ley den, but are much less extensive at present. The city has woollen manufactures and considerable inland trade. The manufactures have much declined, but the saltworks are important. Leyden suffered much in January, 1807, from the explosion of a ship containing 40,000 pounds of gunpowder. The houses on the side of the canal were overturned, and many persons killed. Natives of Leyden are John of Leyden (q. v.), known as die leader of the Anabaptists, the celebrated Peter Muschenbroek, Rembrandt, Luke of Leyden, &c. It is connected with Haarlem, Hague and Delft by canals. Leyden was called by the Romans Lugdunum Batavorum (see Batavians), from which the present name was formed in the middle ages. Even in Ptolemy's time, Leyden was a considerable city. It suffered much during the war with Spain (1574).