JULIUS

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JULIUS ; the name of three popes, of whom we shall only mention the two last. Julius II (Giuliano della Rovera), a native of Albizola, originally a fisherman, was elevated, by his uncle Sixtus IV, to the rank of a bishop and cardinal, was appointed papal legate to France, and, in 1503, was elected pope ; and although, while cardinal, the friend of the French, he now became their enemy. He excommunicated the duke of Ferrara, gave Navarre to Spain, besieged Mirandola, commanded his army in person, formed the league of Cambray against Venice, and was altogether warlike in his measures. The king of France and the emperor convened a council at Pisa, before whom he was summoned to appear and explain his conduct; but he did not obey the summons, and called another council in the Lateran. In 1512, he made open war against Louis XII. The French defeated the papal army near Ravenna, but were soon after driven out of Italy. Julius died in 1514. He is considered one of the most immoral of the popes. His conduct certainly was little befitting the head of the Christian church. To procure means for building St. Peter's, he ordered the sale of indulgences, which, was one of the immediate causes of the reformation, so that the Protestants may say, without paradox, that St. Peter's is the great monument of Protestantism. Connected with the plan of rebuilding St. Peter's by Bramante was that of embellishing the Vatican; and, on Bramante's recommendation, Julius II invited Raphael to Rome, in 1508, where he painted a superb suite of apartments, called La Segnatura. In the ducal gallery, at Florence, there is a fine portrait of Julius II by Raphael. (See Bramante* and Raphael.) Julius III (Giovanni Maria Giocchi), a Roman of low birth, called himself Del Monte, because his family originated from Monte Sabino, in the Florentine territory. He was made cardinal by Paul III, in 1536, took an active part in the council of Trent, as papal legate, and was the chief cause that it was transferred to Bologna, against the will of Charles V. Julius was elected pope in 1550. He received the fugitive Nestorian patriarch Suluca, and endeavored to effect a union with the Nestorians. He died 1555, and is accused of the greatest licentiousness, even oi unnatural intercourse with a certain Innocent whom he created cardinal.