JESUS

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JESUS, called also Christ (Xp ivTog, the Anointed), the Son of God, the Savior of men, whose birth, life and death were predicted by prophets, and attended with miraculous manifestations of divine power, was bora of the virgin Mary, of the tribe of Judah, who was betrothed to Joseph, an obscure artisan. The place of his birth was Bethlehem: the time is uncertain, but is commonly considered to* The length of the articles on the Jesuits may be excused from the interesting nature of the subject. Any view, however, of the subject, which could be given in a work of the character of the present must be too concise to enable the reader to form satisfactory conclusions; to do which, great knowledge of facts and critical acumen are requisite. The articles can only serve to indicate the most important points to be investigated. The second article was given to show what construction Jesuits themselves put upon the important charges against them. We may close with remarking, that every thing in history has its time, and the order of the Jesuits can never rise to any great eminence in an age in which knowledge is so rapidly spreading. It is connected with the old order of things, not with the new, and has twice returned with servilism into Spain, and once into France. The Encyclopedia Moderne, in its article on the Jesuits, calls them the pretorian guards, the strelitzes, the janizaries of the pope 5 and it can hardly be supposed that the guards will flourish when the sovereign is daily declining in splendor and power. have been in the 12th year of the consulate of Augustus, four or five years before the beginning of the vulgar era. Our information concerning him is derived almost entirely from detached sketches of his life, written by four of his followers The angel Gabriel had announced to Mary, that the power of the Highest should overshadow her, and that she should bear a son who should rule over the house of Jacob forever ; and on the night of his birth, an angel appeared to some shepherds and announced the coming of a Savior. On the 8th day, he was circumcised according to the law of Moses, and, on the 40th, was.presented in the temple, where the aged Simeon pronounced him to be the light of nations and the glory of Israel. The coming of the divine infant was also hailed by the adoration of the Magi, who were miraculously directed to the house where the young child was. Herod, alarmed by these indications, determined to destroy all the male children of Bethlehem and its vicinity, of the age of less than two years, for the purpose of effecting the death of Jesus. But Joseph, being miraculously warned of the danger, fled to Egypt with the virgin and her child, and, on his return after the death of Herod, went to reside at Nazareth, in Galilee, whence Jesus is called a JYazarene. We have no further accounts of the earlier years of JESUS, except the remarkable scene in the temple, when he was 12 years old, and the general observation of Luke, that he remained in Nazareth with his parents, and served them, At the age of about 30 (Luke iii, 23), he was baptized by John in the river Jordan.; the spirit of God descending upon him like a dove, and a voice from heaven proclaiming, "This is my beloved son." Previously, however, to entering upon his heavenly office of divine teacher, he retired to a solitary place, where he passed 40 days in fasting, meditation and prayer. His mission is generally considered to have occupied three years, spent in acts of mercy, in inculcating a purer system of morals, more exalted notions of God, and more elevating views of man and his destiny, than had yet been presented to the world. If, when we consider his miracles, he appears like a God, we must also acknowledge something superhuman and divine in his purity of life, his warm love for others, and his selfdevotion to their welfare ; his meek yet firm and unshrinking endurance of insult, contempt, calumny and suffering. While he denounces sin, and prophesies the coming deso ation of the corrupt city, he forgives the sinner, and weeps over the fate of the obdurate Jerusalem. Nothing can surpass the perfect beauty of his life, but the godlike sublimity of his death. It is unnecessary here to trace the particulars of his short but eventful mission. He had chosen 12 apostles to be the companions of his ministry, the witnesses of his miracles, and the depositories of his doctrine, and he was betrayed into the power of his enemies by one of these, with the mockery of a friendly salutation. Betrayed by one, denied by another, and abandoned by all, he was carried before the Jewish priests, found guilty, and by them delivered over to the Roman magistrates, who alone had the power of life and death. Condemned to death as a disturber of the public peace, he was nailed to the cross on mount Calvary ; and it was in the agonies of this bitter death, that he prayed for the forgiveness of his executioners, and, with a touching act of filial love, commended his mother to his favorite disciple. The evangelists relate that, from the hour of noon, the sun was darkened, and, three hours after, Jesus, having cried out, "It is finished," gave up the ghost. The veil of the temple, they add, was torn asunder, the earth shook, rocks were rent, and the tombs opened. The centurion who was present, directing the execution, exclaimed," Truly this was the son of God." The body of Jesus was taken down by Joseph of Arimathea, and placed in a tomb, about which the Jewish priests, remembering his prophecy that he should rise on the third day, set a guard, sealing up the door. Notwithstanding these precautions, his prophecy was fulfilled, by his resurrection on the first day of the week (Sunday); and he appeared repeatedly to his disciples, to encourage, console and instruct them. On the 40th day after his resurrection, while with them on the mount of Olives, he " was taken up," and disappeared out of their sight. JESUS SIRACH. (See Sirach.) JET. The color of jet is a pure and deep black, sometimes with a tinge of brown. It occurs in opaque, compact masses, so solid and hard that they are susceptible of being turned on a lathe and highly polished. Its fracture is conchoidal or undulated, shining or even splendent, and it has a resinous lustre ; its specific gravity, from 1.25 to 1.30. By friction, it acquires a weak electricity, even when not insulated. It sometimes presents the form of branches of trees, and exhibits traces of a ligneous texture. It burns with flame often a little greenish, but it does not melt, like solid bitumen. It exhales, while burning, a strong and sometimes aromatic odor, sensibly different from that of coal or bitumen. It most frequently occurs in detached masses of a moderate size, in beds of sandstone, marl, limestone and secondary trap. It is also connected with formations of coa], particularly that which is associated with secondary trap rocks. It is also found with other varieties of lignite. Good specimens of jet are found in Galicia and other places in Spain; near Wittemberg, in Saxony ; in the department of Aude, in France, where it sometimes contains amber. In England, it occurs near Whitby. In the Faroe islands, and in the isle of Sky, it occurs in trap rocks. In the U. States, in Massachusetts, it is found at South Hadley, in the coal formation. Jet is sometimes employed for fuel, but is more frequently cut and polished, for ornamental purposes, buttons, bracelets, snuffboxes, &c. Some mineralogists consider it intermediate between coal and bituminous wood.