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JERUSALEM (Heb. Salem ; hence the Greek Hierosolyma, the sacred Solyma, and the Turkish Soliman). This celebrated city of Palestine is subject to the pacha uf Damascus. Its environs are barren and mountainous. The city lies on the western declivity of a hill of basalt, surrounded with rocks and deep valleys, with a much colder climate than one would expect from its geographical situation. It is now only about two miles in circuit. The town is built irregularly, has pretty high walls, and six gates, which still bear Hebrew names. The houses are of sandstone, three stories high, and without windows in the lower story. This lifeless uniformity is only diversified* here and there, by the spires of the mosques, the towers of the churches, and a few cypresses. Of 25,000 inhabitants, 13,000 are Mohammedans, and 4000 Jews. Christians and Jews wear a blue turban to distinguish them. The women, in their close veils and white dress, look like walking corpses. The streets are unpaved, and filled either with clouds of dust or with mire. Nothing is to be seen but veiled figures in white, insolent Turks, and stupid or melancholy Christians. That Jerusalem is no place for the cultivation of the arts or sciences one may easily conjee ture, from the despotism of the Turks, and the gloomy superstition of the Christians Weavers and slippermakers are the only artisans. A multitude of relics, which are, probably, not all manufactured in the city, but are sent in also from the neigh borhood, are sold to the credulous pilgrims. Nevertheless, this city forms a central point of trade to the Arabians in Syria, Arabia and Egypt. The people export oil, and import rice by the way of Acre. The necessaries of life are in profusion, and quite cheap, the game excellent, and the wine very good. The pilgrims are always a chief source of support to the. inhabitants ; at Easter, they often amount to 5000. But few of them are Europeans. Jerusalem has a governor, a cadi or supreme judge, a commander of the citadel, and a mufti to preside over religious matters. There are still many places and buildings in the city designated by ancient sacred names. The citadel, which is pretended to have been David's castle, is a Gothic building throughout. It is also called the Pisan tower, probably because it was built by the Pisans during the crusades. All the pilgrims go to the Franciscan monastery of the Holy Savior, where they are maintained a month gratuitousty. Besides this, there are 61 Christian convents in Jerusalem, of which the Armenian is the largest. They are supported by benevolent contributions, principally from Europe. The church of the Holy Sepulchre has been for 1500 years the most sacred place m Jerusalem. It is composed of several churches united, and is said to be erected on Golgotha. Here is shown, in a large subterraneous apartment richly ornamented, the pretended grave of the Savior, with a sarcophagus the 4th century, fter she had found the true cross. The Jews live in great wretchedness, and are confined to a small part of the city. The temple of the Mohammedans, which is regarded as one of their greatest sanctuaries, is magnificent. No Jew or Christian is permitted to enter the inner sanctuary. This temple consists of two large buildings, of which the one, El Aksa, is adorned with a splendid dome and beautiful gilding. The other edifice is octangular, and is called El Sahara. Here the Mohammedans show the footsteps of their prophet surrounded with a golden grate; and a Koran, which is four feet long, and two and a half broad. On the mount of Olives is to be seen a Christian church, in which is shown a footprint of the Savior, which he left on the place, when he ascended to heaven. Besides many old Jewish monuments, there are a great many Greek and Roman, several Christian, and, especially, Gothic monuments, which originated in the times of the crusades.A contemporary of Abraham, M.^lchisedec, is called king of Salem, 2000 years before Christ: this Salem is supposed to be the Jerusalem of after times. This town then came into the possession of the Jebusites, and when the Israelites conquered the land of promise (B. C. 1500), it was assigned, in the division of the country, to the tribe of Benjamin. The Jebusites, however, appear afterwards to have recovered possession of the place ; for David conquered the city, called it after his name, and built the castle of Zion. His son Solomon greatly embellished the city, and caused the temple to be built by the skilful artists of Tyre. Under his successors, Jerusalem was the capital of the kingdom of Judah. Five times it was taken and plundered; first under Rehoboam by the Egyptians, then under Joram by the Arabians, under Joash by the Syrians, under Amaziah by the Israelites, and under Josiah by the Egyptians again (B. C. 611). Herodotus also mentions the last conquest of it, calling the city Kadytas, which resembles Kedushah, the Hoiy, and the Mohammedans still call the city El Kods. At last, the Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar, during the reign of Zedekiah, conquered the kingdom, razed the city to the ground (B. C. 586), and carried the Jews to Babylon. Seventy years after, Cyrus gave them permission to return and rebuild the city and temple. This was done under the direction of their highpriests, Ezra 17* der's making a pacific visit to Jerusalem, after his conquest of Tyre, is nothing but a Jewish invention, as Josephus is the only author who mentions it. Alexander's successor, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, captured Jerusalem, and carried a great number of the better sort of Jews to Alexandria. It then remained, for a long time after it was taken by Antiochus the Great, under the jurisdiction of the Syrian kings. Under the Maccabees, the Jews were again free for a considerable time, and chose their own rulers. One of the last of these, Aristobulus, invited Pompey the Great into the country, and thus Jerusalem came under the Roman dominion (B. C. 64). But, as it continued to have its own kings, at least in name, and also highpriests, together with the Roman governors, this occasioned constant troubles, which were finally ended by the destruction of the city and extermination of the inhabitants, by Vespasian and Titus, after a bloody siege (A. D. 70). Some buildings, however, were left among the ruins. The Jews again collected together, built on the place, and again rebelled against the Romans. Provoked by this obstinacy, the emperor Adrian, at last, in the year 118, ordered all that Titus had spared to be destroyed. He commanded a new city to be built in its place, called Mlia Capitolina, in which no Jew was permitted to dwell. Constantine the Great, and his mother Helena, from pious motives, ordered all the heathen monuments to be destroyed, and erected many new Christian edifices. Julian conceived the idea of rebuilding the old temple of the Jews, but is said to have been hindered from executing his plan by the eruption of subterranean fire. The city remained under the government of the Eastern emperors till Chosroes, king of Persia, conquered it in the year 614. It was recovered, however, by the emperor Heraclius, in the peace of 628. This prince prohibited the Jews from dwelling there, and so alienated the patriarch of Jerusalem,Sophronius, by sectarian differences, that the Saracen caliph Omar found little difficulty in making himself master of the city (A. D. 637). From the Saracens it passed into the hands of the Turks. In the first crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon took Jerusalem. It was erected into a Christian kingdom, to which the Turks put an end in 1187. Clarke, Chateaubriand, &c, describe its present state, JERUSALEM, John Frederic William, was born November 22, 1709, at Osnar burg, where his father was a clergyman, and early displayed great talent. As early as 1724, he entered the university of Leipsic, where he studied theology. He then studied at Leyden, went with two young noblemen to the university of Gottingen, visited London, and was, in 1742, appointed, by the duke of Brunswick, court preacher and tutor of the hereditary prince. The Collegium Carolinum, afterwards so famous, was established on a plan suggested by him. In 1752, he was made abbot of the convent of Niddagshausen, near Brunswick. The chancellorship of the university of Gottingen was offered to him, but he would not leave Brunswick, where his benevolent activity found full exercise. In his old age, his son destroyed himself in consequence of an unfortunate passion for a married lady. This gave rise to Gothe's Sorrows of the young Werther. The father died in 1789, esteemed by all Germany as a theologian, and for the purity and beneficence of his character. His sermons (Brunswick, 1788 1789, 2 vols.) are still read, as are also his Contemplations on the most Important Truths of Religion (1785 and 1795, 2 vols.) He wrote many other works, and is considered one of the best men of his time in Germany.