ITALY

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ITALY, once the seat of universal empire, but which, since the overthrow of the Roman power, has never formed an independent whole, the pride of its inhabitants and the admiration of foreigners, on account of its delicious climate and former renown, is a narrow peninsula, extending from the Alps (46° to 38° N. lat.) into the Mediterranean sea, which, on the east side of ITALY, is called the Adriatic, on the west, the Tuscan sea. The Apennines (q. v.), rising near the maritime Alps (q. v.), are the principal chain of mountains, and stretch through the country, dividing Lombardy from the Genoese territories and Tuscany, and Tuscany from Romagna, intersecting the States of the Church, and running through the kingdom of Naples to the strait of Messina. Upper Italy (Lombardy) is remarkably well watered. The Po, which receives a great number of rivers from the large lakes at the foot of the Alps (lago Maggiore, di Lugano, di Como, cl'Iseo and di Garda), and the Adige, are the principal rivers. They both rise in the Alps, and flow into the Adriatic sea. In Middle It which rise in the Apennines, and flow into the Tuscan sea. In Lower Italy (Naples) there are no large rivers, on account of the shortness of the course of the streams from the mountains to the sea: the Garigliano is the principal. The climate is warm, without excessive heat, and generally salubrious. The winter, even in Upper ITALY, is very mild: in Naples, it hardly ever snows. The abundance and excellence of the productions of the soil correspond with the beauty of the climate. In many places, both of the north and south, there are two and even three crops a year. The volcanic character of the coasts of Lower Italy is particularly remarkable in a geological point of view, especially in the region of Puzzuoli and Vesuvius. The neighboring islands of the Mediterranean are distinguished by the same character. The present number of inhabitants is much inferior to the former population of this delightful country. The following table, copied from .Mr. Balbi's different publications, is taken from the Revue Biitannique: Political Divisions. Independent ITALY,............. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies,...... Kingdom of Sardinia,*.......... States of the Church,........... . Grandduchy of Tuscany,......... Duchy of Parma,.............. Duchy of Modena, with Massa and Carrara, Duchy of Lucca,.............. Republic of St. Marino,.......... Principality of Monaco,.......... Italy subject to Foreign Powers,..... Austrian Italy (LombardoVenetian kingdom, Italian Tyrol, and part of the government of Trieste),......... French Italy (island of Corsica),..... Swiss Italy (canton of Tessin, some parts of the Grisons, and of the Valais), . . . English Italy (the group of Malta),.... Total, Surface insq. Miles,60 to the Degree. 72,902 31,800 18,180 13,000 6,324 1,660 1,571 3121738 22,030 17,800 2,852 1,250 128 94,932 Population at the Beginningof 1827. 16,060,500 7,420,000 3,800,000 2,590,000 1,275,000 440,000 379,000 143,000 7,000 6,500 5,337,000 4,930,000 185,000 126,000 96,000 21,397,500 Revenuein Dollars, about 36,035,800 15,000,000 10,700,000 5,350,000 3,030,000 820,000 713,000 340,000 11.500 7li300 22,623,000 21,800,000 208,000 98,000 517,000 58,658,800 Army in 1827. 66,940 30,000 23,000 6,000 4,000 1,320 1,780 80040 52,120 50,000 2,120 119,060 The national character of the Italians, naturally cheerful, but always marked by strong passions, has been rendered,* Savoy is not included here, not being considered a part of Italy by the Revue.by continued oppression, dissembling and selfish. The Italian, moreover, possesses a certain acuteness and versatility, as well as a love of money, which stamp him for a merchant. In the middle ages, Venice, Genoa, Florence and Pisa were the chief marts of the European commerce with the East Indies; and Italians (then called Lombards, without distinction, in Germany, France and England) were scattered all over Europe for the purposes of trade. The discovery of a passage by sea deprived them of the India trade, and the prosperity of those republics declined. The Italian, restricted almost solely to traffic in the productions of his own country, has nevertheless always remained an able and active merchant. Before Rome had (2100 years ago) absorbed all the vital power of ITALY, this country was thickly inhabited, and, for the most part, by civilized nations. In the north of Italy alone, which offered the longest resistance to the Romans, dwelt a barbarous people, the Gauls. Farther south, on the Arno and the Tiber, a number of small tribes, such as the Etrusci, the Samnites and Latins, endeavored to find safety by forming confederacies. Less closely united, and often hostile to each other, were the Greek colonies of Lower ITALY, called Magna Grecia. The story of the subjection of these nations to the Roman ambition, belongs to the history of Rome. ITALY, in the middle ages, was divided into Upper, Middle and Lower Italy. The first division comprehended all the states situated in the basin of the Po; the second extended between the former and the kingdom of Naples, which formed the third. At present, it is divided into the following independent states, which are not connected with each other by any political tie, and of which an account will be given under the separate heads1. the kingdom of Sardinia ; 2. Lombardy, or Austrian Italy (including Milan and Venice); 3. the duchy of Parma ; 4. the duchy of Modena (including Massa); 5. the grandduchy of Tuscany ; 6. the duchy of Lucca; 7. the republic of San Marino; 8. the papal dominions (see Church, States of the); 9. the kingdom of Naples or the Two Sicilies. Italia did not become the general name of this country until the age of Augustus. It had been early imperfectly known to the Greeks under the name of Hesperia. Ausonia, Salurnia and (Enotria were also names applied by them to the southern part, with which alone they were at first acquainted. The name Italia was at first merely a partial name for the southern extremity, until it was gradually extended to the whole country. It was probably derived from Ilalus, an CEnotrian chie^ though others give a different etymology. (See, in Niebuhr's Roman History, An cient Italy.) Ancient Italy is generally described under the 13 following heads:I. Liguria (see, Gaul); 2. Gallia Cisalpina; 3. Venetia; 4. Etruria; 5. Umbria and Picenum ; 6. the Sabini, iEqui, Marsi, Peligni, Vestini, Marrucini; 7. Rome. 8. Latium; 9. Campania; 10. Samnium ;II. Apulia; 12. Lucania; 13. the Rruttii. The ancient geography of Italy has been learnedly illustrated by Mannert (Leipsic, 1823, 2 vols.) and Cramer (Description of Ancient ITALY, 2 vols., Oxford, 1826). The modern history of Italy begins with the fall of the Western Empire. First Period, from Odoacer (476) to Alhoin (568), comprises the time of the dominion of the Heruliansand Rugiansand of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Romulus was the founder of the city, that became the mistress of the world; Augustus founded its universal monarchy, and Romulus Augustulus was the name of its last feeble emperor, who was dethroned by his German guards. Odoacer, their leader, assumed the title of king of Italy, and thus this country was separated from the Roman empire. But this valiant barbarian could not communicate a spirit of independence and energy to the degenerate Italians ; nothing but an amalgamation with a people in a state of nature could effect their regeneration. Such a people already stood on the frontiers of Italy. Theodoric (q. v.), king of the Ostrogoths, instigated by Zeno, emperor of the East, overthrew (493) the kingdom of Odoacer, and reduced all Italy. His Goths spread from the Alps to Sicily. In the lagoons of the Adriatic alone, some fugitives, who had fled from the devastations of Attila, and obtained a subsistence as sailors, and by the manufacture of salt, maintained their freedom. Theodoric, who combined the vigor of the north with the cultivation of the south, is justly termed the Great, and, under the name of Dietrich of Bern (Verona), has become one of the principal heroes of old German story. But the energy of his people soon yielded to Roman corruption. Totila, for 10 years, contested in vain the almost completed conquest with the military skill of Belisarius. He fell in battle in 552, and Teias in 553, after which Italy was annexed to the Eastern Empire, under an exarch, who resided at Ravenna. But the first exarch, Narses, a eunuch, sunk under the intrigues of the Byzantine court, and his successor neglected the defence of the passes of the Alps. The country was then invaded by the Lombards, a German people which had emigrated from the Elbe to Pannonia. Under king Aiboin. they conquered Loin bardy, which received its name from them, almost without a blow. Their government was less favorable, to the arts and sciences than that of the Goths. Second Period.From Alboin to Charlemagne (774), or Period of the Lombard Umpire. The kingdom of the Lombards included Upper Italy, Tuscany and Urnbria. Alboin also created the duchy of Ben even to, in Lower Italy, with which he invested Zoito. The whole of Lombardian Italy was divided into 30 great fiefs, under dukes, counts, &c, which soon became hereditary. Together with the new kingdom, the confederation of the fugitives in the lagoons still subsisted in undisturbed freedom. The islanders, by the election cf their first doge, Anafesto, in 697, established a central government ; and the republic of Venice was founded. (See Venice.) Ravenna, the seat of the exarch, with Romagna, the Fentapolis, or the five maritime cities (Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia and Ancona), and almost all the coasts of Lower Italy, where Amarfi and Gaeta had dukes of their own, of the Greek nation, remained unconquered, together with Sicily and the capital, Rome, which was governed by a patrician in the name of the emperor. The slight dependence on the court of Byzantium disappeared almost entirely in the beginning of the eighth century, when Leo the Isaurian exasperated the orthodox Italians, by his attack on images. (See Iconoclasts.) The cities expelled his officers, and chose consuls and a senate, as in ancient times. Rome acknowledged, not indeed the power, but a certain paternal authority of its bishops, even in secular affairs, in consequence of the respect which their holiness procured them. The popes, in their efforts to defend the freedom of Rome against the Lombards, forsaken by the court of Byzantium, generally had recourse to the Frankish kings. In consideration of the aid expected against king Astolphus, pope Stephen III (753) not only anointed Pepin, who had been made king of the Franks, in 752, with the approbation of popeZacharias, but, with the assent of the municipality of Rome, appointed him patrician, as the imperial governor had hitherto been denominated. Charlemagne made war upon Desiderius, the king of the Lombards, in defence of the Roman church, took him prisoner in his capital, Pavia, united his empire with the Frankish monarchy (774), and eventually gave Italy a king in his son Pepin. But his attempts against the duchy of Benevento, the independence of which was maintained by luke Arichis, and against the republics in Lower Italy, where Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta in particular, had become rich by navigation and commerce, were unsuccessful. The exarchate, with the five cities, had already been presented to the pope by Pepin, in 756, and Charlemagne confirmed the gift, but the secular supremacy of the popes was first completed by Innocent III, about 1200. Third Period.From Charlemagne to Otho the Great (961), or Period of the Carlovingians and Interregnum. Leo III bestowed on the king of the Franks, on Christmas day, A. D. 800, the imperial crown of th" West, which needed a Charlemagne to raise it from nothing. But dislike to the Franks, whose conquest was looked upon as a new invasion of barbarians, united the free cities, Rome excepted, more closely to the Eastern Empire. Even during tho lifetime of Charlemagne, Frankish Italy was given to his grandson Bernard (810). But, Bernard having attempted to become independent of his uncle, Louis the Debonnaire, he was deprived of the crown, and his eyes were torn out. Italy now remained a constituent part of the Frankish monarchy, till the partition of Verdun (843), wThen it was allotted, with the imperial dignity, and what was afterwards called Lorraine, to Lothaire I, eldest son of Louis. Lothaire left the government (850) to his son Louis II, the most estimable of the Italian princes of the Carlovingian line. After his death (875), Italy became the apple of discord to the whole family. Charles the Bald of France first took possession of it, and, after his death (877), Carloman, king of Bavaria, who was succeeded, in 880, by his brother Charles the Fat, king of Suabia, who united the whole Frankish monarchy for the last time. His dethronement (887) was the epoch of anarchy and civil war in Italy. Berengarius, duke of Friuli, and Guido, duke of Spoleto (besides the marquis of Ivrea, the only ones remaining of the 30 great vassals), disputed the crown between them. Guido was crowned king and emperor, and, after his death (894), his son Lambert. Arnold, the Carlovingian king of the Germans, enforced his claims to the royal and imperial crown of Italy (896), but, like most of his successors, was able to maintain them only during his residence in the country After the death of Lambert and Arnold (898 and 899),Louis, king of Lower Burgundy, became the competitor of Berengarius I; and this bold and noble prince, although crowned king in 894, and emperor in 915, did not enjoy quiet till he had expelled the emperor Louis III (905), and vanquished another competitor, Rodolph of Upper Burgundy: he was even then unable, on account of the feeble condition of the state, to defend the kingdom effectively against the invasions of the Saracens (from 890) and the Hungarians (from 899). After the assassination of Berengarius (924), Rodolph II relinquished his claims to Hugh, count of Provence, in exchange for that country.. Hugh sought to strengthen the insecure throne of Italy by a bloody tyranny. His nephew, Berengarius, marquis of Ivrea, fled from his snares to Otho the Great of Germany (940), assembled an army of fugitives, returned, and overthrew Hugh (945), who was succeeded by his son Lothaire. Berengarius became his first counsellor. But, after the death of Lothaire, in 950 (poisoned, it was said, by Berengarius), the latter wished to compel his widowthe beautiful Adelaidecontrary to her inclination, to marry his son. Escaping from his cruelty and her prison, she took refuge in the castle of Canossa, where she was besieged by Berengarius II. She now applied for aid to Otho I, king of Germany, who passed the Alps, liberated her, conquered Pavia, became king of the Franks and Lombards (in 951), and married Adelaide. To a prompt submission, and the cession of Friuli, the key of Italy, which Otho gave to his brother Henry, Berengarius was indebted for permission to reign as the vassal of Otho. But, the nobles of Italy preferring new complaints against him, 10 years after, Otho returned (961), deposed him, and led him prisoner to Bamberg, and, after having been himself crowned king of Italy with the iron crown, in 961, united this kingdom with the German. Otho gave the great imperial fiefs to Germans, and granted to the Italian cities privileges that were the foundation of a free constitution, for which they soon became ripe. The growing wealth of the papal court, owing to the munificence of the French kings, which had promoted their influence on the government, so beneficial under Leo IV, and popes of a similar character, became, through the corruption of the Roman court, in the 10th century the first cause of its decline. The clergy and the people elected the popes according to the will of the consuls and a few patricians. In the first half of the 10th century, two women disposed of the holy chair. Theodora elevated (914) her lover, John X, and Marozia, the daughter of Theodora, elevated her son, John XI, to the papal dignity. The brother of the latter, Alberic of Camerino, and his son Octavian, were absolute masters of Rome, and the last was pope, under the name of John XII, when 20 years of age (956). Otho the Great, whom he had crowned emperor in Rome, in 962, deposed him, and chose Leo VIII in his stead; but the people, jealous of its right of election, chose Benedict V. From this time, the popes, instead of ruling the people of Rome, became dependent on them* In Lower Italy, the republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi still defended their independence against the Lombard duchy of Blenevento, with the more ease, since the duchy had been divided (839) between Siconolphus of Salerno and Radelghisius of Benevento, and subsequently among a greater number, and since with the dukes they had had a common enemy in the Saracens, who had been previously invited over from Sicily by both parties (about 830), as auxiliaries against each other, but who had settled and maintained themselves in Apulia. The emperors Louis II and Basilius Macedo had, with combined forces, broken the power of the Mussulmans (866); the former was, nevertheless, unable to maintain himself in Lower Italy, but the Greeks, on the contrary, gained a firmer footing, and formed, of the regions taken from the Saracens, a separate province, called the Thema of Lombardy^ which continued under their dominion, though without prejudice to the liberty of the republics, upwards of a hundred years, being governed by a catapan (governorgeneral) at Bari. Otho the Great himself did not succeed in driving them altogether from Italy. The marriage of his son, Otho II, with the Greek princess Theophania, put an end to his exertions for this purpose, as did the unfortunate battle at Basentello to the similar attempts renewed by Otho II (980). Fourth Period.From Otho the Great to Gregory VII (1073). The Dorninion of the German Kings. In opposition to the designs of the count of Tusculum, who wished to supplant the absent emperor at Rome, a noble Roman, the consul Crescentius, attempted to govern Rome under the semblance of her ancient liberty (980;. Otho II, king since 973, occupied with his projects of conquest in Lower Italy, did not interfere with this administration, which became formidable to the vicious popes Boniface VII and John XV. But, when Otho III, who had reigned in Germany since 983, raised his kinsman Greg ory V to the popedom, Crescentius caused the latter to be expelled, and John XVI, a Greek, to be elected by the people. He also endeavored to place Rome again under the nominal supremacy of the Byzantine empire. Otho, however, reinstated Gregory, besieged Crescentius in the castle of St. Angelo, took him prisoner, and caused him to be beheaded with 12 other noble Romans (998). But the Romans again threw off their allegiance to the emperor, and yielded only to force. On the death of Otho III (1002), the Italians considered their connexion with the German empire as dissolved. Harduin, marquis of Ivrea, was elected king, and crowned at Pavia. This was a sufficient motive for Milan, the enemy of Pavia, to declare for Henry II (in Italy, I) of Germany. A civil war ensued, in which every city, relying on its walls, took a greater or less part. Henry was chosen king of Italy, by the nobles assembled in Pavia ; but disturbances arose, in which a part of the city was destroyed by fire (A. D. 1004). Not till after Harduin's death (1015) was Henry recognised as king by all Lombardy; he was succeeded by Conrad II (in Italy, I). At a diet held at Roncaglia, near Piacenza, in 1037, Conrad made the fiefs hereditary by a fundamental law of the empire, and endeavored to give stability and tranquillity to the state, but without success. The cities (which were daily becoming more powerful) and the bishops were engaged in continual quarrels with the nobility, and the nobility with their vassals, which could not be repressed. Republican Rome, under the influence of the family of Crescentius, could be reduced to obedience neither by Henry II and Conrad II nor by the popes. When Henry III (in Italy, II), the son and successor of Conrad (1039), entered Italy (1046), he found three popes in Rome, all of whom he deposed, appointed in their stead Clement II, and ever after filled the papal chair, by his own authority, with virtuous German ecclesiastics. This reform gave the popes new consequence, which afterwards became fatal to his successor. Henry died in 1056. During the long minority of his son Henry IV (in Italy, III), the policy of the popes, directed by the monk Hildebrand (afterwards Gregory VII), succeeded in creating an opposition, which soon became formidable to the secular power. (See Pope.) The Normans also contributed to this result. As early as 1016, warriors from Normandy had established themselves in Calabria and Apulia. Allies sometimes of the Lom bards, sometimes of the republics, sometimes of the Greeks against each other and against the Saracens, they constantly became more powerful by petty wars. The great preparations of Leo IX for their expulsion terminated in his defeat and capture (1053). On the other hand, Nicolas II united with the Norman princes, and, in 1059, invested Robert Guiscard with all the territories conquered by him in Lower Italy. From that time, the pope, in his conflicts with the .imperial power, relied on the support of his faithful vassal, the duke of Apulia and Calabria, to which Sicily was soon added. While the small states of the south were thus united into one large one, the kingdom in the north was dissolving into smaller states. The Lombard cities were laying the foundation of their future importance. Venice, Genoa and Pisa were already powerful. The Pisanese, who, in 980, had given to Otho II efficient aid against the Greeks in Lower Italy, and, in 1005, boldly attacked the Saracens there, ventured, in connexion with the Genoese (no less warlike and skilled in navigation), to assail the infidels in their own territory, and twice conquered Sardinia (1017 and 1050), which they divided into several large fiefs, and distributed them among their principal citizens. Fifth Period.From Gregory VII to the Foil of the Hohenstaufen. Struggles of the Popes and Republics with the Emperors. Gregory VII humbled Henry IV in 1077. Urban II instigated the emperor's own sons against their father. Conrad, the eldest, was crowned king of Italy in 1093, after whose death (1101) Henry, the second son, succeeded in deposing his father from the imperial throne. Henry V, the creature of the pope, soon became his opponent; but, after a severe conflict, concluded with him the concordate of Worms (1122). A main point, which remained unsettled, gave rise to new difficulties in the 12th and 13th centuriesthe estate of Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, who (died 1115), by a will, the validity of which was disputed by the emperor, bequeathed all her property to the papal see. Meanwhile, in the south, the Norman state (1130), under Roger I, was formed into a kingdom, from the ruins of republican liberty and of the Greek and Lombard dominion. (See Sicilies, the Tivo.) In the small republics of the north of Italy, the government was, in most cases, divid ed between the consuls, the lesser council (credenza), the great council, and the popular assembly (parlamento). Pett}' feuds developed their youthful energies. Such were those that terminated with the destruction of Lodi by Milan (1111), and the ten years' siege of Como by the forces of all the Lombard cities (1118-1128). The subjugation of this city rendered Milan the first power in Lombardy, and most of the neighboring cities were her allies. Others formed a counter alliance with her antagonist, Payia. Disputes between Milan and Cremona were the occasion of the first war between the two unions (1129), to which the contest of Lothaire II and Conrad of Hohenstaufen for the crown, soon gave another direction. This was the origin of the Gibelines (favorers of the emperor) and the Guelfs (the adherents of the family of Guelfs (q. v.), and, in general, the party of the popes). In Rome, the love of liberty, restrained by Gregory VII, rose in proportion as his successors ruled with less energy. The schisms between Gelasius II and Gregory VIII, Innocent II and Anacletus II, renewed the hopes of the Romans. Arnold of Brescia, formerly proscribed (1139) for bis violent attacks against the luxury of the clergy in that country, was their leader (1146). After eight years, Adrian IV succeeded in effecting his execution. Frederic I of Hohenstaufen (called Barbarossa) crossed the Alps six times, in order to defend his possessions in Italy against the republicanism of the Lombard cities. Embracing the cause of Pa via as the weaker, he devastated (1154) the territory of Milan, destroyed Tortona, and was crowned in Pavia and Rome. In 1158, he reduced Milan, demolished the fortifications of Piacenza, and held a diet at Roncaglia, where he extended the imperial prerogatives conformably with the Justinian code, gave the cities chief magistrates {jpodesta\ and proclaimed a general peace. His rigor having excited a new rebellion, he reduced Crema to ashes (1160), compelled Milan to submission, and, having driven out all the inhabitants, demolished the fortifications (1162). Nothing, however, but the terror of his arms upheld his power. When the emperor entered Italy (1163) without an army, the cities concluded a union for maintaining their freedom, which, in 1167, was converted into the Lombard confederacy. The confederates restored Milan, and, to hold in check the Gibelme city of Pavia, built a new city, called, in honor of the pope, Alessandria. Neither Frederic's governor, Christian, archbishop of Mentz, nor be himself, could effect any thing against Ibe confederacy; the former failed before Ancona (1174), with all the power of Gibeline Tuscany; and the latter, with the Germans, before Alexandria (1175). He was also defeated by Milan, at Legnano, in 1176. He then concluded a concordate with Alexander III, and a truce with the cities (1176), at Venice, and a peace, which secured their independence, at Constance (1183). The republics retained the podesta (foreign noblemen, now elected by themselves) as judges and generals. As formerly, all were to take the oath of fealty and allegiance to the emperor. But, instead of strengthening their league into a permanent confederacy (the only safety for Italy), they were soon split into new factions, when the designs of the Hohenstaufen on the throne of Sicily drew Frederic and Henry VI (V) from Lombardy. The defeat of the united forces of almost all Lombardy, on the Oglio, by the inhabitants of Brescia, though inferior in numbers, is celebrated under the name of La mala morte (1197). Among the nobles, the Da Romano were the chiefs of the Gibelines, and the marquises of Este of the Guelfs. During the minority of Frederic II, and the disputes for the succession to the German throne, Innocent III (Frederic's guardian) succeeded in reestablishing the secular authority of the holy see in Rome and the surrounding country, and in enforcing its claims to the donations of Charlemagne and Matilda. He also brought over almost all Tuscany, except Pisa, to the party of the Guelfs (1197). A blind hereditaiy hatred, rather than a zeal for the cause, inspired the parties ; for when a Guelf (Otho IV) ascended the imperial throne, the Guelfs became his party, and the Gibelines the pope's; but the reversion of the imperial crown to the house of Hohenstaufen, in the person of Frederic II, soon restored the ancient relations (1212). In Florence, this party spirit gave pretence and aliment (1215) to the disputes of the Buondelmonti and Donati with the Uberti and Amidei, originating in private causes; and most cities were thus internally divided into Guelfs and Gibelines. The Guelf cities of Lombardy renewed the Lombard confederacy, in 1226. The Dominican, John of Vicenza, attacked these civil wars. The assembly at Paquara (1233) seemed to crown his exertions with success; but his attempt to obtain secular power in Vicenza occasioned his fall. After the emperor had returned from his crusade (1230), he waged war, with varying success, against the cities and against Gregory IX, heedless of the excommunication, while Ez?e lin da. Romano, under the pretence of favoring the Gibelines, established, by every kind of violence, his own power in Padua, Verona, Vicenza and the neighborhood. The papal court succeeded in seducing the Pisanese family of the Visconti of Galium in Sardinia, from the republic, and rendering them its vassals, notwithstanding the resistance of the republic, and especially of the counts of Gherardesca. Thence Pisa, too, was divided into Gibelines (Conti) and Guelfs (Visconti). Frederic, however, married his natural son, Enzius, to a Visconti, and gave him the title of king of Sardinia. The plan of Gregory IX, to depose Frederic, was successfully executed by Innocent IV, in the council of Lyons (1245). This completely weakened the Gibeline party, which was already nearly undermined by the intrigues of the mendicant orders. The faithful Parma revolted; the triumph of the Gibelines in Florence (1248) lasted only two years; and their second victory, after the 'battle of Monte Aperto (1260), gave them the ascendency but six years. The Bolognese united all the cities of Italy in a Guelf league, and, in the battle of the Panaro (1249), took Enzius prisoner, whom they never released. In. the Trevisan Mark alone, the Gibelines possessed the supremacy, by means of Ezzelin, till he fell before a crusade of all the Guelfs against him (1255). But these contests were fatal to liberty ; the house Delia Scala followed that of Romano in the dominion, and Milan itself, with a great part of Lombardy, found masters in the house Delia Torre. Tyrants every where arose; the maritime republics and the republic of Tuscany alone remained free. Sixth Period.From the Fall of the Hohtnstaufen to the Formation of the modern Stales. In this period, different princes attempted to usurp the sovereignty of Italy.1. The Princes of Anjou. After Charles I of Anjou had become, by the favor of the pope, king of Naples, senator of Rome, papal vicar in Tuscany, and had directed his ambition to the throne of Italy (a policy in which his successors persevered), the names of Guelfs and Gibelines acquired a new signification. The former denoted the friends, the latter the enemies, of the French. To these factions were added, in the republics, the parties of the nobility and the people, the latter of which was almost universally victorious. The honest exertions of the noble Gregory X (who died 1276) to establish peace, were of no avail; those of Nicolas III, who feared the preponderanceof Charles, were more efficient; but Martin IV (1280), servilely devoted to Charles, destroyed every thing which had been effected, and persecuted the Gibelines with new animosity. A different interest that of trade and navigationimpelled the maritime republics to mutual wars. The Genoese assisted Michael Palseologus (1261) to recover Constantinople from the Venetians, and received in return Chios; at Meloria, they annihilated (1284) the navy of the Pisans, and completed their dominion of the sea by a victory over the Venetians at Curzola (1298). Florence rendered its democracy complete by the banishment of all the nobles (1282), and strengthened the Guelf party by wise measures; but a new schism, caused by the insignificant Pistoia, soon divided the Guelfs in Florence and all Tuscany into two factions the Neri (Black) and Bianchi (White) (1300). The latter were almost all expelled by the intrigues of Boniface VIII, and joined the Gibelines (1302). In Lombardy, freedom seemed to have expired, when the people, weary of the everlasting feuds of their tyrants, rose in most of the cities, and expelled them (1302-6), including the Visconti, who had supplanted the Delia Torre (1277) in the government of Milan.2. The Germans and the Delia Scala. Henry VII, the first emperor who had appeared in Italy for 60 years (1310), restored the princes to their cities, and found general submission to his requisitions, peace among the parties, and homage to the empire. Florence alone undertook the glorious part which she so nobly sustained for two centuries, as the guardian of Italian freedom, chose Robert of Naples, the enemy of Henry, her protector for five years, and remained free while Italy swarmed with tyrants. The Gibeline Pisa received a master after the death of Henry, in Uguccione della Faggiuola (1314). After his expulsion, Lucca, which he also ruled, received another lord in Castruccio Castracani (1316); Padua fell (1318) to the house of Carrara; Alexandria, Tortona (1315) and Cremona (1322) to the Visconti of Milan; Mantua (governed, since 1275, by the Bonacossi), devolved, by inheritance, to the Gonzagas (1328); in Ferrara, the longcontested dominion of the Este was established (1317); and Ravenna was governed, from 1273, by the Polenta. In the other cities, the same tyranny existed, but frequently changing from family to family, and therefore more oppressive. These petty princes, especially Delia Scala, Matteo Visconti, and Castruccio, were a counter poise to the ambitious views of Robert of Naples, appointed by Clement V imperial vicar in Italy. Robert, however, acquired for his son, Charles of Calabria, the government of Florence and Sienna, which he retained till his death (1328). Louis of Bavaria, who came to Italy (1327) to reduce the Anjous and the Guelfs, became himself at variance with the Gibeiines, whom he alienated by his caprice and perfidy ; and the character of John XXII so cooled the zeal of the Guelfs, that both parties, recognising the common interest of liberty, became somewhat more friendly. The amiable adventurer John, king of Bohemia, suddenly entered Italy (1330). Invited by the inhabitants of Brescia, favored by the pope, elected lord of Lucca, every where acting the part of a mediator and peacemaker, he would have succeeded in establishing the power at which he aimed, had he not been opposed by the Florentines. On his second expedition to Italy (1333), Azzo Visconti, Mastino della Scala, and Robert of Naples, united against him and his ally, the papal legate Bertrand of Poiet, who aspired to the dominion of Bologna. After the downfall of both (1334), when the Pepoli began to rule in Bologna, Mastino della Scala, master of half Lombardy and of Lucca, began to menace the freedom of Lombardy. Florence led the opposition against him, and excited a war of the league, in which it gained nothing but the security of its liberty. After the baffled Mastino had sold Lucca to the Florentines, the Pisans arose, and conquered it for themselves (1342). In Rome, torn by aristocrats, Cola Rienzi (1347) sought to restore order and tranquillity ; he was appointed tribune of the people, but was forced, after seven months, to yield to the nobility. Having returned, after seven years of banishment, with the legate cardinal Albornoz (1354), he ruled again a short time, when he was murdered in an insurrection. The Genoese, tired of the perpetual disputes of the Gibeline Spinolas and Dorias with the Guelf Grimaldi and Fieschi, banished all these families in 1339, and made Simon Boccanegra their first doge. In Pisa, the Gibeiines, the council of the captaingeneral, Ricciani della Gherardesca, separated into two new parties, Bergolini and Raspanti, of whom the former, under Andrea Gambacorti, expelled the latter (1348). About this time, Italy suffered by a terrible famine (1347) and a still more terrible pestilence (1348), which swept away two thirds of tl.e population. No less terrible was the scourge of the bande (banditti), or large companies of soldiers, who, after every peace, continued the war on their own account, ravaging the whole country with fire and sword; such as the bands of the count Werner (1348) and of Montreal (1354).3. The Visconti. John Visconti, archbishop and lord of Milan, and his successors, were checked in their dangerous projects for extending their power, not so much by Charles IV's expedition through Italy, and by the exertions of innumerable papal legates, as by the wisdom and intrepidity of the republics, especially of the Florentine. Charles appeared in 1355, overthrew in Pisa the Gambacorti, elevating the Raspanti, destroyed in Sienna the dominion of the Nine, to which succeeded that of the Twelve, subjected for the moment all Tuscany, and compelled Florence itself to purchase the title of an imperial city. In 1363, he effected but little against the Visconti, freed Lucca from the Pisanese power, and overthrew the Twelve in Sienna; but his attacks on the liberty of Pisa and Sienna failed in consequence of the valor of the citizens. Pope Innocent VI succeeded in conquering the whole of the States of the Church by means of the cardinal legate Egidius Albornoz (1354-o 60) ; but, reduced to extremities by the oppressions of the legates, and encouraged by Florence, the enemy of all tyranny, the conquered cities revolted in 1375. The cruelties of cardinal Robert of Geneva (afterwards Clement VII), and of bis band of soldiers from Bretagne, produced only a partial subjugation; and in the great schism, the freedom of these cities, or rather the power of their petty tyrants, was fully confirmed. The Visconti, meanwhile, persisting in their schemes of conquest, arrayed the whole strength of Italy in opposition to them, and caused the old factions of Guelfs and Gibeiines to be forgotten in the impending danger. Genoa submitted to John Visconti (1353), wTho had purchased Bologna from the Pepoli (1350); but his enterprise against Tuscany failed through the resistance of the confederated Tuscan republics. Another league against him was concluded by the Venetians (1354) with the petty tyrants of Lombardy. But the union of the Florentines with the Visconti against the papal legates (1375), continued but a short time. In Florence, the Guelfs were divided into the parties of the Ricci and the Albizzi. The sedition of the Ciompi (1378), to which this gave rise, was quelled by Michael di Lando, who had been elected gonfaloniere by themselves, in a way no less manly than disinterested. The Venetians, irri tated with Carrara on account of the assistance he had given the Genoese in the war at Chiozza (1379), looked quietly on while John Galeazzo Visconti deprived the Delia Scala and Carrara of all their possessions (1387 and 1388), and Florence alone assisted the unfortunate princes. Francis Carrara made himself again master <of Padua (1390), and maintained his advantages, till he sunk under the enmity of the Venetians (1406), who, changing their policy, became henceforth, instead of the opponents, the rivals of the ambitious views of the Visconti. John Galeazzo obtained from the emperor Wenceslaus the investiture of Milan as a duchy (1395), purchased Pisa (which his natural son Gabriel bargained away to Florence, 1405) from the tyrant Gerard of Appiano (who reserved only the principality of Piombiiio), and subjugated Sienna (1399), Perugia (1400) and Bologna (1402), so that Florence, fearfully menaced, alone stood against him in the cause of liberty. On his death (1402), the prospect brightened, and, during the minority of his sons, a great portion of his states was lost. When Ladislaus of Naples, taking advantage of the schism, made himself master of all the Ecclesiastical States, and threatened to conquer all Italy (1409), Florence again alone dared to resist him. But this danger was transitory; the Visconti soon rose up again in opposition. Duke Philip Maria reconquered all his states of Lombardy, by means of the great Carmagnola (1416 20). Genoa, also, which was sometimes given up, in nominal freedom, to stormy factions (of the Fregosi, Adorni, Montalto, Guarco), and at other times was subject to France (1396), or to the marquis of Montferrat (1411), submitted to him (1421). Florence subsequently entered into an alliance against him with the Venetians (1425); and by means of Carmagnola, who had now come over to them,they conquered the whole country as far as the Adda, and retained it in the peace of Ferrara (1428). In Perugia, the great condottiere Braccio da Montone, of the party of the Baglioni, succeeded in becoming master of this city and of all Umbria, and, for a period, even of Rome (1416). In Sienna, the Petrucci attained a permanent dominion (1430). 4. Balance of the Italian States. After Milan had been enfeebled by the Venetians and Florentines, and while Alphonso of Arragon was constantly disturbed in Naples (see Naples) by the Anjou party, no dfugerous predominance of power existed in Italy, though mutual jealousy still excited frequent wars, in which two parties among the Italian mercenary soldiers, the Bracheschi (from Braccio da Montone) and the Sforzeschi (so called from Sforza Attendolo), continued always hostile to each other, contrary to the custom of those mercenary bands. After the extinction of the Visconti (1447), Francis Sforza succeeded in gaining possession of the Milanese state (1450). (See Milan.) The Venetians, who aimed at territorial aggrandizement, having formed a connexion with some princes against him, he found an ally in Florence, which, with a change of circumstances, wisely altered her policy. About this time, the family of the Medici attained to power in that city by their wealth and talent. (See Medici.) Milan (where the Sforza had established themselves), Venice (which possessed half of Lombardy), Florence (wisely managed by Lorenzo Medici), the States of the Church (for the most part restored to the holy see), and Naples (which was incapable of employing its forces in direct attacks on other states), constituted, in the 15th century, the political balance of Italy, which, during the manifold feuds of these states, permitted no one to become dangerous to the independence of the rest, till 1494, when Charles VIII of France entered Italy to conquer Naples, and Louis Moro Sforza played the part first of his ally, then of his enemy, while the pope, Alexander VI, eagerly sought the friendship of the French, to promote the exaltation of his son, Caasar Borgia.5. Contest of foreign Powers for Provinces in Italy. Charles VIII was compelled to evacuate Naples and all Italy; his successor, Louis XII, was also expelled, by Ferdinand the Catholic, from Naples (conquered in 1504). He was more successful against Milan, which, supported by hereditary claims, he subjected to himself in 1500. Csesar Borgia's attempts to acquire the sovereignty of Italy were frustrated by the death of his father (1505); when the warlike pope, Julius II, completed the subjugation of the States of the Church, not, indeed, for a son or nephew, but in the name of the holy see. He concluded with Maximilian I, Ferdinand the Catholic, and Louis XII, the league of Cambray (1508) against the ambitious policy of the Venetians, who artfully succeeded in dissolving the league, which threatened them with destruction. The pope then formed a league with the Venetians themselves, Spain, and the Swiss, for the purpose of driving the French from Italy. This holy league (1509) did not, however, then attain its object, although Julius was little affected by the French and German council held at Pisa to depose him. Max, Sforza, who had reacquired Milan (1512), relinquished it without reserve to Francis I (1515) ; but the emperor Charles V assumed it as a reverted fief of the empire, and conferred it onFrancesco Sforza, brother of Maximilian (1520). This was the cause of violent wars, in which the efforts of Francis were always unsuccessful. He was taken prisoner at Pa via (1525), and, with his other claims, was compelled to renounce those on Milan, which remained to Sforza, and, after his death (1540), was granted by Charles V to his son Philip. The Medicean popes, Leo X (1513) and Clement VII (1523), were bent, for the most part, on the aggrandizement of their family. Charles V, to whom all Italy submitted after the battle of Pavia, frustrated, indeed, the attempts of Clement VII to weaken his power, and conquered and pillaged Rome (1527); but, being reconciled with the pope, he raised (1530) the Medici to princely authority. Florence, incensed at the foolish conduct of Pietro towards France, had banished the Medici, in 1494, but recalled them in 1512, and was now compelled to take a station among the principalities, under duke Alexander I de' Medici. Italian policy, of which Florence had hitherto been the soul, from this period, is destitute of a common spirit, and the nistory of Italy is therefore destitute of a central point. Seventh Period.Mutations of the Italian States down to the French Revolution. After the extinction of the male branch of the marquises of Montferrat, Charles V gave this country to the Gonzaga of Mantra (1536). Maximilian II subsequently (i573) raised Montferrat to a duchy. The Florentines failed (1537) in a new attempt to emancipate themselves after the murder of duke Alexander. Cosmo I succeeded him in the government, by the influence of Charles V. Parma and Piacenza, which Julius II had conquered for the papal see, Paul III erected into a duchy (1545), which he gave to his natural son, Peter Alois Farnese, whose son Ottavio obtained the imperial investiture in 1556. Genoa (see Genoa), subject to the French since 1499, found a deliverer in Andrew Doria (1528). He founded the aristocracy, and the conspiracy of Fiesco (1547) failed to subvert him. In 1553, besides Milan, Charles V conferred Naples also on his son Philip II. By the peace of ChateauCambresis (1559), Philip II and Henry II, of France, renounced all their claims to Piedmont, which was restored to its rightful sovereign, dukr Emanuel Philibert of Savoy, the brave Spanish general. The legitimate male line of the house of Este became extinct in 1597, when the illegitimate Csesaro of Este obtained Modena and Reggio from the empire, and Ferrara was confiscated as a reverted fief by the holy see. In the second half of the 16th centuiy, the prosperity of Italy was increased by a long peace, as much as the loss of its commerce allowed,Henry IV of France having, by the treaty of Lyons, ceded Saluzzo, the last French possession in Italy, to Savoy. The tranquillity continued till the contest for the succession of Mantua and Montferrat, after the extinction of the Gonzaga family (1627). Misfortunes in Germany compelled Ferdinand II to confer both countries (1631), as a fief on Charles of Nevers, the prottge1 cf France, whose family remained in possession till the war of Spanish succession. In the peace of Chierasco (1631), Richelieu's diplomacy acquired also Pignerol and Casalestrong points of support, in case of new invasions of Italy, though he had to relinquish the latter (1637). By the extinction of the house Delia Rovera, the duchy of Urbino, with which Julius II had invested it, devolved, in 1631, to the papal see. In the second half of the 17th century, the peace of Italy was not interrupted, excepting by the attempts of Louis XIV on Savoy and Piedmont, and appeared to be secured for a long time, by the treaty of neutrality at Turin (1696), when the war of Spanish succession broke out. Austria conquered Milan, Mantua and Montferrat (1706), retained the two first (Mantua was forfeited by the felony of the duke), and gave the latter to Savoy. In the peace of Utrecht (1714), Austria obtained, moreover, Sardinia and Naples ; Savoy obtained Sicily, which it exchanged with Austria for Sardinia, from which it assumed the royal title. Mont Genievre was made the boundary between France and Italy, The house of Farnese becoming extinct in 1731, the Spanish Infant Charles obtained Parma and Piacenza. In the war for the Polish throne, of 1733, Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, in alliance with France and Spain, conquered the Milanese territory, and received therefrom, in the peace of Vienna (1738), Novara and Tortona. Charles, Infant of Spain, became king of the Two Sicilies, and ceded Parma and Piacenza to Austria. The Medici of Florence, entitled, since 1575, granddukes of Tuscany, became extinct in 1737. Francis Stephan, duke of Lorraine, now re celled Tuscany by the preliminaries of Vienna, and, becoming emperor in 1745, made it the appanage of the younger line of the AustroLorraine house. In the war of Austrian succession, the Spaniards conquered Milan (1745), but were expelled thence by Charles Emmanuel, to whom Maria Theresa ceded, in reward, some Milanese districts, viz. all of Vigevanasco and Bobbio, and part of Anghiera and Pavese. Massa and Carrara fell to Modena, in 1743, by right of inheritance. The Spanish Infant, don Philip, conquered Parma and Piacenza in his own name, lost them, and obtained them again as a hereditary duchy, by the peace of AixlaChapelle (1748). Thus, in the 18th century, the houses of Lorraine, Bourbon and Savoy possessed all Italy, with the exception of the ecclesiastical territories, Modena and the republics, which, like a superannuated man, beheld with apathy operations in which they had no share. A quiet of 40 years ushered in their downfall. ^ Eighth Period.From the French Revohrtion to the present Time. In September, 1792, the French troops first penetrated into Savoy, and planted the tree of liberty. Though expelled for some time, in 1793, by the Piedmontese and Austrians, fchey held it at the end of the year. The national convention had already declared war against Naples, in February, 1793. In April, 1794, the French advanced into the Piedmontese and Genoese territories, but were expelled from Italy in July, 1795, by the Austrians, Sardinians and Neapolitans. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte received the chief command of the French army in Italy. He forced the king of Sardinia to conclude a treaty of peace, by which the latter was obliged to cede Nizza (Nice) and Savoy to France ; conquered Austrian Lombardy, with the exception of Mantua ; put the duke of Parma and the pope under contribution ; and struck such consternation into the king of Naples, that he begged for peace. After Mantua had also fallen, in 1797, Bonaparte formed of Milan, Mantua, the portion of Parma north of the Po, and Modena, the Cisalpine republic. (SeeCisalpineRepublic.) France likewise made war on the pope, and annexed Bologna, Ferrara and Romagna to the Cisalpine republic (1797), by the peace of Tolentino. The French then advanced towards Rome, overthrew the ecclesiastical government, and erected aRoman republic (1798). In Genoa, Bonaparte occasioned a revolution, by which a democratic republic was formed after 9* the model of the French, under the name of the Ligurian republic. The French had, meanwhile, penetrated into Austria, through the Venetian territory. The Venetians now made common cause with the brave Tyrolese, who gained advantages over the French in their Alps. Bonaparte, therefore, occupied Venice without striking a blow, and gave the republic a democratic constitution ; but, by the peace of CampoFormio (]7th Oct., 1797), the Venetian territory, as far as the Adige, was relinquished to Austria, and the rest incorporated with the Cisalpine republic. The king of Sardinia concluded a treaty of alliance and subsidy with France, October 25; but, in 1798, the directory, assailed in Rome from Naples, deemed it expedient to compel him to resign his territories on the main land. Notwithstanding its treaty of amity with France, Naples concluded an alliance, in 1798, with England and Russia. The French, therefore, occupied Naples, and erected there the Parthenopean republic. The grandduke of Tuscany had likewise formed an alliance with Naples and England, and his country was, in return, compelled by the French to receive, like Piedmont, a military administration. After the congress of Rastadt (q. v.) was broken off, Austria and the German empire, under Russian support, renewed the war against the French, who again left Naples and Rome to the English, Russians and Turks. The king and the pope returned to their capitals in Lombardy; the French were defeated by the Austrians, under Kray and Melas, and by the Russians, under Suwarroff, and lost all their fortresses, except Genoa, where Massena sustained a vigorous siege, while his countrymen had to evacuate all Italy. But, in the meanwhile, Bonaparte was made first consul after his return from Egypt. (See Egypt, Campaign of the French in.) He marched with a new army to Italy, defeated the Austrians at the memorable battle of Marengo (1800), and compelled them to a capitulation, by which all the Italian fortresses were again evacuated. By the peace of Luneville (q. v.), Feb. 9, 1801, the possession of Venice was confirmed to Austria, which was to indemnify the duke of Modena, by the cession of Brisgau. The duke of Parma received Tuscany, and afterwards, from Bonaparte, the title of king of Etruria. Parma was united with France. The Cisalpine and Ligurian republics were guarantied by Austria and France, and with the Ligurian territories were united the imperial fiefs included within their limits. The king of Naples, who had occupied the States of the Church, was obliged to conclude peace at Florence (28th of ""March). By Russian mediation, he escaped with the cession of Piombino, the Stato degli Presidj, and his half of the island of Elba, together with the promise of closing his harbors against the English. The other half of Elba Tuscany had already relinquished to France. But the whole island was obstinately defended by the English and Corsicans, with the armed inhabitants, and not evacuated till autumn. The Stato degli Presidj France ceded to Etruria, September 19. Strong detachments of French troops remained both in Naples and Tuscany, and their support cost immense sums. To the republics of Genoa and Lucca the first consul gave new constitutions in 1801. But in January, 1802, the Cisalpine republic was transformed into the Italian republic, in imitation of the new French constitution, and Bonaparte became president. He appointed the citizen Melzi d'Erile vicepresident. Genoa also received a new constitution, and Girolamo Durazzo for doge. Piedmont, however, was united with France. After Bonaparte had become empei*or, in 1804, he attached (March 17, 1805) the royal crown of Italy to the new imperial crown ; he promised, however, never to unite the new monarchy with France, and even to give it a king of its own. The new constitution was similar to that of the French empire. Napoleon founded the order of the iron crown, and, having placed the crown on his own head, at Milan, May 28, and Genoa having been united with France, May 25, he appointed his stepson, Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy, who labored with great zeal for the improvement of all branches of the government, of industry and the arts. Circumstances, however, rendered this new government oppressive, as the public expenses, during peace, amounted to 100,000,000 francs, which were all to be contributed by less than 4,000,000 people. No European power recognised, expressly, the Italian kingdom of Napoleon. The emperor continued to strengthen his power against the active enemies of the new order of things, and gave to his sister Eliza the principality of Piombino, and to her husband, Pasquale Bacciocchi, the republic of Lucca, as a principality, both as French fiefs. Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were incorporated with the French empire, July 21st. The pope was obliged to sanction the imperial corona tion by his presence. Austria now acceded to the alliance of Russia and Eng land against France. Naples, also,again suffered the English and Russians to lanu. Bui the success of the Austrian arms was frustrated by the defeats at Ulm and Austerlitz, after which the peace of Presburg (December 26th, 1805) completed the French supremacy in Italy. Austrian Venice, with Istria and Dalmatia, was united to the kingdom of Italy ; and this, with all the French institutions, Italy recognised. The kingdom had now an extent of 35,450 square miles, with 5,657,000 inhabitants. Naples was evacuated by its auxiliaries, and occupied by the French, notwithstanding the attempts of the queen to excite a universal insurrection. March 31, Napoleon gave the crown of Naples to his brother Joseph. In vain did the prince of HessePbilippsthal defend the fortress Gaeta. In vain did an insurrection break out in Calabria, encouraged by the English, who, under general Stuart, defeated the French at Meida, July 4, and conquered several fortified places on the coast; but, after Gaeta had fallen (July 18), and Massena penetrated as far as Calabria, they reembarked. As the English, however, were masters of the sea, Sicily was secured to king Ferdinand. In 1808, the widow of the king of Etruria, who conducted the regency in behalf of her minor son, was deprived of her kingdom, which was united with France. Napoleon, moreover, appointed his brotherinlaw, the prince Borghese, governorgeneral of the departments beyond the Alps, who took up his residence at Turin. As Napoleon had, meanwhile, given his brother Joseph the crown of Spain (who reluctantly left Naples, where he was much esteemed, as he had, within this short time, laid the foundation of the most essential improvements), he filled the throne of Naples with his brotherinlaw Joachim Murat, until that period grandduke of Berg, who entered Naples Sept. 6, 1808. In 1809, the emperor gave Tuscany to his sister Eliza, of Piombino, with the title of grandduchess. In the same year, Austria made new exertions to break the excessive power of France; but Napoleon again drove her troops from the field, and appeared once more victorious in Vienna, where he proclaimed (May 17) the end of the secular authority of the popes (a measure of which his downfall has delayed the execution), and the union of the States of the Church with France. Rome became the second city of the empire, and a pensionof 2,000,000 of francs was assigned to the pope. After the peace of Vienna, by which Napoleon acquired the Illyrian provinces, Istria and Dalmatia were separated from the kingdom of Italy and attached to them. On the other hand, Bavaria ceded to Italy the circle of the Adige, a part of Eisach, and the jurisdiction of Clausen. The power of the French emperor was now, to all appearance, firmly established in Italy as in all Europe. While the Italian people were supporting French armies, sacrificing their own troops in the ambitious wars of Napoleon in remote regions, and were obliged to pay heavy taxes in the midst of the total ruin of their commerce, all the periodicals were full of praises of the institutions for the encouragement of science, arts and industry in Italy. After the fatal retreat from Russia, Murat, whom Napoleon had personally offended, deserted the cause of France, and joined Austria, Jan. 11, 1814, whose army penetrated into Italy, under Bellegarde. The viceroy, Eugene, continued true to Napoleon and his own character, and offered to the enemies of his dynasty the boldest resistance, which was frustrated by the fall of Napoleon in France. After the truce of April 21, 1814, the French troops evacuated all Italy, and most of the provinces were *estored to their legitimate sovereigns. The wife of Napoleon, however, the empress Maria Louisa, obtained the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, with reversion to her son ; and Napoleon himself became sovereign of Elba, of which he took possession May 4. But, before the congress of Vienna had organized the political relations of Europe, he effected his return to France, March 1, 1815. At the same time, the king of Naples, Murat (see Murat), abandoned his former ambigucrs attitude, and took up arms, as he pretended, for the independence of Italy. But his appeal to the Italians, March 30. was answered by a declaration of war by Austria, April 12. Driven from Bologna by the Austrian forces, April 15, and totally defeated by Bianchi Tolentino, May 2 and 3, he lost the kingdom of Naples, into which the Austrian general Nugent had penetrated from Rome, and Bianchi from Aquila, seven weeks after the opening of the campaign. He embarked from Naples, with a view of escaping to France, May 19. Ferdinand IV returned from Palermo, and Murat's family found an asylum in Austria. Murat himself made a descent "n Calabria, from Corsica, in order to re cover his lost kingdom. He was taken prisoner at Pizzo, brought before a courtmartial, and shot, Oct. 13, 1815.* Meanwhile, the congress of Vienna, by the act of June 9, 1815, had arranged the affairs of Italy:1. The king of Sardinia was reinstated in his territories, according to the boundaries of 1792, with some alterations on the side of Geneva ; for the portion of Savoy, left in possession of France by the peace of Paris, of May 30, 1814, was restored by the treaty of Paris, of Nov. 20, 1815. To his states was united Genoa, as a duchy, according to the boundaries of that republic in 1792, and contrary to the promises made to Genoa. 2. The emperor of Austria united with his hereditary states the new LombardoVenetian kingdom, consisting of the Venetian provinces formerly belonging to Austria, the Valteline, Bormio and Chiavenna, separated from the Grisons, besides Mantua and Milan. Istria, however, wTas united with the GermanicAustrian kingdom of Illyria; Dalmatia, with* If the downfall of Napoleon is regretted in any quarter of the world, it is in Italy. This ccuntry; which; to the misfortune of Germany that of being split into petty divisions, and convulsed by civil dissensions, for centuriesadds the further misfortune of obeying foreign princes, had become destitute of every element of national life. Its commerce was fettered by the numerous political divisions ; its administration poisoned and vitiated to a degree of which none can have an idea, except an eyewitness 3 the cultivators of the ground impoverished by the heavy rents which they had to pay to the rich landowners j science enslaved by the sway of the clergy; the noblemen, distrusted by the foreign governments, where they existed, and not admitted to offices of great importance, had lost energy and activity ; in fact, hardly any thing could be said to flourish, with the excepfi >n of music, and, to a certain degree, other fine arts. Under Napoleon, every thing was changed. Italian armies were created, which gave birth to a sense of military honor among the people 5 the organization of the judicial tribunals was improved, and justice much better administered ; industry was awakened and encouraged ; schools received new attention, and the sciences were concentrated in large and effective learned societies 3 in short, a new life was awakened, and no Italian or German, who wishes well to his country, can read without deep interest the passage in Las Cases' Memorial, in which Napoleon's views on these two countries are given. His prophecy, that Italy will one day be united, we hope will be fulfilled, Union has been the ardent wish of reflecting [talians for centuries, and the want of it is the great cause of the suffering of this beautiful but unfortunate country. A very interesting work, respecting the improvement of civil spirit in Italy, during the time of Napoleon, is Lettres sur I Italie, by Lullin de Chateauvieux. This work also contains much information respecting the agriculture of Italy, and many other subjects, of which the descriptions of this country hardly ever speak. Ragusa and Cattaro, constituting a distinct Austrian kingdom.3. The valley of the Po was adopted as the boundary between the States of the Church and Parma ; otherwise, the boundaries of Jan. 1, 1792, were retained. The Austrian house of Este again received Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, Massa and Carrara.4. The empress Maria Louisa received the state of Parma, as a sovereign duchess, but, "by the treaty of Paris, of June 10,1817, only for life, it being agreed that the duchess of Lucca and her descendants should inherit it. Lucca, in that case, falls to the Tuscan dynasty, which, in return, resigns its districts in Bohemia to the duke of Reichstadt.5. The archduke Ferdinand of Austria became again grandduke of Tuscany, to which were joined the Stato degli Presidj, the former Neapolitan part of the island of Elba, the principality of Piombino, and some small included districts, formerly fiefs of the German empire. The prince Buoncompagni Ludovisi retained all his rights of property in Elba and Piombino.6. The Infanta, Maria Louisa, received Lucca, of which she took possession as a sovereign duchy, 1817, with an annuity of 500,000 francs, till the reversion of Parma.7. The territories of the church were all restored, with the exception of the strip of land on the left bank of the Po ; and Austria retained the right of maintaining garrisons in Ferrara and Commacchio.8. Ferdinand IV was again recognised as king of the Two Sicilies. England retained Malta, and was declared the protectress of the United Ionian Islands. (See Ionian Islands.) The knights of Malta, who had recovered their possessions in the States of the Church and in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (in Spain, 1815), for a time made Catanea, and, after 1826, Ferrara, their residence. The republic of San Marino, and the prince of Monaco, whose mountain fortress the Sardinians, and, before them, the French, occupied, alone remained unharmed aniid the 15 political revolutions which Italy had undergone in the course of 25 years. The Austrian predominance was thus more firmly established than ever in Italy. In its seas and on its coasts, the British trident rules. Meanwhile, the desire of union and independence was not extinguished among the people of Italy. Traces of a struggle for a united and liberal government were almost eveiy where visible; and several of the governments, Naples, Rome and Turin, in particular, in vain endeavored to protect themselves against secret political societies (Unitari ans, Carbonari) and freemasonry by inquisitory tribunals, Jesuits and secret police. The fate of this delightful country has employed, during the last seven years, the cabinets of the first powers of Europe, according to the system of modern policy founded by the holy alliance, and more precisely defined by the congress of AixlaChapelle (1818). While the spirit of Carbonarism (see Ca7*bonari),excited by the Spanish revolution of January 1, 1820, and having for its object the union of Italy under one government, and its independence of foreign powers, particularly of Austria, threatened to subvert the political institutions of the peninsula in general, and of the single states in particular, and in some places, especially in Naples, Sicily and Piedmont, actually shook them, by rousing the troops to revolt, and by exciting popular commotionsthe cabinets labored with equal zeal to maintain the principle of stability by the suppression of every revolution, and by opposing to the popular spirit the power of the police. Thus was a question, fraught with the most momentous consequences for all Europe, practically decided in Italy, viz. whether one state is entitled to interfere in the internal affairs of another, and overthrow, by force of arms, any new constitution which militates against the absolute monarchical principle. This principle, which was proclaimed unconditionally by the leading states of the, continent, and by Great Britain under the supposition of particular circumstances threatening imminent danger to the neighboring state (see lord Castlereagh's declaration of the 19th January, 1821), resulted in Austria (as the nearest interested power, which had prevented the introduction of the representative system into Italy in 1815) restoring by force of arms the ancient prerogatives of the royal authority in Naples. Sicily and Piedmont, after obtaining the assent of the other four leading powers, which had been closely allied since 1818, and also of the Italian sovereigns, who participated, at the congress of Lay bach, in the discussions respecting the affairs of Italy. Thus this power not only secured its own Italian provinces from the operation of liberal principles, but established, its position as the guardian of the principle of stability and absolute monarchy in Italy. All this was effected by a war of four days with the revolutionary army of the Carbonari of Naples (7tb10th March, 1821), and by a war of three days with the federal party of Piedmont (7th9fh of April, 1821); so that Russia had no occa sion to permit its army of 300,000 men, already put in motion, to advance against the Italian nations. (For the history of those military revolutions, see JYaples, and Piedmont Respecting the congress of monarchs and ministers held at Troppau, from October to December, 1820 ; at Laybach, from January to the 13th May, 1821; and the congress, as splendid as it was numerous, held at Verona, from October to the 14th December, 1822, where the question of armed interference in the internal affairs of states, in reference to Italy and Spain, was discussed, and decided against the claims of the popular party, though, in Verona, without the acquiescence of England, see Congress, Intervention, and Holy Alliance.) In the congress of Verona the Porte had no share, because it did not recognise the right of interfering in its internal affairs (with reference to . the Greeks). Even the deputies of the provisionary government of Greece (see Greece, Revolution of) were not admitted at Verona; the pope, however, opened an asylum to the Greeks in general in Ancona, and suffered the letter of count Metaxa to be published, in which he solicited the mediation of the holy father in behalf of the affairs of Greece at the congress of Verona. The affairs of Italy were discussed in the last sessions of the congress. The plenipotentiaries of the Italian states were as follows, and voted in the following order:Rome, the cardinal Spina, and Leardi, the nunrio at the court of Vienna (who died 1823); Naples, the prince Alvaro Ruffo, minister of foreign affairs, and the marquis Ruffo, private secretary of king Ferdinand ; Sardinia, the count Delia Torre, minister of foreign affairs, and the count Pralorme, Sardinian minister to the court of Vienna; Tuscany, the minister, prince VeriCorsini; Parma, the count Magarly, minister of state; Lucca, the minister Mausi, and count Guicciardini. The petitions of the Maltese order for their restoration as a sovereign power were submitted by the commander, Antonio Busco; nothing, however, was decided on the subject, and the loan which the order subsequently attempted to negotiate in London, in 1823, had as little success as the negotiation with the Greek senate for the cession of an island. The political maxims which the monarchs followed at these congresses, with respect to Italy, were laid before the world, in the Circular Note of Verona of December 14, 1822. After the dissolution of the congress of Verona, the king of Naples followed the emperor of Austria to Vienna, where he remained till July, 1823, and then returned to his states,his various oaths taken to support a constitutional form of government having been all violated. The efforts of the most intelligent Italians, from the time of Macchiavelli and Ceesar Borgia, son of pope Alexander VI (see Alexander VI), to restore the political unity of their native country, have given rise to the numerous secret political societies in Italy, which in Bologna were called the Guelji; in the Roman and Neapolitan states, the Patriotti Europei, and Carbonari; in Upper Italy, the Spilla nera; in Piedmont and Lombardy, the Filadelfi and Federate In Milan, the Adelfia, or the Societa de? sublimi maestri p erfetti, labored to produce a general outbreak of insurrections in Italy, in order to surround the Austrian army on its advance against Naples. Even the advocates of the illiberal system, or the theocratic faction, as it was termed, which likewise pursued its objects in secret societies, took advantage of the national desire of greater unity in Italy. It was therefore natural that the idea of connecting the Italian states in a political system similar to the Germanic confederation should have been agitated by the statesmen of the congress; but it seems to have been entirely given up, and Italy was left in the hands of Austria. On the other hand, measures were adopted, by all the Italian states, to extirpate the liberal spirit which, propagating itself under a perpetual variety of new forms (for example, in the sect of the Ordoni di JYapoli, of the Descamisados, of the Barabisti, in Naples and the rest of Italy), had not ceased in the year 1825, in the June of which year a conspiracy was detected at Rome, to pursue its ancient object of uniting all the Italian states into one confederacy as a republic or constitutional monarchy,and freeing them from foreign influence. This display of revolutionary spirit is nothing new in the history of Italy. The middle ages, that golden period of absolute power, exhibit there an almost uninterrupted series of such political conspiracies, republican schemes and destructive convulsions, because Italy has never yet been permitted to be politically a nation, and to adopt a form required by its wants and its rights. One leading measure was, to occupy for some years the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and Piedmont (in which the old troops were disbanded), at the expense of these states, with Austrian armies, which had restored the former state of things. This was done conformably with the treaties between Austria and king Ferdinand, of October 18, 1821, and the king of Sardinia, Charles Felix, at Novara, July 24, 1821. But, in compliance with the decrees of Verona (December 14, 1822), the Austrian troops, 12,000 in number, were gradually removed from Piedmont in 1823, and the fortress of Alexandria was surrendered, September 30, 1823, to Sardinian troops. In the same year, after a new Neapolitan army had been organized in Naples, the Austrian garrison, of 42,000 men, was diminished about 17,000, and, in Sicily, only the citadel of Palermo continued to be occupied by Austrian troops. The last detachment left the kingdom in 1827. The influence of Austria on the internal administration was likewise every where felt. The police of each state adopted the strictest measures for maintaining internal tranquillity. Secret societies were strictly prohibited (for example, in the Austrian Italian states, by a proclamation of August 29, 1820) ; tribunals were erected, and, in Naples, supported by movable columns, to punish the authors of revolutions ; executions, proscription and banishment ensued. Some condemned Neapolitans and Lombards were carried to the Austrian fortresses of Spielberg and Munkatsch. The Neapolitan government proceeded with the utmost rigor against political criminals, as did also the Sardinian and Modenese. Both Naples and Sardinia, nevertheless, issued decrees of amnesty, from which only the authors and leaders of the insurrection were excluded. Notwithstanding this severity, political offences were so numerous, that, in Naples, in January, 1824, a more summary form of judicial proceeding was prescribed to the criminal courts. This was the fourth time, since 1821, that the government had been compelled, on account of the crowded state of the prisons, to have recourse to extraordinary expedients. The LombardoVenetian kingdom, Lucca, Parma, Tuscany and the church displayed the same anxiety in relation to secret associations. In Venice, the court of justice condemned 32, and in Milan 16 persons to death ; but the emperor, in 1823, and January, 1824, transmuted the sentence into that of perpetual or temporary imprisonment. In September, 1821, the pope excommunicated the sect of the Carbonari and all similar associations, as branches of the longprohibited freemasons ; but in the Roman state, Tuscany, Parma and Lucca, no punishments were inflicted foi participation in former political societies. In general, the papal government, under the direction of the cardinal Gonsalvi, was distinguished from the others for conciliatory measures, and for moderation in establishing internal tranquillity. The influence of the apostolic see on the states convulsed by revolutions was thus, in some degree, increased. The press, universities and schools were, in particular, closely watched. In the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and in Piedmont, strict measures were taken for the pmifi,cation and discipline of the literary institutions ; the Jesuits were restored, and rendered influential in the education of youth, by having committed to them, at Rome and other places, the schools, colleges and oratories, which they had before conducted. On the other hand, numerous banditti disturbed the public security, especially in Naples and the States of the Church, One of them got in their power (January, 1822) an Austrian colonel, for whose liberation they had the audacity to demand 40,000 Roman dollars ; but they released him on seeing themselves surrounded by Austrian troops. In January, 1824, according to the Diario di Roma, a numerous band of roving youths was discovered in Italy, who had run away from their parents, organized themselves into companies, and subsisted by frauds and robbery. Among the single events, important for the history of Italy in late times, Ave must mention the death of pope Pius VII, in consequence of fracturing his leg, August 20, 1823. After a short conclave (from 3d to 27th September), he was succeeded by cardinal Annibal della Genga, born in 1760, at the family castle of the same name, near Spoleto, a prelate distinguished for his diplomatic services ; he assumed the name of Leo XII, Sept. 27, 1823.* In the year 1825, Leo caused a jubilee to be celebrated in the States of the Church. (See Jubilee,) The friend and secretary of Pius VII, the statesman cardinal Gonsalvi, who effected great changes in the system of internal administration, died at Rome, Jan. 24, 1824. He had bestowed the presents received from the European sovereigns (upwards of 100,000 scudi in value), on the college de propaganda fide, of which he was the last prefect ; and a great sum of money for rebuilding St. Paul's church, burned in Rome, in 1823. A somewhat milder spirit prevailed in the Two Sicilies, after the accession of Francis I (Jan. 4^* Leo XII died Feb. 10, 1829, and cardinal Castiglione was elected pope, March 31. He took the name of Pius VIII, and died in Decern ber, 1830. Early in 1831, cardinal Cappellan was elected pope, and assumed the name of Gregory XVI. 1825).Italy depends almost solely on its agriculture for subsistence; the sources from which it formerly drew its support, the arts, manufactures and commerce, being almost dried up. Commerce with foreign countries, which, in Naples especially, is altogether stagnant, is, for the most part, in the hands of foreigners, and, in a great measure, dependent on the British ; thence the universal want of specie, the financial embarrassments of the governments, and the loans negotiated with Rothschild. Italy no longer lives, as formerly, on her cities, but on her soil. And even this source of prosperity maintains but a feeble existence, while taxes and tariffs impede the exportation of the staple productions to foreign countries, or bands of banditti and the want of good roads obstruct internal intercourse, as in Sicily and Calabria. The natural advantages of Italy entitle her to the highest rank in agriculture, commerce and the arts ; but all branches of industry groan under political oppression. The government and people look on each other with jealousy and hate, and the ecclesiastical establishment poisons the springs of national activity. A political excitement is continually kept up by means of secret societies, which are found also in Spain and Switzerland, under different appellationsConsistoriales, Crocesignati, Crociferi, Societa della Santa Fede, Societa del Anello, and of the Bruti. The noted count Le Maistre was, for a long time, in Piedmont, the head of these malcontents, who sought to accomplish desperate, ambitious plans, while apparently zealous in the cause of religion or morality. Even the Calderari, in Naples, whose head was the exminister of the police of Naples, prince Canosa, have become one with the Sanfedists, who were connected with the gouvemement occulte (as it was denominated) of France. These ultras hate even Austria, because it seems to act with too great moderation. The grandduke of Tuscany is a man of lenient principles, and, in that country, not a single Tuscan has been brought to account for political transgressions. Like the rest of Europe, Italy is on the eve of momentous events * but the convulsions in that country will be more violent than in many others, in consequence of its having to struggle at once for unity and independence, against a deeply rooted and obnoxious ecclesiastical establishment, the ignorance of a vast number of the people, and powerful enemies.For the general history of Italy, previous to the last period, see Mura tori's invaluable works : Annali oVItalia (12 vols. 4to.); Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, (28 vis. fol.); and Sismoncli'sffisfoirec/esI?epubliques Italiennes (3d edit., 16 vols. 1825). A continuation of Guicciardini's Storia d'ltalia, until 1789, by C. Botta, has lately been announced. Percival's History of Italy, (2 vols.), contains a shorter view of the modern history of that country. For further information on the modern history and the statistics of ITALY, see Carlo Botta's Storia d'llalia dal 1789 al 1814 (Paris, 1824, 4 vols. 4to., and in French 5 vols.) ; the Annali dyItalia dal 1750 (continuation of Muratori), compilati dal Ablate A. Coppi (3 vols., Rome, 1825); Bossi's Storia d'ltalia antica e moderna ; the Memoires sur la Cour du Prince Eughne, et sur le JRoyaume d'ltalie, pendant la Domination de JYapoleon, &c. (Paris, 1824); also, Leo's Geschichte der Italienischen Staaten (4th vol., Hamburg, 1830), and the historical works which are mentioned in the subsequent article on Italian literature ; also, the abovementioned work of Lullin de Chateauvieux (Letters on Italy). This author investigates the causes of the decline of Italy, and describes region?* which are not visited by most travellers. His comparison of the Italian system of agriculture with the English is interesting.* Italian Language. The boundaries <7f the Italian language cannot be given with precision. In the north, towards Switzerland, Tyrol and the other neighboring countries, the valleys in which German, Italian, and dialects of the ancient Roman language, are spoken, alternate with each other. Even the sea is not a definite limit. On account of the early extension of the Italians over the islands of the Mediterranean, including those of Greece and the coasts of the Grecian main land, it is not easy to determine where the last Italian sound is heard. It is spoken, more or less corrupted, in all the ports of the Mediterranean, Christian and Turkish. Of late, however, the Italian language has lost ground on many islands, as, for in* The latest accounts from Europe, at the time we are writing (April 18, 1831); state that the Austrians had" been victorious against the Italian insurgents, after a long battle 5 that the provisory fovernment had retired from Bologna to the lark of Ancona ; and thai the president of the new French cabinet had declared, that for France to prevent other powers from interference in the affairs of Italy, would be interfering herself, and against her principle; so t'hat, if the elements of commotion in Europe do not produce a general war, the Italians will be crushed, and mo" severely enthralled than ever. stance, on the Ionian islands, (q. v.) The origin of this beautiful and most harmonious tongue, is also lost in obscurity. The general opinion, that the Italian originated from a mixture of the classical Latin with the languages of the barbarians who overran Italy, is erroneous. The Roman literary language, which the scholar learns from Horace and Cicero, was not the dialect of the common people. That the former could not have been corrupted by the mixture of the barbarous languages, is proved by the fact, that Latin was written in the beginning of the middle ages, k>ng before the revival of learning, with a surprising purity, considering the circumstances. After the language of common life had been entirely changed by the invasion of the northern tribes, in its whole spirit rather than by the mere admixture of foreign words (a consequence of the change of the spirit of the people), then a new language of literature was formed, though the classical Roman still continued to be used. The new language was opposed to the variety of dialects which had grown out of common life ; the formation of it, however, was slow, because the learned and the poets, from whom it was necessarily to receive its stamp and developement, despised it as an intruder on the Latin, which was venerable as well by its age, and the treasures handed down in it, as on account of the recollections of former greatness, with which the suffering Italians were fond of flattering themselves. Even down to the present day, that idiom, the melody of which carries us away in the most unimportant author, is not to be found as the common idiom of the people in any part of Italy.* It is a mistake to suppose that Boccaccio's language is to be heard from the lips of Tuscan peasant girls or Florentine porters. Even the Tuscan and Florentine dialect differs from the pure language of literature, which, during the first centuries of Italian literature, is found purer in the poets of Sicily and Naples than in the contemporary writers of Tuscany. The circumstance, tiiat the most distinguished Italian poets and prose writers were born in Florence, and the * The sweetness of this tongue, which often gives to a passage a charm independent of the meaning of the words, and resembling that of music, is, in our opinion, no where so apparent as in Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, and many stanzas have struck us as attracting the hearer irresistibly, though some of them have no particular charm in the meaning of the words. This also gives the Italian improvvisatora great advantage over one who attempts a similar performance in another language, in which he is entirely thrown npon the meaning of what he says. authority assumed by later Tuscan acad emies, particularly the Crusca (q. v.), are the causes why the Tuscan dialect, in spite of its rough gutturals, which are intolerable to the other Italians,* became predominant in the language of literature. Dante, the creator, as it were, of Italian prose and poetiy, and whose works are full of peculiarities of different dialects, distinctly maintains, in a treatise De vulgari JSloquentia, that it is inadmissible to attempt to raise a dialect to a literary language. Dante, indeed, distinguishes in the lingua volgare (so the language was called, which originated after the invasion of the barbarians) a volgare illustre, cardinale, aidicum, curiale; but this sufficiently proves that he held the opinion above stated. Ferno w (in his Rom. Studies, Book viii., No. 11) mentions 15 chief dialects, of which the Tuscan has six subdivisions. Those dialects, in which no literary productions exist, are not enumerated. The Italian, as we find it at present, in literature and with the well educated, is essentially a Latin dialect. Its stock is Latin, changed, to be sure, in its grammar and construction, by the infusion of the modern spirit into the antique, as the character of the people underwent the same change. A number of Latin forms of words, which, even in the time of the Romans, existed in common language (as, for instance, o instead of w, at the end of a word), have been, by the course of time and revolutions in literature, elevated to a grammatical rank; and the same is very probably true of forms of phraseology. In many instances, the Italian exhibits changes in the Latin forms, which have evidently taken place in the same way, in which common people, in our days, corrupt the correct modes of speech by a rapid, or slurred, or mistaken pronunciation. This is partly the reason why the Italian has changed so considerably the proportion of the consonants to the vowels in Latin (from 1,2:1, the Latin proportion, to 1,1:1, the Italian proportionf); and this is one of the chief reasons of the great and uniform harmony in the Italian language. A careful investigation will show that, in fact, little admixture of Teutonic words took place, but that it is much more the Teutonic, or modern spirit, which changed the language so considerably.^ The study of* The beauideal of Italian is set forth in the saying, Lingua Toscana in bocca Romana (the Tuscan dialect in a Roman mouth).f See the article Consonant.I This change is also manifest in the difference between authors who wrote before the great revival of letters, and still later, before the French Italian has been carried on, in modern times, with great zeal, and a recurrence to the old writers has much diminished the influence of the French models, so general after the time of Algarotti. The principles, according to which purity is viow judged, have been clearly laid down Dy count Julius Perticari, soninlaw to Monti, in the work Amor Patrio di Dante (Milan, 1820), which powerfully opposes the presumption of the Tuscans in claiming to be in possession of the only good Italian. This work was considered, for a long time, the production of Monti, who, by his Proposta di alcune Correzioni ed Aggiunte at Vocabulario delta Crusca, gave sufficient reason for such conjecture. To render the nobler language also the common property of the provinces to which it had hitherto remained foreign, was the aim of Gherardini's Introduzlone (Milan, 1815). More was promised by the Volabolario della Lingua Italiana, publishing at Bologna, the authors of which are arbitrary in the explanation and application of words. Bonavilla's Vocaholario Etimologico (Milan, 5 vols., 1825) hardly excited the attention of the Milanese, under whose eyes it originated. Romanes Teoria e Dizionario gen. de Simoni (Milan, 1825) seems to be more useful. Respecting the history of the Italian language, we may expect much from the profound researches of Benci. The philological treasures of a nation, in which the ancient writers are studied with so much zeal, and Avhich is so extensively connected with foreign countries, must be continually augmenting. Wherever a line of Tasso has been found unprinted, wherever the pen of Guarini has been traced, the fragment has been published with a pious devotion, most probably not desired by the authors. Nevertheless, many interesting additions to the literature of Italy have been made in this way: thus, for instance, a work of Peter Perugino (Di uno Scritto Autograft) del Pittore P. Perugino nelV Archivio delV Acad, di B. Arti di Perugia, &c, Perugia, 1820), poems of Bojardo (Poesie di Matteo Maria Bojardo, Conte di Scandiano ecc. scelte ed illustrate del Caval. Venturi, Modena, 1820), poems of Lorenzo the Magnificent (Poesie del magnifico Lorenzo de' Medici, Florence, 1820), poems of Lnigi Alemanni (Florence, 1819), a work of Montecuculi, unknown till it influence had taken place. This may, perhaps, account for the difficulty which an Italian reader finds in understanding many passages of Dante, which do not strike a German as particularly obscure was published by Grassi (Turin, 1820), and letters of Galilei, published by Venturi (Modena, 1821, 16mo. 2 vols.). Still greater has been the demand for editions of the acknowledged classics. Dante has been published in all shapes and sizes. Among these editions, that of De Romani (Rome, 1820,4to.), the edition of Biagioli (Milan, 1820), and one published at Roveta, in the Rhsetian Alps, by an admirer of the poet, Aloisio Fantoni (1820), of which a manuscript in the handwriting of Boccaccio was made the basis, deserve mention. The edition printed from the Bartolinian manuscript (Vienna, 1823) has acquired some distinction among the most recent, as have likewise Scolari's explanations (Della piena e giusta Intelligenxa di Dante, Padua, 1822). Ugo Foscolo had prepared an edition, accompanied with notes and commentaries, which is now (1831) in course of publication at London. Similar attention has been paid to Petrarca, in the famous edition of Marsand (Padua, 3819, 4to.), and several editions for common use. Ariosto's Orlando Furioso has met with equal homage; the edition at Florence, by Molini (1821 and 1822, 5 vols.), unites every thing which is required for the understanding of the poet. No less care was bestowed on Torquato Tasso in the edition made by the typographical society (Milan, 1823 et seq.), and hardly an Italian author of note can be mentioned whose works have not been carefully edited. The Societa Tipogrqfica de* Classici Italiani even undertook the reprint of Muratori's Annali dUtalia (Milan, 1820 et seq., 20 large volumes), trusting to the zeal for collecting among travelling foreigners, and in so doing were more fortunate than the editor of the Famiglie celebri Italiane, which, with all its undisputed merit, has had but a heavy sale. Since the death of Morelli, the spirit of criticism, as regards the classics, seems to have died. The best Italian and English dictionary is that of Petronj, (Italian, French and English, 3 vols., London): Alberti (Italian and French) is very valuable. The best modern grammars are the Grammaire des Grammaires Italiennes, Biagioli's Grammaire Italienne. Italian Literature and Learning (excluding poetry). One consequence of the irruption of the barbarians into Italy was a period of darkness and ignorance, as well as of disorder and distraction, from whose chaotic confusion the germs of a new civilization could only be developed slowly and laboriously. First Period.From Charlemagne to the Death of Otho III, 1002.The influence of Charlemagne as the friend of letters and the restorer of peace was favorable. We find an Italian, Petrus, deacon of Pisa, mentioned as his teacher in grammar. No less deserving of mention is Lothaire, who was king of Italy in 823, and founded the first public schools in many cities. Of the instructers in these schools, we know only Dungalus of Pisa, of whom, while he was still a monk at Bobbio, Charlemagne requested an explanation of two solar eclipses, and under whose name several works are still extant. Lothaire's example was imitated by pope Eugene II, in the States of the Church. The consequences, however, of these institutions, although valuable in themselves, were unimportant; for competent teachers were wanting, and the later Carlovingians and popes suffered the new institutions of learning to fall to decay. In addition to this, the incursions of the Saracens and Hungarians into Italy, and the civil wars, had a very injurious influence. There were few individuals, m this dark period, celebrated for learning. In theology were distinguished the popes Adrian I, the abovementioned Eugene II, Leo V, Nicolas I, and Sylvester II; PauUnus, patriarch of Aquileia (his works were published, Venice, 1737), Theodolphus, bishop of Orleans (his works, Paris, 1646), both contemporaries of Charlemagne ; the two archbishops of Milan, Petrus and Albertus; Maxentius, patriarch of Aquileia ; and, finally, the two abbots of Monte Casino, Autpertus and Bertarius. Among the historians of this time, whose writings contain valuable information, though in a rude and barbarous style, the principal are Pauius Warnefried, surnamed Diaconus, author of several works, especially of a history of the Lombards, and Erchempertus, with two unknown persons of Salerno and Benevento, who continued the above work; a priest of Ravenna, by name Agnellus (also ilndreas), who wrote a history of the bishops of Ravenna; Andrew of Bergamo, author of a chronicle of Italy from 868 to 875 ; Anastasius, librarian of the Roman church, known by his lives of the Roman bishops, and Luitprandrus of Pavia, author of a history of his own times. Second Period.From the Death of Otho 111, 1002, to the Peace of Constance, 1183. In this period, also, the condition of Italy was unfavorable to the interests of learning. The Italian cities were contending for their freedom with the emperors, and the conflict between the spiritual and secular power was no less injurious. The crusades, which began at the close of the 11th century, salutary as they were in their ultimate influence, contributed, in their immediate results, to augment the general confusion. Of the popes, the ambitious Gregory VII and Alexander III took measures for improving the schools. The copies of ancient classic works were multiplied, and individuals took pains to collect books. Among the learned theologians of this period, we must mention Fulbert, bishop of Chartres, a native Roman; the two famous archbishops of Canterbury, Lanfranc and his scholar Anselm; Petrus Lombardus, teacher of theology at Paris, most famous for his four books Sententiarum; Petrus Damianus; the cardinal Albericus; Bruno, bishop of Segni; Anselmus, bishop of Lucca; Petrus Grossolanus, or Chrysolaus, archbishop of Milan, and Bonizone, bishop of Sutri, afterwards of Piacenza. All have left works, on which we shall not dwell. In philosophy, or rather dialectics, besides Lanfranc and Anselm, were distinguished Gerardus of Cremona, who taught at Toledo, and, among other things, translated, from the Arabic into Latin, the works of Avicenna and the Almagest of Ptolemy, and Johannes, the Italian, who expounded Plato and Aristotle at Constantinople, and gave instruction in logic. Music underwent an entire transformation through Guido of Arezzo. The medical art flourished in the school at Salerno, at the end of the 10th century. The physicians there seem to have first studied the works of the Arabians. The oldest monument of the Salernian school consists of certain dietetical rules, composed in Leonine verses, entitled Medicina Salemitana, or De Conservanda Bona Valetudine. Several physicians, both of Salerno and the neighborhood, were distinguished in these times for their works, viz. Matthaeus Platearius, Saladinus of Ascoli (the last for his compendium of aromatic medicines), and several monks, whom we pass over. Jurisprudence revived with the freedom of the cities, and became a subject of general study. Throughout Italy there were schools in which it was taught; namely, at Modena, Mantua, Padua, Pisa, Piacenza, Milan, and above all at Bologna, where Irnerius, who acquired for this city the appellation of learned, taught and explained the Roman law, and brought to light the concealed treasures of the Pandects. We might mention many distinguished lawyers of this period, but content ourselves with cit ing the famous Gratian, who first digested the canon law (in his Decretum sive Concordia Canonum Biscordantium), for the use of the tribunals, and is to be regarded as the founder of the canon law. Although the grossest barbarism prevailed in every thing that related to taste, there were, nevertheless, individuals who paved the way to a knowledge of the ancients, by the study of the Greek and Latin languages, and sought to imitate their style. Among them was Papias, one of the first who compiled a Latin dictionary. The 11th and 12th centuries exhibit many scholars, whose works are destitute of elegance, but written in a clear and intelligible style. Such are Arnolphus, the two Landolphuses, Sire Raul, Otho Morena and his son Acerbus, Godofredus MaJaterra, and several writers of chronicles, and authors of monastic histories, respecting whose names and works we refer the inquirer to Muratori's invaluable collection. Third Period.From the Peace of Constance, 1183, to the End of the 13th Century. In this period, the literature of Italy assumes a more pleasing aspect. Hitherto all works had been written in barbarous Latin, but attempts now began to be made in the language (rude, indeed, as yet) of the people (lingua volgare). Poetry, as usual, preceded prose. Dialectics and philosophy were improved, and as the sciences gained in solidity and extent, their mutual connexion became more apparent. The crusades had led to new sources of knowledge, and gave, in general, a new impulse to the mind. Notwithstanding the internal wars of Italy, letters flourished ; for princes and republics vied with each other in encouraging scholars, and vi founding new schools and institutions of education. The emperors Frederic I and II effected great improvements. The former promoted the study of jurisprudence in particular, and founded schools; the latter was himself a scholar, possessed an extensive knowledge of the languages, and established public schools throughout the south of Italy. His court, and that of his son Manfred, in Palermo, were thronged with the learned. Besides some poems in Italian, he also wrote a work on the natural history of birds. His learned chancellor, Pietro delle Vigne (Petrus de Vineis), was animated by the same spirit, and not less familiar with the science of law than with the conduct of political affairs. Besides six books of letters, his collection of Sicilian laws is still extant. Several of the popes were pro found scholars, and distinguished as authors, particularly Innocent III and IV, and Urban IV. The university of Bologna, at the beginning of the J3th century, contained 13,000 students from all countries of Europe; and Padua, Arezzo, Vicenza, Naples, &c, competed with it. The chief theologians of this period were Thomas Aquinas, the Franciscan Bonaventura, and Egidio Colonna, all three authors of numerous works. In philosophy, a new epoch began in Italy in this period, when the writings of Aristotle became known to the Italians, though in a somewhat corrupt state. Thomas Aquinas wrote a commentary on them by the command of the pope, and translated them, partly from the Greek, partly from the Arabic. Brunetto Latini produced an epitome of the Ethics of Aristotle, in his Tesoro, which was originally written in French, and is remarkable as an encyclopaedia of the knowledge of the age. Mathematics and astronomy, in connexion with astrology, were cultivated. Campano, the most learned geometer and astronomer of his time, wrote a commentary on Euclid. After him we may name Lanfranco, Leonardo of Pistoia, and Guido Bonatti, the chief astrologer of the time. From this period dates the invention of spectacles and of the magnetic needle. The school of Salerno was the central point of medical study. It had able teachers in Pietro Musandino, Matteo Plateario, Mauro, &c.; but there were also distinguished physicians out of Salerno, such as Ilgo of Lucca, the Florentine Taddeo (who wrote commentaries on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, and on some works of Galen), Simon of Genoa (author of the Clavis Sanitatis, which may be regarded as the first medical and botanical dictionary), and others. Surgery made still greater progress under such men as Ruggieri of Parma (who wrote a Practica Medicines), and his countryman and contemporary Rolando (author of a Surgery, on which four of the principal physicians of Salerno wrote commentaries), Bruno, Teodorico, Guglielmo of Saliceto, and Lanfranco, of whom we have likewise treatises on surgery; but no science was more zealously or successfully pursued in the 13th century than jurisprudence. In Ferrara, IVIodena, Milan, Verona, and other Lombard cities, codes were compiled, on which a Dominican, who passed for a performer of miracles, John of Vicenza, bestowed a sort of consecration. The first lawyers of this time were Azzo of Bologna (whose Summce on the instim tions and Apparatus ad Codicem have been printed), Ugolino del Prete, also a Bolognese (who incorporated with the corpus juris the feudal laws, compiled by Anselmus of Orto, and the decrees of the modern emperors), Accorso, a Florentine (who obtained the surname of Glossator, from his having collected the best glosses of his predecessors, and annexed others of his own), Odofredo (author of a commentary on the Codex and the digests), &c. In the canon law, Gratian's collection had. been hitherto held as authority. To this were now added the four collections of Bernardo of Pavia, of Pietro Collivaccino, &c, which were regarded as works "f authority till they were supplanted by the collection made under the supervision of Gregory IX, which even yet constitutes the greater part of the canonical law. To this Boniface VIII added, in 1298, the sixth book of decretals. Without dwelling on the most distinguished canonists, we pass *^ the principal historians, most of wnorn wrote with simplicity and integrity:Goffredo of Viterbo (a German, who wrote a chronicle, from the creation of the world to 1168, under the title of Pantheon), Sicardus (author of a similar chronicle), Giovanni Colonna (author of a universal historyMare Historiarum), Riccobaldi (author of a similar work, entitled Pomarium), the Sicilian Riccardo of San Germano (who relates, with much fidelity, events from 1189 to 1243), Matteo Spinello (whose history reaches from 1247 to 1268, and is the first learned work in Italian prose), Niccolo di lamsilla, Saba Malaspina and Bartolomrneo da Neocastro (whose works have been published by Muratori). Florence had its first historian in Ricordano Malaspini. The history of Milan was written by Filippo of Castelseprio, and the Dominican Stefanardo of Vimercate, and thus each province and city had its chronicler, whose names we have not room to enumerate. Grammar, which then comprehended the belleslettres, had been hitherto neglected; but in the 13th century, it found students and teachers, as Buoncampagno Bertoluccio, Galeotto (who wrote in Italian, and translated Cicero's rhetorical books into that language), and, above all, Brunetto Latini, Dante's instructer, who has already been mentioned, and of whom, besides his abovementioned Tesoro, we have several other works in prose, such as La Rettorita di Tullo, De' Vizj e delle Virtu, &c. At the close of this period, we must mention the famous Marco Polo, his father, Mat teo, and his uncle, Niccolo. They were among the first who made distant journeys through Asia, and rendered that part of the world better known to their countrymen. Fourth, Period.From 1300 to 1400. Amid civil disturbances, the sciences continued to make great advances. While the emperors were attempting, in vain, to restore peace to Italy, and subject it to their authority, separate sovereignties and principalities were formed, the rulers of which emulated each other in their patronage of literature. Robert, king of Naples, was the most distinguished in this respect. After him ranked the Delia Scala at Verona, the house of Este at Ferrara, the Gonzaga at Mantua, &c. The number of universities increased, and many of them, such as those of Padua, Naples, Pisa and Pavia, were very flourishing, though Bologna, formerly the first, fell inco decay. The libraries were enriched with the works of the ancients, which were rescued from oblivion. Men like Petrarch and Boccaccio, by their researches and studies, rendered lasting services, as the restorers of learning. Both collected books, and the first collected also Roman coins. By the invention of paper, the multiplication of copies of the classics was facilitated. Their corruption by ignorant transcribers soon became evident. Criticism was required to restore them, and Coluccio Salutato, by the collation of several manuscripts, made a beginning in this art, and recommended it to others. Divinity was treated of by numberless scholastic theologians, but by most of them was obscured rather than illustrated. The following deserve honorable mention : Albert of Padua, Gregory of Rimini, Mich. Aiguani of Bologna, Bartoi, Carasio of Urbino, Alessandro Fassitelli, who all taught at Paris, besides Porchetto de' Salvatici of Genoa, Raniero of Pisa or of Ripalta, Jac. Passavanti, Simon of Cascia, Peter of Aquila, Bonaventura da Peraga, Marsiglio Raimondini of Padua, and Lodovico Marsigli. Philosophy was highly complicated and obscure, as it was built on the mutilated and disfigured works of Aristotle, assisted by his Arabian commentator, Averroes, whose mistaken explanations were first made known, and were, in turn, expounded and illustrated by the monk Urban of Bologna. The only philosophical writer, who does honor to the age, is the famous Petrarca, who wrote several Latin works on moral subjectsDe Remediis utriusque Fortune; De Vita solitaria; De Contemptu Mundi;De Ignorantia am ipsius et Aliorum, &c. The rest that was written in the department of morality deserves mention only for the purity of the Italian, such as Ammaestmmenti degli Antichi volgarizzati, by Bartolommeo of Pisa. Of the mathematical sciences, astronomy and, in connexion with it, astrology, were most cultivated. The most noted scholars, who devoted themselves to these branches, were Pietro of Albano, and Cecco of Ascoli,the former distinguished for his Conciliator, in which the various opinions of famous physicians and philosophers are reconciled ; the latter for an astrological work, for a treatise on the sphere, and his poem Acerba, for which he was burned as a heretic. Besides these, there were Andalone del Nero, who travelled much for the sake of enlarging his astronomical knowledge, and was esteemed by Boccaccio as . the first astronomer of his age, and Paolo, surnamed Geometra, of whom Villani narrates, that he discovered all the motions of the stars, by means of instruments of his invention, and who is quoted by Boccaccio, as having prepared machines representing all the celestial motions. Jacopo Dondi and his son, Giovanni, gained reputation and the surname DalV Orologio, by an ingenious clock, showing not only the hours, but also the course of the sun, moon and planets, as well as the months, days and festivals. Pietro de' Crescenzi, a Bolognese, wrote in Latin his even jet interesting work on agriculture; but, in the same century, there appeared an Italian translation of it, distinguished for its language and style Medicine was zealously studied by a number of scholars, but was still, however, in a very imperfect state, and deserved at least in a measure, the ridicule with which Petrarca treated it. The celebrated school of Salerno was on the decline. The Arabians were every where esteemed as models and teachers. Among the most famous physicians of the times were the Florentine Dino dal Garbo, who wrote commentaries upon some writings of Avicenna and Hippocrates, and on the love songs of Guido Cavalcanti, also a treatise on surgery, &c.; his son Tommaso, Petrarca's friend, who wrote a Summa Medicinalis, and directions how to treat the plague, and explained Galen's works on the difference of fevers and on generation; Torrigiano Rustic!)elli, who wrote on Galen's Ars parva; Gentile of Foligno ; Jacopo of Forli; Marsiglio of Santa Sofia, and others whose works are forgotten; finally, Mundino of Bologna, 10* who was the first that wrote a complete work on anatomy, which was esteemed for two centuries. In jurisprudence,several persons were eminent as writers on civil law: Rolando Placiola; Albert oi Gandino (De Maleficiis); Oldrado da Ponte (Consiliaand Quaistiones); JacopoBelviso (who wrote, among other things, on fiefs ^; Francesco Ramponi (who explained some books of the Codex); Cino (q. v.) of Pistoia ; and the two most celebrated lawyers of this ageBartolo and Baldo. In the canon law, which was extended by the Clementine decretals and Extravagants, the most illustrious was the Florentine Giovanni d'Andrea, who commented up on the six books of the decretals, and edu cated several distinguished scholars. In history, the increasing intimacy with the works of the ancients had the most favorable influence ; it was freed from a great many errors and fables. Petrarca and. Boccaccio distinguished themselves by several historical works, written in Latin ; the former by four books, Rerum Memorandarum, and biographies of famous men; the latter by De Genecdogia Deorum; De Casibus Virorum et Feminarum illustrium, De claris Midieribus; De Moniium,Silvarum, Lacuum, Fluminum, Stagnorum et Marium Nominibus. In addition to these, there is a long train of authors of general history and of chronicles; especially Benvenuto of Imola (who wrote a history of emperors, from Julius Ceesar down to Wenceslaus, and commented on Dante) ; Francesco Pipmo of Bologna (who wrote a chronicle, from the time of the first Frankish kings down to 1314); and Guglielmo of Pastrengo (author of the first universal library of the writers of all nations, which displays a wonderful extent of reading for those times); the Florentine Paolino di Pietro, Dino Compagni, and the Villains (see Villani), who contributed much to the improvement of their native language; the Venetian Andrea Dandolo (who wrote a valuable Latin chronicle of his native city, from the birth of Christ to 1342); and Rafaello Caresini (who continued it till 1388); the Paduan Alberto Musato (who wrote several historical works in good Latin, partly in prose, partly in verse); and others. (See Muratori's Scriptores.) The want of proper teachers was a great obstacle, in this period, to the study of foreign languages. Clement V gave orders, indeed, for the erection of professors' chairs for the Oriental languages, not only in the papal cities of residence, but also in several universities at home and abroad, but with little effect. More was done for Gvp,ek literature, especially through the instrumentality of Petrarca and Boccaccio: the two Calabrians Barlaamo and Leonzio Pilato were the most zealous cultivators of it. At Florence, the first professorship of the Greek language was founded and conferred on Leonzio Pilato, by the influence of Boccaccio. In this period occur the first Italian tales and romances. The oldest collection of tales extant is the Cento Nbvelle antiche,short and very simple stories by unknown authors. These were followed by Boccaccio (q. v.) with his Decameron and his Fiammetta, by which he became the real creator of the Italian prose, in all its fullness, luxuriance and flexibility: his imitators were Francesco Sacchetti, author of a collection of tales, and Ser Giovanni, author of Pecorone, both, however, far inferior to Boccaccio. Dante (q. v.), too, must be mentioned, both on account of his Italian works, the Vita JS/uova and the Convito, and also on account of his De Monarchia, and De Vulgari Eloquentia. Connected with this is the De Rhythmis Vulgaiibus of Ant. di Tempo, which treats, though imperfectly, of Italian verse, as the former had treated of Italian prose, and the various kinds of style. In general, grammar and elegance of style were much cultivated by reason of the study of the ancients. Not only were the models of antiquity translated and explained, but a professorship was founded at Florence for illustrating Dante. Yet the specimens of elegant prose are few. Among the writers of travels of this century, Petrarca and the Minorite Odorico of Pordenone hold the first rank. The former made a journey to Germany, and gives an interesting account of it in his letters; he also wrote for a friend an Mnerarium Syriacum, without having ever been in Syria himself. Odorico travelled through a great part of Asia as a missionary, and, after his return, published a description of his travels, which may be found in Ramusio's work, but unfortunately so altered, that we can hardly venture to give credence to the accounts. Fifth Period.From 1400 to 1500. During this century, notwithstanding the continuance of internal troubles, Italian literature was in a highly flourishing condition. Two events, in particular, had a favorable influence: first, the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks, in consequence of which many learned Greeks fled to Italy, and diffused knowledge there ; secondly, the flourishing state of the house of the Medici in Tuscany, the members of which were distinguished for their patronage of the arts and sciences, and were emulated by the Visconti, Sforza, Este, the kings of Naples, the marquises of Mantua and Montferrat, the dukes of Urbino, and other princes, popes, magistrates and private persons. Without dwelling on the universities, we merely say, that two new ones were added at Parma and Turin, In the preceding century, an, academy of poetry had been established, and scientific academies were now instituted. The first of this kind was founded by the greal Cosmo, at Florence, for the revival of the Platonic philosophy. Similar societies were formed at Rome, at Naples, and, under the patronage of the learned Aldus* Manutius, at Venice. Men like Guarino of Verona, Giovanni Aurispa, and Francesco Filelfo, brought the works of the Greeks from obscurity; others were noi less zealous in the cause of Roman literature. Public and private libraries were established in several places. This progress was promoted by the invention of printing, which was quickly spread and brought to perfection in Italy. As ancient literature became more generally studied, antiquities likewise attracted greater attention. Ciriaco of Ancona, in particular thus gained a high reputation. No one of the many learned theologians of these times is much distinguished. We shall merely mention Nic. Malermi, or Malerbi, who first translated the Bible into Italian; Bonino Mombrizio, who collected the lives of the martyrs; and Platina, who, with great erudition, and not without critical acuteness, wrote the history of the popes, in an elegant and forcible style. After the arrival of the Greeks in Italy, a new impulse was communicated to the study of philosophy. Among several others, Paolo Veneto had already acquired fame as a philosopher by his logic or dialectics, and his Siimmul&Rerumnaturaliwn, in which he illustrated the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle. Among the Greeks who fled to Italy in the first half of this century, one of the principal was Johannes Argyropulus, of whom Lorenzo de' Medici, Donato Acciaiuoli and Politian were scholars. Without entering into controversies, he explained Aristotle, and translated several of his works. But after him, Georgius Gemistus(also called Pletho) gave rise to an obstinate contest respecting the relative superiority of Aristotle and Plato. He himself, as the advocate of Plato, ridiculed Aristotle and his admirers. Geordius Scolarius (afterwards patriarch of Constantinople) answered with vehe mence, and provoked Pletho to a still more violent reply. The famous Theodore Gaza, the cardinal Bessarion, and George of Trebisond, took part in the controversy. On the other hand, the admirers of Plato, at Florence, remained quiet spectators. The Platonic academy, founded there by Cosmo, was in a flourishing state. Marsilius Ficinus, and Johannes Picus of Mirandola, were its chief ornaments. The former translated the works of Plato into Latin, and wrote on the philosophy of Plato and of the Platonists. Their most eminent successors were A. Politian and Cristoforo Landino. Astronomy was still mixed with astrology. Some of the most learned astronomers were Giovanni Bianchino, whose astronomical tables of the orbits of the planets were several times printed; Domenico Maria No vara, instructer of the great Copernicus; and, above all, Paolo Toscanello, celebrated for the sundial made by him, in the cathedral at Florence. Mathematics and music now revived in Italy. One of the restorers of arithmetic and geometry was Luca Paccioli of Borgo San Sepolcro. Leone Battista Alberti, the author of numerous works on architecture, wrote in a manner no less elegant than profound; he was also the author of valuable treatises on other subjects. The first writer on the art of war, was Robert VraIturio da Rimini. For music, Ludovico Sforza first founded a public school at Milan, and made Franchino Gafurio its teacher, from whose pen we have several works, such as a Theory of Music ; also, a work on the practice of music, and a treatise on the harmony of musical instruments. Medical science was but little promoted, considering the number of physicians ; they were satisfied with collecting the observations of their predecessors. Bartol. Montagna (Consilia Medtea, and observations on the baths of Padua), Giov. di Concorreggio (Praxis nova totius fere Medecina, &c), Giov. Marliano, likewise an able mathematician and philosopher (a commentary on Avicenna), Gabriel Zerbi, Alessandro Achillmi and Nic. Leoniceno (who exposed the errors of the ancients in a particular work, and was perhaps the first who wrote De Galileo Morbo), were distinguished in anatomy. Civil jurisprudence still stood in high estimation. In it were distinguished Cristoforo di Castiglione and his scholars, Rafaello de' Raimondi and Rafaello de' Fulgosi, who wrote Consilia, and explanations of the digests ; Giovanni of Iinoia, who wrote a commentary ca the first partof the Digestum novum ; Paolo of Castro, who wrote explanations of the code and digests; Pietro Filippo Corneo, who left legal Consilia ; Antony of Pratovecchio, who improved the feudal law, and wrote a Lexicon Juridicum ; Angelo Gambiglione^ who wrote Be Maleficiis, &c. ; the great Accolti of Arezzo, Alessandro of Imola, sitrnamed Tdrtagni, who left many law treatises on the digests, the code, the decretals and Clementines, many Consilia* &c. ; Bartol. Cipolla, who wrote De Servitutibus ; Pietro da Ravenna, who, besides several legal works, wrote rules for the art of memory, under the title Phoenix ; Bartol. Soccino and his opponent, Giasone dal Maino^ and many others. In canonical law, the most famous authors were Nic. Tedeschi, Giov. of Anagni, Ant. Roselli, Felino Sandeo and the cardinal Giannantonio da San Giorgio. History made the greatest progress ; it aimed not only at truth, but also at beauty of diction. Among the many historians of this period, some may be regarded as models of historical description. Roman antiquities and ancient history were treated of by Bionclo Flavio, whose principal works are Roma instaurata, Roma triumphans, Italia illustrata, Histona Romdna, De Origine et Gestis Venetorum; Bernardo Ruccelai (De Urbe Roma) ; Pomponio Leto (De Jlntiquitatibus Urbis Roma, De Magistratibus Romanorum, Compendium Histories Romance), &c. ; and Annio of Viterbo, whose Antiquitatum variorum Volumina XVII contain the works of ancient authors, now acknowledged to be spurious. Histories from the beginning of the world to their own times, were written by the archbishop Antonio of Florence, Pietro Ranzano, Jac. Filippo Foresti, Matteo and Matthia Palmieri, and Sozomeno, all of which are valuable only as far as they treat of their own times. As historians of their times, and of their country in general, the following are deserving of notice : JEneas Sylvius, afterwards pope Pius II, who left a great number of historical works, and whose history of his own times has been continued by cardinal Jacopo Ammanato; Giov. Mich. Alberto of Carrara, Leonardo Bruni of Arezzo, the Florentines Poggio and Bartolommeo Scala ; the Venetians Marco Antonio Sabellico, Bernardo Giustiniano; the Padua^s Pietro Paolo Vergerio and Michael Savonarola (the physician); the Vicentine Giambattista Pagliarini ,the Brescian Jacopo Malvezzi and Cristoforo da Soldo ; the Milanese Andrea Riglia, Pietro Can dido Decembrio, Lodrisio Crivelli, Giovanni Simonetta, Giorgio Merula, Donato Bosso, Bernardino Corio and Tristano Calchi ; the Neapolitans Lorenzo Valla, Bartolommeo Fazio, Antonio Panormita, Gioviano Pontano, Michele Ricci, Giovanni Albino, Tristano Caraccioli, Antonio Ferrario and others, to whom is to be added Pandolfo Collennuccio of Pesaro, the only one who wrote a general history of Naples. Giorgio and Giovanni Stella, and Bartolommeo Senerega and Jacopo Bracello wrote the history of Genoa. Savoy had, in this period, two historians,Antonio of Asti (who wrote a chronicle of his paternal city in verse), and Benvenuto da San Giorgio (a history of Montferrat, accompanied with documents). As a historian of Mantua, Platina deserves mention. As geographers were distinguished Cristoforo Buondelmonte, who travelled in Asia; Francesco Berlinghieri, who wrote a geographical work in verse; Caterino Zeno, who described his travels through Persia ; the famous navigators Cada Mosto, Amerigo Vespucci and Cabotto (Cabot) and others. In the Oriental languages, Giannozzo Manetti was distinguished. The study of the Greek language was spread by Manuel Chrysoloras, Lascaris, and many other Greeks, who fled to Italy, on whom and on their scholars, some of them men of great learning, we cannot here dwell. With no less zeal was Roman literature cultivated. The names of Guarini, Aurispa, Filelfo, Lorenzo Valla and Angelo Poliziano are distinguished. Sixth Period.From 1500 to 1650. In this period, Italy attained the summit of its greatness. Its rich materials for satisfying both the physical and intellectual wants of man ; the power of its republics and princely houses ; their zeal and munificence in favor of all that could restore the splendor of ancient times, made Italy a model for the rest of Europe. The wars which Ferdinand the Catholic, Maximilian I, Charles V and Francis I prosecuted on her soil, did not, therefore, produce permanent injury. The former universities continued, and new ones were added, among which that of Padua was eminently conspicuous. The number of academies and libraries increased to such a degree, that hardly a city of importance in Italy was without them. Among the popes, there were many patrons and promoters of the arts and sciences, particularly Julius II, the magnificent Leo X, Clement VII (whom unfavorable circumstances did not allow to accomplish his designs, but whose place was supplied, in many respects, by the cardinal Hippolitus of Este), Paul III, Gregory XIII (who, as Ugo Buoncampagno, had edited an improved and enlarged edition of the Corpus Juris canonicx, and, as pope, corrected the calendar), Sixtus V (who removed the library of the Lateran to the splendid palace of the Vatican, and enlarged it, completed the publication of the works of Ambrosius and of the Septuagint, caused a new edition of the Vulgate to be published, &c), and Urban VIII (who united the Heidelberg library with the Vatican, and founded the Barberini). We must next mention, as scholars and patrons of scholars, the cardinals Bembo, Carlo and Federigo Borromeo (the last was the founder of the Ambrosian library at Milan), and Agostina Valerio. The princes were not behind the popes and cardinals. The most distinguished for activity and liberality were the Gonzaga of Mantua, the Este at Ferrara, the Medici at Florence, and the duke Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. Notwithstanding favorable circumstances, theology made but slight advances ; for after the storm of reformation had broken out in Germany, established doctrines were more obstinately maintained, and farther investigation discouraged, with the exception of the editions of the Septuagint and Vulgate already mentioned. The study of the Holy Scriptures gained but little by the literary treasures that Italy possessed. ; Cajetan, the most celebrated commeritator on the Bible, effected nothing worthy of note ; and Diodati's translation, as it was not modelled servilely on the Vulgate, found no favor. Among the defenders of the established creed, cardinal Bellarmin surpasses all the others in intrinsic merit. Cesare Baronio, the historical defender of the disputed papal prerogatives, brought to light the most important documents and monuments ; and Paolo Sarpi, the assailant of them, united modesty, and an incorruptible love of truth, with the deepest insight into the Catholic religion. But, notwithstanding all exertions to uphold the established doctrines of the church, the active spirit of philosophy could no longer be restrained, not even in Italy. Besides the scholastics in the monasteries, and the Peripatetics among the Humanists, who revived and explained the ancient systems of philosophy, there appeared a philosophical sect of freethinkers, who, together witii the superstitions, rejected, religion also. Pietro Pornponazzi, who taught annihilation after death, left behind a numerous school of sceptics, to which belonged scholars like cardinal Gonzaga, Contareonus, Paul Jovius and Julius Csesar Scaliger. By their side stood Bernardino Telesio, also a preacher of infidelity, like Pomponazzi and his school, honored by the great, while Cesare Vanini and Giordano Bruno atoned for a smaller measure of impiety at the stake; and Campanella, who, as the opponent of Aristotle, and an independent thinker, prepared the revolution that took place in the 17th century, languished in prison. This spirit of inquiry gave an impulse to mathematics and physics. B. Telesio, Giordano Bruno and Th. Campanella endeavored to deduce the phenomena of nature from general principles. Hiero. Cardanus united these speculations with mathematics. The great Galileo brought mathematics and natural philosophy into the closest connexion by new experiments, and became a model to all, especially to the naturalists of his native country. In mathematics, Tartaglia, Cardanus and Bombelli were distinguished for their labors in algebra; Buonaventura Cavalieri prepared the way for the infinitesimal calculus ; Commandino became celebrated for his labors on Euclid's Elements, and Marino Gheraldi explained Archimedes' theory of hydraulics. Luca Valerio enlarged the limits of mechanics by his discoveries ; Castelli produced a revolution in hydraulics ; Maurolico opened the way in optics ; Delia Porta invented the camera obscura, and made the first experiments in aerometry; Grimaldi discovered refraction ; Magini perfected the burning glass ; Torricelli invented the barometer, and Riccioli made important celestial observations. Natural knowledge was amplified in all its branches. As students of the human frame and anatomists, Fracas tori, Fallopio, Piccolomini, Aggiunti and Malpighi were celebrated. Ulyss. Aldrovandi travelled through Europe, to investigate the natural history of quadrupeds, birds and insects, and established a botanical garden at Bologna. Similar gardens were laid out by the university of Padua, by Cosmo duke of Florence, and various private persons. As botanists, Mattioli, Fabio Colonna, and the abovementioned Malpighi, were distinguished. The academy of the Lincei labored in the cause of natural history from 1625 to 1640. The first professorship of chemistry was founded at Pisa, in J 615. In physics and medicine, the men of most note are Fallopio and his great scholar Fabricius ab Acquapendente (who led Harvey to the discoveryof the circulation of the blood), Borelli, Torricelli, Bellini, Malpighi and Alpini. Among the jurists of this period, we find no great names after the age of the scholastics. Histoiy was cultivated with greater success. Historians and historical inquirers treated particularly of native history; Carlo Sigonio wrote a general history in Latin, Girolamo Briani in Italian, and, finally, Guicciardini in a classic style, in which his continuator, Adriani, is inferior to him. In local histoiy, Macchiavelli's History of Florence was the earliest masterpiece of modern time. Davila, Bentivoglio, Bembo (both for his History of Venicea continuation of the work of Andrea Navagieroand for his Asolani and Letters), Angelo di Costanzo, Varchi, Paolo Sarpi, the cardinal Bentivoglio and others, are likewise celebrated. Numberless are the historical, geographical and topographical descriptions of single states, districts, cities, and even of monasteries, libraries and cabinets. Men like Paolo Giovio, Giambattis^ta Adriani and Vittorio Siri were assidu* ous in preserving the memory of the literary services of their contemporaries and predecessors. Since the end of the 15th century, Venice had been the centre of diplomacy and politics. Much was written there on political subjects, as Sansovino's work on Government, and Botero's State Policy. The study of the Oriental languages was promoted by religious motives. The Maronites on mount Lebanon were received into the Catholic communion. In order to render the union indissoluble, Gregory XIII erected a Maronite college in Rome, and established for its use an Arabic press. Sixtus V added salaries. This institution transplanted Oriental literature to Rome, and earned thither a great number of manuscripts. George Amira (who wrote the first Syriac grammar of consequence), Ferrari (who compiled the first Syriac dictionary), Gabriel Sionita and Abraham Ecchellensis were distinguished. From Roman presses issued the Arabic works of Ebn Sina, the geography of Sherif Edrisi, the Arabic commentary or Euclid. At Genoa an Arabic, and at Rome an Ethiopian Psalter had been previously printed. Giggeus published at Milan the first complete Arabic dictionary, and Maraccius, at Padua, the first edition of the Koran, illustrated by a commentary. Thus Italy was the seat of the study, not only of the Hebrew, but also of the other Shemitish languages. The study of the ancients must have been increased to a great degree, after the art of printing had multiplied the copies of their works. Francesco Robertelli, Julius Caesar Scaliger, Pietro Vittorio and Fulvio Ursino deserve the name of philologists. Others paid more attention to the information afforded by the ancients, and this study was facilitated by translations. Monuments of antiquity were collected, examined and explained with zeal. Mazzoqhio, and still more Andrea Fulvio, beginners, indeed, in the science, published ancient Roman inscriptions and coins. Giacomo and Ottavio di Stradamade similar researches with greater success, and at length Fulvio Ursino illustrated this department with treasures of erudition. After him, Francesco Angeloni and Giovanni Pietro Bellori, Filippo Buonarotti, Filippo Partita and Leonardo Agostino acquired reputation. But, in consequence of the study of the ancients, classical perfection of style became the aim of literature. The historians distinguished in this respect have already been named. Of a similar character, in point of style, are Sperone Speroni (Dialoghi and Discorsi), Annib. Caro (Lettere Famigliari, &c), Castiglione (11 Cortegiano), Delia Casa (11 Galateo and Lettere), Giovanbattista Gelli (Dialoghi), Franc. Berni (Discorsi and Capricci), Pietro Aretino (Ragionamenti, &c), Nicolo Franco (Dialoghi Piacevolissimi), the two poets Bernardo and Torquato Tasso (the former for his Letters, the latter for his Philosophical Essays and Dialogues) ; finally, Pietro Badoaro (Orazioni), Alberto Lollio (Lettere and Orazioni), Claudio Tolommei and others. The Cicalate, as they were termed (academicprate), pieces in ridicule of the academies, published after the foundation of the Crusca, in the last half of the 16th century, are valuable principally in point of style. The early novelists found several imitators in this period; Bandello (q. v.), Firenzuola, Parabosco, Massuccio, Sabadino degli Arienti, Luigi da Porto, Molza, Giovanni Brevio, Marco Cadamosto, Grazzini, Ant. Mariconda, Ortensio Lando, Giov. Francesco Straparola, Giambattista Giraldi, called Cinthio, to which are added the romance writer Franc. Loredano and the original Ferrante Pallavicino. Criticism began at last to erect its tribunals; but the principles on which it judged were vague and indefinite. This is proved by the contests respecting Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, Guarini's Pastor Fido, by Tassoni's attack on Petrarca, &c. There was no want, however, of theoretical works. By his excellent, essay Delia Volgar lAn gua, Bembo became the father of Italian criticism. Trissino (Poetics) and Castellano are not without merit. Claudio Tolommei wrote rules for modern poetry; Sperone Speroni, Dialogues on Rhetoric (Sansovino, Cavalcanti and others had already preceded him); Benedetto Varchi, a Dialogue on the Tuscan and Florentine Language (on occasion of the contest between Caro and Castelvetro), and Foglietta, On the Manner of writing Histoiy. Seventh Period.From 1650 to 1820. Hitherto, Italy had been the instructress of Europe, but, in the middle of the 17th century, it began to sink from its literary eminence. The principal causes of this change were the restrictions on the freedom of thought and of the press, which had been constantly increasing, ever since the reformation, and the decrease of wealth since Italy had lost the commerce of the world. The moral corruption, which became more and more prevalent, had enervated the physical strength of the people, and deprived the mind of its vigor and energy. The long subjection to foreign powers had created a servile feeling. The nation was afflicted, from 1630 to 1749, by numerous wars, and at length sunk into a lethargy and a stupid indifference to its own greatness. Some popes, princes, and even private persons, were, nevertheless, the active patrons of letters. At Florence, Sienna, Bologna, Turin, Pisa, institutions were established, some at great expense, by Leopold de' Medici, the count Marsigli Pazzi, &c, which promoted the cultivation of mathematics and natural science. Clement XI, Benedict XIII and XIV, Clement XIV, men of great learning and enlightened views, together with the cardinalsTolommei, Passionei, Albani (Annibale and Alessandro) and Qnirini, and, in later times, the cardinal Borgia, the learned Venetian Nani, and the noble prince of Torremuzza, rendered the greatest services. The reign of Maria Theresa and Leopold was favorable to Lombardy and Florence. But none of the sciences, ex cept the mathematical and physical, made much progress. After Machiavelli, politics had no general writer of importance : only single departments of the subject, far removed from danger of collision with the doctrines of the church,. were treated with spirit by Beccaria and Filangieri. Philosophy continued scholastic : Italy neither invented any new system, nor gave admission to the systems of foreign countries. Theology gained not a single thinker. Though highly esteemed in his native country, the dog matic system of Berti was of little value. The works of Ughelli and Lucentius, entitled Italia Sacra, evince the industry of the compilers; as do Galland's Library of the Fathers of the Church, and Mansi's Collection of Councils. Bianchini's fragments of old Latin translations, and De' Rossi's various readings of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, are valuable; but scriptural criticism and exegesis have produced nothing in Italy important for foreign countries. The authority of the Vulgate is still unimpaired, and the translation of the Florentine Antonio Martini, celebrated for its pure style, was made from it. But for the study of the Asiatic languages and literature, the missionary zeal has had the most beneficial results. The learned J. S. Assemanhi published rich extracts from Oriental manuscripts. The Propaganda formed excellent Oriental scholars, and published several Asiatic alphabets and grammars. As regards the critical study and illustration of the ancient classics, the Italians have remained behind other countries. The most eminent scholars in the department of Latin literature are Volpi, Targa, Facciolato, and, as a lexicographer, Forcellini; in that of the Greek, Mazocchi and Morelli. Much more was done for investigating, copying, describing and illustrating antiquities, especially after Winckelmann had taught the Italians to examine them, not only in a historical and antiquarian point of view, but also as works of art. This study led likewise to the investigation of the primitive languages of Italy, especially the Etruscan. Gori, Maffei, Lami, Passed, opened the way for Lanzi. Polite literature, particularly elegant prose, of which alone we here speak, continued to decline till an effort was made, after the time of Voltaire, to imitate the French. Thus Algarotti wrote Dialogues on Optics elegantly and perspicuously, but superficially; Bettinelli, On Inspiration in the Fine Arts, with much spirit; Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments; Filangieri, On Legislation, with dignity and simplicity; Gasparo Gozzi, Dialogues, in a pure and agreeable style. In history and its auxiliary sciences, little was done in this period. Giannone was eminent in local, Denina in general history. As an investigator and collector of historical materials, Muratori acquired a lasting reputation : MafFei also should be honorably mentioned. Manni labored for the illustration of seals, and of genealogy. Still less was done for geography. The most celebrated geographer of Italy is the Minorite Vincentio Coro nelli, who established a cosmographical academy at Venice, and whose loss (1718) has never been supplied. Even among travellers, there are but few prominent. Something was done by Martini, who travelled through Cyprus, Syria and Palestine ; by Sestini, who travelled through Sicily and Turkey; Griselini, who travelled through Inner Austria and Hungary; and Acerbi, who travelled in the North. No jurist, except Beccaria and Filangieri, effected any thing of importance. But the works which appeared in the mathe matical, physical and medical sciences still form the boast of Italian literature. Frisi and Girolamo Mazzucchelli were great masters in mechanics, hydrostatics and hydraulics; Boscovich and Mascheroni in the higher analysis and geometry. In mensuration, Lorgna, Fontana, Cagnoli, Ruffmi and Casella are respected names even in our day. Manfredo Settala made a celebrated burningglass; Cassino enlarged the bounds of astronomy by great discoveries; Campani was distinguished for preparing optical glasses; Torelli explained the elements of perspective with geometrical strictness; Zanotti presented the world with valuable celestial observations ; and Piazzi acquired renown as the discoverer of Ceres. Physics, for the promotion of which several institutions were active in various places, made the greatest progress. Marsiglio Landriani, Felice Fontano, Toaldo, Tiberio Cavallo, Giovanni and others enriched it by important discoveries. Botany was advanced by Malpighi, Giovanni Seb. Franchi, Micheli, Giuseppe Ginanni, Vitaliano Donati, &c. The Italians were successful in the use of the microscope. With its assistance, Redi (who wrote classical works on natural history), Valisneri, Felice Fontana, Lazzaro Spallanzani, made a great number of observations. With all the lovers of natural science and of chemistry, Volta is an honored name. In the study of the natural history of man and of anatomy, Gagliardi, Malpighi, Paolo Manfredi, and, after them, Valsalva, Santorini, Fantoni and Morgagni were distinguished. Practical medicine likewise was not neglected. Franc. Torti taught the use of Peiuvrin bark ; Rammazini trod in Sydenham's footsteps in pathology and therapeutics; Borelli, Baglivi (who followed Hippocrates, however, in practice), Guglielmini, Bellini and Michelotti made Italy the birthplace of the Iatromathematical school in medicine. In literary history, the labors of Crescimbeni, Quadrio Fontanini, A. Zeno, Mazzucchelli Fabroni, Tiraboschi, Co mi ani and others (of Arteaga, for example, for the history of the opera), are highly valuable. Eighth Period.Italian Literature of the present Day, since 1820. Of late years, the literature of Italy is not to be compared, either in extent or in profoundness, with the literature of the neighboring countries. The indolence which springs from a too favorable climate, the restraints arising from the political state of the country and the condition of the book trade, which, in several parts of the peninsula, is under great restrictions, oppose serious obstacles to the free interchange of ideas. The infringements in one city on the copyrights of others increase these difficulties. The universities of Pavia and ^adua still maintain their hereditary reputation, and augment it by a zealous cultivation of the natural sciences ; Pisa may s&$5# next to them; Sienna and Perugia isM^S* made less effort to deserve the notice c€ fbreiggt countries, and the universities of Rome, Maples and Turin are of a limited character. With these universities, to which, in Lombardy, gymnasia and elementary schools afford suitable preparation, a number of academies are appropriated to every department of science and art, though they are not all so active as the LombardoVenetian institution at Milan, which has published several valuable volumes of memoirs. Names like Oriani, Carlini, Breislak, Configliachi, Brunatelli, are the best pledges of its devotion to the exact sciences. After it, the academy at Turin (Memorie delta R. Acad, delle Scienze di Torino, vol. xxx, 1826), and the scientific society of Modern (Memorie dell® Societa Ital. delle Scienze residente in Modena, t. 19), deserve honorable mention. Foreign countries rarely hear any thing concerning the scientific bodies of Naples. The Herculanean academy at present pays, for the most part, with promises, and the sessions of many other academies are mere ceremonies. The Crusca and the Accad.de9 Georgqfili at Florence, with the Accad. Archeologica at Rome, alone sustain their place in the memory of foreign countries. Among the periodicals, the Bibliotecaltaliana is a work of merit, and exerts a decisive influence by means of sagacious criticisms; but it has been often disfigured by injustice and harshness, especially when under AcerbPs guidance. Brugnatelli and Configliacchi's Giornale di Fisica, Chimica, Storia naturale, Medicina ed Arti, is the periodical most deserving the notice of foreign countries. The study of the Oriental languages, in Italy, is not so much advancedas in other countries. Gr. Castiglioni's explanation of the coins in the cabinet of Milan have found an impartial critic in Frahn of Petersburg ; and Rampoldi's Annali Musulmanni (Milan, 1823, 5 vols.) display a judicious and critical use of Oriental sources. Much has been done for the diffusion of the knowledge of the Armenian language by the publications of the Metocharists of St. Lazzaro, in the vicinity of Venice; and father Auger, the Venetian editor of Moses of Chorene, and the discoverer of an ancient Armenian translation of Philo (Ven., 1822), is said to be distinguished for knowledge of the language. Europe acknowledges Angelo Maio's merits in increasing the means of acquiring a knowledge of ancient classical literature. The discovery of the fragments of Cicero De Republica,and of so many other remnants of a classic age (though the complete Fronto did not correspond to its fame and the general expectation), give Maio lasting claims to the gratitude of scholars. Maio's success induced professor Peyron, at Turin, to make similar searches into the treasures of the public library intrusted to him, and his sagacity was not altogether fruitless. Mazzuj> chelli of Milan contributed to the extension of ancient literature by the Johanneis of Corippus (Milan, 1820), and Rossini by the publication of Eudemus, from Herculanean manuscripts. Ciampi, after his return from Warsaw to Italy, Manzi, Amati, Nibby, are among those who have rendered service to classical literature by valuable commentaries. The count Ippoliti Pindemonti's translation of the Odyssey (Verona, 1822, 2 vols.), the odes of Pindar, by Mezzanotte (Pisa, 1819 and 1820 2 vols.), and the Isthmian odes (Le Qdi Istmiche di Pindaro, traduzione di Gius. Borghi, Pisa, 1822), by Borghi, Mancini's Iliad, in stanzas (Flor., 1824), can satisfy those only who do not exact a strict fidelity of translation. Among the translations from modern languages into the Italian, are the works of sir Walter Scott and Byron. Klopstock's Messiah was translated by Andrea MafFei. Bossi's Storia d* Italia antica e moderna (Milan) dwells very long on ancient times, and shows frequent traces of French influence. There still appear historical works, which are better received by foreigners than by the country to which they belong ; as the abovementioned Famiglie celebri Italiane of the count Pompeo Litta (Milan, since .1820) ; the Storia di Milano, by Rosniimj the Codice dvplomatico Colombo Americano (Genoa, 1823) ; Scina's Prosp. delta Sto*na letter, delta Sicilia, and Spotorno's excellent Storia letter, delta Liguria (Genoa, 3824) ; Beuci's Elogi, and Afro's Vita di Picrluigi Farnese, though the last belongs to the more favorite department of biography, for which materials may be found in Pelli's Memorie per la Vita di Dante (Florence,1823) ; Nelli's Vita e Commercio Letterario diGalileo Galilei (Florence, 1793, but not published till 1820), and contributions in the Biogrqfia Qremonese, by Lancetti, and in the Italian edition of the Biogrqfia Universale (Venice, Missiaglia). One hope, however, notwithstanding such are the signs of the times, remains to the friend of Italian literature, that the abundance of monuments of former times in this land will always preserve alive historical recollections. The explanation of the present gives an opportunity to recur to the past, and to animate its dim recollections by their connexion with tangible realities. How interesting, for example, is the history of the cathedral of Milan ! But Italy's associations are not limited to Christian times. U Italia avanti it Dominio de1 Romani, by Micali (new ed. Livorno, 1821, folio), indicates the point to which the inquirer may ascend. Investigations connected with ancient monuments cannot be wanting in a country where so much remains to be explored. Inghirami's Monumenii Etruschi o di EtruscoAfometthe illustrations of the editor of the Galeria di Firenze, so far as they relate to ancient monuments ; the Memoirs of the archaeological academy of Rome, and the rare works of the Bourbon academy, are among the phenomena not to be overlooked in foreign countries; and the essays of Nibby, Fea, Borghesi, Lama, Cattaneo and Brocchi unite solidity with perspicuity and a comprehensive survey. But how little the proper mode of treating this department is understood, may be seen from Vermiglioli's Lezioni elcmentarie di Archeologia (Verona, 1822, 2 vols.), which are as useless to foreign countries as Labu's investigations on Roman inscriptions, which either treat of what is well known, or explain obscurely whatever they give of new. The Raccolta di Antichitd Greche e Romane ad Uso degli Artisti, dis. ed Incise da Gio. Bignoli, is not without merit. The activity of the trade in works of art in Italy promotes also the publication of views of the monuments of the middle ages (for example, the Monumenti sepolcrali di Toscana, the Raccolta degli nvigliori Fabbriche, Monumenti ed Aniichitd di Milano ; the Fabbriche di Venezia1 Franchioni, Cisa di Gresy, Piola, Ventu roli, Bonati), for explaining which associations of men of talent have been formed. Almost every book of travels by an Italian, presents inquiries into the remains of antiquity ; and Belzoni, who first kindled the enthusiasm of the succeeding travellers for investigating the remains of Egyptian art, only followed the taste of his country. Delia Cella, the naturalist Brocchi, one of the most intelligent of the late writers of Italy, the learned writer on numismatics Sestini, and Camillo Borghese, prove this position. It is not, however, so much the custom in Italy to embellish travels with engravings as it is in France and England. Even the descriptions of cities, of which new ones are ever in demand, are without this embellishment, and retain their old defects. Italy is more independent in the exact sciences than in its literature, properly so called, particularly in the physical department, and, by its mathematicians, astronomers, naturalists, has acquired a reputation, to which it has been less true in the fine arts, with the exception of the plastic arts. Where men like Sangro, Flauti, Borgnis, Brunacci, Lotteri, Bordoni, employ themselves in geometry and its application to geodesy and mechanics; where astronomers like Plana, Brambilla, Inghirami, Oriani, Carlini, Piazzi, Cacciatore, De Cesaris, are engaged in observatories like those at Naples, at Palermo, at Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome,the sciences must make a rapid progress. The Correspondance astronomique of baron Zach (see Zach) afforded the Italian scholars an opportunity to make their discoveries and researches known to the rest of Europe. Zach, who lived in Genoa till 1827, promoted thence the diffusion of useful knowledge connected with his science, by an Almanacco Genovese. Unhappity, a part of the strict mathematical investigations is buried in the transactions of literary societies; for example, in the Transactions of the royal academy of sciences at Naples ; in the Transactions of the Pontonine society (Naples, 1819) : in the Memoirs of the LombardoVenetian institute ; in the Reports of the scientific society at Moclena ; in the Ricerche geometriche ed idrometrichefcdte nella Scuola degV Ingegneri poniifici d'Acque e Strade (Rome, 1820), which but too rarely pass the Alps. Geodesy, especially, is prosecuted with great ardor, and two trigonometrical measurements, connected witl each other, have given satisfactory results. Equal zeal is manifested in the physicai sciences, in which names like Zamborfi, Brugnatelli. Configliacchi, Bellingeri and Ranconi answer for the exactness of the observations and correctness of the calculations. The experiments on magnetism and electricity (Banarelli) have excited a lively interest even in Italy, and Configliacchi's and Brugnatelli's Giornale di Fisica, Chimica, Storia Naturale, Mediciria ed Arti, which is published very regularly, gives the best account of their variety and thoroughness. Even the Opuscoli scientifici di Bologna are almost exclusively devoted to the natural sciences in the widest comprehension, and maintain an honorable name. The geological observations of the count Marzari Pencati, who thought himself able to refute by ocular evidence the Wemerian theory of the formation of the earth, have attracted much attention. Among the geologists of Italy must be mentioned the talented and learned Brocchi (who died in 1827, in Egypt), the author of the Conchyliologid subapemiina, and who, by his interesting essays, did much towards increasing the poprdarity of the Bibl. Ital. Renier, Corniani, MonticelJi and Covelli (Prodromo della Mineralogia Vesuviana) keep up the interest in these studies. Patronised by government, the physical sciences have received the most extensive application to agriculture and technology, which have made respectable progress, at least in Upper Italy. New branches of industry, as well as new kinds of plants (rice from China, and grain from Mongolia), have been introduced; and the best mode of rearing silkworms, manufacturing wine, and managing bees, has been made the object of public investigation, and the results have been very favorable. The labors of the Accad. de? Georgofili, at Florence, have contributed much to the promotion of agriculture. Botany cannot be slighted in the Garden of Europe. Savii's Elementi di Botanica, afford foreign countries nothing new, but the works of Sebastiani, of Mauri, of Brignoli, Moricand, Tenore, of the superintendents of the gardens at Pisa, Rome, Naples, Palermo, evince the interest which is taken in this department; and the Pomona in Rilieva of Pizzagalli, and Degaspari and Bergamaschi's Osservaz. Micologiche, evince the zeal of their authors. The investigation of the higher economy of nature has received valuable contributions from Brunafelii, Configliacchi, from Angelini, Metaxa, the describer of the Proteus anguineus, Ranzani, Petagna, Laurenti and Cavolini ; and the structure of the human body was illustrated by Palletta, Mascagna and others. The medical literature of Germany has attracted much attention, and several of the most distinguished German writers in this department have obtained successful translators and editors, especially for the use of the lecturers in Pavia, Padua and Bologna. Many of the German works in the department of metaphysics have been also translated, although the French, like Destutt de Tracy, accorded more with the taste of the Italians. Besides Gioia, the author of the Ideologia esposta, Talia, the editor of a Saggio di Estetica, German! Simoni, and some unsuccessful commentators upon Beccaria, the Collezione d£ classici Metqfisici (Pavia, 181922) was, perhaps, the best production in this department. De' Simoni has treated of natural law. Numerous explanations and editions have appeared of the Austrian code, which is possessed of legal authority in some of the states that speak Italian. It is worthy of mention, that Llorente's History of the Inquisition, and Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics of the Middle Ages, may be freely sold in the Italian states, while they are strictly prohibited by the neighboring states. Italian Poetry. Italian poetry sprang from the Provencal, which was the first to flourish in Europe on the revival of civilization, and which was also communicated to Italy. Until the 13th century, we find in Italy only the poetry of chivalry by the Provencals and Troubadours. These wandering bards, intelligible to the Italians, and particularly to the Lombards, by the affinity of their sister language, traversed Italy, and were welcome guests at the courts, especially of the nobles oi Loinbardy, at a time when poetry was considered as indispensable at feasts. An instance of the estimation in which Troubadours (q. v.) were held, as the chief ornaments of a princely court, is found in the visit of Raimondo Berlinghieri, count of Barcelona and Provence, to Frederic Barbarossa, the German emperor, at Turin, in 1162, attended by a train of Provencal poets. The emperor was so delighted with their gay a ciencia^ that he not only made munificent presents to the minstrels, but also composed a madrigal in their language himself. At the court of Azzo VII of Este, at Ferrara (1215 to 1264), some distinguished ProvenQalsRambaldo di Vacheiras, Raimondo "d'Artes, Americo di Reguilainresided, and sang the praises of his daughters, Constanza and Beatrice. Here also flourished Maestro Ferrari, a native of that city, who, as well as many other Italians (Al berto Quaglio, Percivalle Doria, Alberto de' Marchesi Malaspina, &c), sang in the Provencal language. No one acquired so great a reputation as Sordello of Mantua, who visited Provence for the purpose of making himself familiar with the language and poetry of the country. Only a few fragments of these Italian Troubadours are extant; but the first attempts to compose in the Italian language are not to be looked for in Lombardy, where the vicinity to Provence did not allow a taste for native poetry to spring up. Besides, the Italian of Lombardy was the least agreeable to the ear. The Genoese and Venetians were too much occupied with commerce ; the Florentines, disturbed by domestic factions, were ignorant of the spirit of chivalry, and the popes were absorbed in theology and the canon law, and strangers to the spirit of poetry. In Sicily only could Italian poetry develope itself, because the Sicilians, always a poetical people, spoke a dialect sufficiently soft to afford the means of graceful verse. Neither commerce nor scholastic disputes occupied their thoughts, and their beautiful climate invited them to repose, and to fill the moments of leisure with poetry. They could not draw the poets of Provence to their country so easily as the Lombards, nor could they themselves so easily visit that country of love and poetry ; but enough of the Provencal songs reached them, to awaken them to similar attempts in their own language. They had also a court rich in every knightly and noble accomplishment. Frederic II, the German emperor, resided, for a time, in Palermo (from 1198 to 1212)he who crowned a poet with his own hand, to whose court, as the old novelist relates, thronged Troubadours, musicians, orators, artists, champions, and all persons of any kind of skill, from all countries, because of his munificence and his courtesy, whose noble character is praised by Dante; but, not satisfied with hearing the verses of others, Frederic and his court composed poetry themselves, and productions of his, of his natural son Enzo, and his celebrated chancellor, Pietro delle Vigne, are still extant. One of the most distinguished Sicilian poets of that time was Ciullo d'Alcamo, of whom we possess a song entirely Provencal in form and character. We have also the ziames and fragments of Jacopo da Lentino, surnamed il JYotajo, of Guido, and Oddo delle Colonne, Ranieri, Ruggieri and Inghilfredi of Palermo, of Arrigo Testa, Stefano, prothonotary of Messina, and Monna Nina, who come down to the period of Dante, and were the cause that every thing composed in Italian was then called Sicilian. After the year 1300, Sicily gave no farther models to Italy ; but the real founders of Italian poetry appear in Bologna, Florence, and other cities of Tuscany. The oldest known to us is, perhaps, Folcacchiero de' Folcacchieri, but the most important is Guido Guimcelli of Bologna. A number of poets appeared in Tuscany, whose names Crescimbeni enumerates, and of whom be gives specimens. In the 13th century, Guittone d'Arezzo (author of a book of poems and 40 letters, interspersed with verses), Brunetto Latini (author of two poetical works11 Tesordto and // Pataffio), Guido Cavalcanti (author of a celebrated canzone and other poems), Ugolino Ubaldini (author of an excellent idyl in the form of irregular canzoni), and Dante of Majano (author of a book of poems), deserve mention; but we find hardly a poet of eminence in the other provinces. By the side of the amatory poets Jacopone da Todi stands alone as a sacred poet. The forms of the early Italian poetry are borrowed from Aniaud Daniel, and other Provencals, and are, for the most part, the same which, in a more perfect state, characterize the later Italian poetry, viz. cam zoni, sonnets, ballads, and sestine. Witft the Sicilians, we already find the ottavt also. Its character is, even at this early period, decidedly marked. Its ruling spirit is lovean idealizing love, to which the spirit of Christianity contributed the tendency to adore and attribute perfection to the beloved object. Whether the new character which appears in all the productions of this time had its origin, as some maintain, in the spirit of Christianity, or only in certain feelings which sprang up at this time, and naturally connected themselves with Christianity, at least in appearance, we shall not here venture to decide, and refer the reader to the article Chivahy. It is certain that the modern spirit is essentially different from the ancient. (See Classical.) After this preparatory period of Italian poetry was passed, appeared the great Florentine, Dante Ahghieri (born 1265). He left at once the trod den path, and stands without predecessoi or follower among all the great names which ornament Italy. We do not speak of the form of his Divina Commedia^ which, from its nature, could not but be unique, but of the peculiarity of his genius ; but even his great poem, in which, as he says, heaven and earth assisted, and which cost the poet the study of years, is connected with love, his Beatrice being nis guide in the highest spheres of heaven ; and we should greatly misconceive the poet and his age, if we should suppose that this circumstance was merely intended to commemorate his early passion. The spirit of the age unavoidably led him to exhibit love as the great mover of the human soul. (See Dante.) As Dante's production is important in the history of the human mind and the progress of civilization, it is of equal importance in the history of Italian literature. Dante made the Italian dialect the lawful currency of literature. His intention to write his poem in Latin hexameters sufficiently shows in what a state he found the Italian language ; how little the light play of graceful rhymes had developed it for his great object. Hence his apology for attempting so serious a subject in the lingua volgare. The enthusiasm for Dante's poem was so great, that in Florence, Bologna and Pisa, professorships were early established for the explanation of his Commedia. In Florence, Boccaccio was the first who filled this chair. Of the commentators we shall mention, besides the later Landino, only Dante's own sons, Pietro and Jacopo, with Benvenuto of Imola and Martino Paolo Nidobeato. The archbishop of Milan, Giovanni Visconti, appointed two theologians, two philosophers, and two jurisconsults of Florence, to undertake jointly the interpretation of the theology, philosophy and jurisprudence of Dante. Besides Dante, there flourished several other poets, among whom Cino da Pistoia (q. v.) is the most distinguished. He excelled in tender love poems, in which he celebrated his mistress Selvaggia, and was the precursor of Petrarca, for whom he also prepared the language. Cecco d'Ascoii, also a contemporary of Dante, wrote a didactic poem, in five books, on physics, morals and religion, under the title Acerba (properly Acerbo or Acervo). Francesco da Barherino composed his Documtnti d*Amove, in which he treats of virtue and its rewards, in rude and irregular verses, and his other poem, Del Reggimento e d<? Costumi delle Donne, also a moral and didactic poem. Fazio elegit Uberti wrote, at the same period, his Dittamondoa system of astronomy and geography in verse, in which Dante served him as a model. Without dwelling on the less important lyrical poets, Benuccio Salimbeni, Bindo Bonichi, Antonio da Ferrara, Francesco degli Albizzi, Sennuccio del Bene, a friend of Petrarca, we come immediately to the latter. (See Petrarca.) His love did not, like Dante's, inspire the idea of one great poem, treating of all the acts and efforts of man, and his religious conceptions were still more strongly the ideal of love. His sonnets and canzoni are very differently esteemed; but if they appear to many readers of our age frequently overstrained, and sometimes devoid of the spirit and fullness of genuine poetry, to others they are a model of lyrical excellence ; and his influence on the language of Italian poetry has been very great, rendering it softer and more flexible than Dante had left it. Petrarca was an excellent scholar, and well acquainted with Roman elegance, and he elevated his language to the greatest purity, beauty and melody. His followers are innumerable. Among them, in the 14th century, are the two Buonaccorsi da Montemagno, and Franco Sacchetti, the writer of novelle. The glory which Petrarca had acquired in a species of poetry easy in itself, and so consonant with the taste which his nation has preserved even to the present time, and to the spirit of the age, was too enticing; but the Petrarchists forgot that it is the spirit of their master which gained him his fame, and not merely the harmonious sound of his musical rhymes; and they poured forth innumerable poems, a comparison of which with those of Petrarca could only raise him still higher. Petrarca not only wrote lyrical poems, but, in his capiioli, or triumphs, approaches the didactic. He composed also Latin poems, eclogues, and an epic, Africa, celebrating his favorite hero, Scipio, the latter of which obtained him the poetic laurel, in the capitol, in Borne, and whichso easily do great poets mistake their own merits he himself valued most, whilst he considered his lyrical poems of little value, and in his old age wished that he had not written them. Not less famous than Petrarca is his friend Boccaccio. (See the article Boccaccio for an account of his great service in the formation of Italian prose.) The satirical sonnets of Pucci, the didactic essay on agriculture by the Bolognese Paganino Bonafede, and the Four Kingdoms of Love, Satan, Vice and Virtue, by his countryman Federigo Frezzi, under the title Quadriregno, an unsuccessful imitation of Dante, belong also to this period. In the ]5th century, Giusto de' Conti first meets usan imitator of Petrarca. In his sonnets he celebrates the beautiful hand of his mistress, on which account the whole collection is called La Bella Mario. About 1413, the barber Burehiello, at Florence, acquired, no little reputation by his peculiar, but, for us, unintelligible sonnets. The attempt of the painter and architect, Leon Battista Alberti (somewhat later, under Cosmo de' Medici), to compose hexameters and pentameters in Italian, is worthy of mention. Lorenzo de' Medici, after the death of his grandfather (1464), the Pericles of the Florentine republic, was inspired by his passion for Lucretia Donati, a noble Florentine lady, to imitate Petrarca; yet he did it.with independence. He was the pupil of the Platonist Marsiglio Ficino. Besides sonnets and canzoni, we have capitoii, stanze, terzine, and carnival songs, by him. His Symposium, or the Drinkers (Beoni), a sportive imitation of Dante, describes three journeys into a wine cellar. The most distinguished of the contemporaneous poets was Angelo Ambrogini, called Poliziano, from the small village Montepulciano, who is celebrated also as a scholar and philosopher. Besides a dramatic poem, Orfeo, there is a fragment by him, in beautiful stanzas, in praise of Julian of Medici, on occasion of a tournament, exhibited by the brothers, at Florence. A friend of his was the graceful amatory poet Girolamo Benivieni. Of the three brothers Pulci, Bernardo wrote two elegies, a poem on the passion of Christ, and was the first who translated the eclogues of Virgil into Italian. Luca was the author of the Heroides, a poem in ottave rime, in which he celebrated, earlier, but not less beautifully than Poliziano, a tournament of Lorenzo of Medici, a pastoral, also in ottave rime, entitled Driadeo oVAmore, and an epic poem of chivalry, Oiriffo Calvaneo, which in itself is of little value, and was left incomplete (Bernardo Giambullari finished it after the death of the poet), but which is remarkable as the commencement of those ironical and serious poems of chivalry, which, with the decline of chivalry and the poetry of the middle ages, became natural, and, we might almost sa}r, necessary to the poetical spirit of the Italians. Luigi, the most celebrated of the three, owes his fame not to the whimsical sonnets in which he and his friend, Matteo Franco, held each other tip to the laughter of Lorenzo and his guests (often in the most indecent language), nor to his Beca da Bicomano, &c, but to his Morirante Maggiore, by which he became the predecessor of Ariosto, who, however, surpassed him as much as he himself surpassed the first rude attempts of the 14th and 15th centuries in this department, of which the Buovo oVAniona, La Spagna Hisioiiata, and La Regina Ancroya, are the most known. The Membriano of Francesco Cieco da Ferrara, which is pot unworthy to stand by the side of the Morgante, served to amuse the Gonzaga, at Mantua ; but a more immediate predecessor of Ariosto was Matteo Maria Boiardo, author of the Orlando Innamorats, which at first was not much relished by the Italians, on account of its gravity, as they had already become too fond of irony in these epics of chivalry ; so much so, that Boiardo, continued by Niccolo degli Agostini, was entirely recast by Domenichi, and, at a later period, by Berni. Contemporary with these epic poets were the satirist Bern. Bellicioni, and numberless Petrarchists, as Francesco Cei, Gasparo Visconti, Agostino Staccoli d'Urbino, Serafino d'Aquila, Antonio Tebaldeo, Bernardo Accolti, a celebrated improvvisatore, who assumed the modest surname 12 Unico, a Neapolitan under the name of JSfotlurno, a Florentine, Cristoforo, under the name of L'Altissimo, &c. Antonio Fregoso, surnamed ¦ Fileremo, wrote a moral erotic poem, La Cerva Bianca, of moderate value, with Selve, and gay and melancholy capitoii. Gian Filoteo Achillini deserves to be mentioned, on account of his scientificmoral poems, 11 Viridario and II Fedele, and Cornazzano dal Vorsetti, for his poem on the art of war, entitled De Re Militaii. Distinguished as female poets of this century are Battista Montefeltro, wife to Galeazzo Malaspina, her niece Constanza, Bianca of Este, Damigella Trivulzi, Cassandra Fedele, and the two Isottas. The 16th century, the period of Italian poetry, in which the princes of Italy, and particularly the popes, extended the most munificent patronage to poetry and the arts, begins with the Orlando and other poems of the admirable Ariosto. (q. v.) Giovanni Giorgio Trissino (q. v.) attempted, without success, the serious epic. His work is dry and cold. Giovanni Ruccellai displays much tenderness and feeling in his didactic poem Le Api. Luigi Alamanni (q. v.), author of a didactic poem on agriculture (La Coltivazione), a romantic epic, Gironeil Cortese, and Avar chide (a modern Iliad, on the whols a failure),bel on gs rather to poets of the second rank. Sannazzaro distinguished himself in his Arcadia, and in his lyric poems, by delicacy of feeling and beauty of expres sion. Berni (q. v.) became the creator of a new department. Among the Petrarch ists of this age are Bembo, Castiglione and Moiza. Lodovico Domenichi published, in 1559, the poems of 50 noble ladies. Among these was Vittoria Colonna, wife of Fernando d'Avalo, marquis of Pescara. (Respecting Aretino, equally known for genius and licentiousness, see Aretino.) Bernardo Tasso, in his epic, and still more in his lyric poems, appears as an excellent poet, but was surpassed by his son Torquato Tasso. (See Tasso.) Guarini displays much grace in his lyrics (madrigals and sonnets), but he owes his fame to his Pastor Fido. Gabriello Chiabrera was distinguished as a lyric poet. He also wrote several epic poems and pastoral dramas. The learned father Bernardino Baldi published, besides sonnets and canzoni, a hundred apologues in prose. Attempts had already been made in the JEsopic fable by Cesare Pavesi, under the name of Targa, and by Giammaria Verdizotti, but with less success. Teofilo Folengi, more known under the name of Merlin Coccajo, must be mentioned as the inventor of macaronic poetry. As early as the second half of the 16th century, the corruption of taste had begun, and continually increased, so that the 17th century produced but very few works which can be considered as exceptions. We should mention, however, Marino (q. v.), who, as it were, founded his own school, from which proceeded Claudio Achillini, Girolamo Preti, Casoni and Antonio Brum, who were his most ardent admirers. Alessandro Tassoni is known as the author of La Secchia Rapiia, a comic and satiric epic. Francesco Braeciolini, who had imitated Tasso, in his Croce Racquistato, with no great success, by his Schemo degli Dei, disputed with Tassoni the honor of the invention of the mockheroic, but does not equal him in grace and ingenuity. Two later mockheroic poems11 Malmantik Racquistato, by Lorenzo Lippi, and 11 Torrachione Desolato, by Paolo Minuccihave no other merit than the purity of their Tuscan language. The works of Carlo de' Dottori, Bartolommeo Bocchini, Cesari Caporali, are not of distinguished merit. Filicaia's lyrical poems glow with patriotic feeling, and a noble elevation, which will always render him popular. Count Fulvio Testi was the Horace of his nation, but his epic productions were mere fragments. The caustic satires of the painter Salvator Rosa are not to be passed over in silence, amidst the general barrenness of Italian poetry, about the middle of the 17th century. The residence of Christina, queen of Sweden, in Rome, and her predilection for the classic muse, served to banish from the circle of poets, who assembled around her, the Marinistic exaggeration, and to substitute for it a frigid correctness. Her conversion to the Catholic faith also attracted more attention to sacred poetry than it had previously received in Italy; but no poet of her circle merits particular notice. Deserving of mention is Niccolo Forteguerra, author of the Ricciardetto, the last epic of chivalry. Nolii, whose songs and odes were popular, translated Milton's Paradise Lost, and was the first who made his countrymen acquainted with English literature, whilst, at the same time, the French taste began to prevail, which exercised a decided influence, particularly on the dramatic literature of Italy. Fewer candidates now appear on the Italian Parnassus. The abbate Carlo Innocenzio Frugoni, among other poetical productions (mostly frigid occasional pieces), composed sonnets and canzoni, of which the sportive ones are praised. There, is a successful translation of the Psalms by Mattei. The Arte Rapprescntativa (the Histrionic Art) is a didactic poem worthy of mention, by Lodovico Iliccoboni, who raised the character of the Italian theatre at Paris. Francesco Algarotti, the companion of Frederic the Great, belonging to the French school, in his odes, poetic epistles and translations, exhibited the pleasing ease, but, at the same time, the coldnesa of the French. Roberti and Pignotti wrote iEsopic fables with originality and elegance. Twenty poets were united in the composition of a comic poem, undei the title Berloldo, Bertoldino and Coxasenno. Luigi Savioli sung of love in the style of Anacreon. As erotic and lyric poets, must be mentioned with him Gherardo de' Rossi and Giovanni Fantoni, called, among the Arcadians (see Arcadia^ Labindo. A pleasing enthusiasm pervades the poetry of Ippolito Pindemonti ? and, among the productions of his friend Aurelio Bertola of Rimini, the fables rank the highest. Clem. Bondi is pleasing, but without creative power. Giuseppe Parini, who imitated Pope's Rape of the Lock, displays true poetic elevation and fine feeling. Onofrio Menzoni, who is not without poetic originality confined himself almost entirely to sacred poems. Alfieri was distinguished for his satires, lyric poems, his Utruria Vendicata, and his dramatic compositions, translations, &c. (See Alfieri.) The abbate Giambattista Casti was distinguished for elegance, wit and humor. His Jinimali Parlanti, a mockheroic poem, is rich in satiric and humorous traits. His Novelle Galanti are often indecent. The late Vincenzo Monti is pronounced unanimously to have been the greatest among the recent poets of Italy. Besides his dramatic compositions, his most celebrated poem is his Bassvigliana, in which he imitates Dante. But who can enumerate the host which now lays claim to the poetic laurel, particularly since the souvenirs flourish in Italy also, and offer so fine a field for sonnets, of which there is hardly an educated Italian who has not composed some ? The grave character which the times are assuming will perhaps put an end to these elegant trifles, whose abundance cannot be considered favorable to an elevated tone, either in literature or the fine arts. The souvenirs have already declined in Germany, where they originated. The latest epic attempts have not been successful. The Italiade and 5. Benedetto, by A. M. Ricci, Mose, by Robiola, the Moahiiide, by Franchi di Pont, were inferior to the specimens which have appeared of Palomba's Medoro Coronato. More interest has been excited by the tragedies, the authors of which, however, are restrained by their party views of the romantic and classical. Fabbri of Cesena, Marsuzi, the duke of Vendignano, follow the example of Alfieri, respecting whose poetical system, see the article Alfieri. Ugo Foscolo's Ricciarda {Londra, i. e. Turin, 1820) was intended to introduce a taste for the romantic style into Italy; but it is already forgotten. Manzoni, a cultivator of this kind of poetry, or of what the Italians understand by this name, has been more successful. Gothe praised Manzoni's Conte di Carmagnola (Milan, 1820) highly. Pindernonti, MafFei and Nicolini, however, are placed higher than Manzoni by all parties. The productions in the comic department are poor; they appear, at least to other nations, heavy and dragging, and the Commedia deW Arte (see Drama) is not considered worthy of notice by the high classes; yet its strong humor might perhaps please an unprejudiced mind more than the writings of Nota, Giraud and Panzadoro. Barbieri's JYuova Raccolta Teatrale, ossia Repertorio ad Uso de' Teatri Haliani (Milan, f820), and Marchisio's Opera Teatrale (Milan, 1820), endeavor to supply the want of native productions by translations of French and German worksproof enough that the natural gayety of the south, formerly the home of pleasure, is departing. How can it be otherwise under the Austrian sceptre ? Our limits do not permit us to mention the writers of sonnets and operas. Ti'ite subjects are brought up under forms a thousand times repeated, and thus the miracle, that Sgrizzi can astonish his audience with improvvisated tragedies is partly explained. (See ImprovvisaiorL) The treasure of the novelle, of which Shakspeare so happily made use, lies before the Italian poets, untouched, and seems even to be little known to the Italian public at large. Theatres like those of S. Carlo at Naples, Delia Scala at Milan, Pergola at Florence, where whole regiments might appear on the stage, do not afford much reason to hope for the restoration of dramatic excellence. The historical novel, which sir Walter Scott has rendered so popular with all nations, has been attempted in Italy, as in Livati's Viaggi di Fr. Petrarca (Milan, 1820), Grossi's IIdegonde, Manzoni's Promessi Sposi, and the Monaca di Monza. The history of Italian poetry, particularly of the older periods, is to be found in the works of Crescimbeni, Quadrio, Tiraboschi, and also in Ginguene's Histoire Latter aire dUtalie, Sismondi's work Be la lAiterature du Midi, and in Bouterwek (q. v.), the two last of which works come down to our own times. Italian Theatre. The political state of Italy, and the easy, careless life of the people, in their mild and beautiful climate, have cooperated in causing the dramatic literature of Italy to remain in a very backward state. It was revived, as has been shown in the article Drama, earlier among the Italians than among other nations, because they had the model of the ancient drama before their eyes; but this very circumstance was one reason why a national drama was not formed in Italy. The modern Italian, generally speaking, has not that reflecting turn of mind, which is necessary for the composition and enjoyment of a truly good drama; nor has sufficent liberty existed for centuries in Italy to afford a fair field for dramatic talent. If it be objected that the Spanish drama attained its perfection under the stern sway of an absolute government, it may be answered, that the higher drama, with the Spaniards, is of a religious casta consequence of that religious gloom which belongs to the Spanish character, but. which the gay Italian does not feel. The extemporaneous mask, which is such a favorite with the lower classes of Italy, is contemned for this very reason by the higher classes; and whilst the people in general relish nothing but the commedia delV arte (see Drama), the higher classes care only for the opera. The drama, therefore, properly so called, does not appear like a natural part of Italian literature, and we trust it will not be considered an arbitrary division, if we treat the Italian drama separately from the body of Italian literature. The dramatic writers of this country started with so close an imitation of the ancients, that no Italian, down to the last quarter of the 15th century, wrote a tragedy in any language except Latin ; and the Orfeo of Angelo Poliziano, of that time, is a series of lyrical poems dramatically attached to each other a tragedy merely in name. The Sqfonisbe of Trissino imitates in every point the ancient model, even to retaining the chorus ; it is not without merit, but, on the whole, is a pedantic work ; yet, in the time of Leo X, in 1516, it was received with so much applause, as to be represented in Rome with great pomp. Ruccellai (1525) bears the same marks of imitation and want of poetical invention ; even Tasso's Torrismondo (about 1595), though particular passages remind us of his immortal poems, is stamped with the same character. Amidst the minute and anxious observance of the rules of Aristotle, closely followed by many Italian writers of tragedies not worthy of mention, count Prospero Buonacelli deserves credit for venturing to omit the chorus ; on the other hand, the lawyer Vincenzo Gravina once more attempted to show that imitation of Seneca was the only way to tragic perfection. After Mortello, in the beginning of the 38th century, had finally attempted to improve the Italian drama by the imitation of Racine and Corneille (he even endeavored to introduce the French Alexandrine), Maffei, in his Merope, aimed at a middle course, and, without imitating either, to unite the excellences of Seneca and of the French theatre. In this absence of real tragedies, the serious operas, the musical dramas of Metastasio (born 1698), may be properly mentioned. Their tone had been settled by the attempts of Apostolo Zeno. Without marked character or free play of imagination, they always preserve the decorum of the French theatre ; but in elegance and melody of language, and in musical softness of expression for the common places of passion, particularly of love, they are unrivalled. Alfieri, who wrote towards the end of the last century, is, throughout his writings, a contrast to Metastasio. (See Alfieri.) He does not satisfy a German or an English man in his conception of dramatic ejccellence. Among his followers are Vincenzo Monti of Ferrara, Alessandro Pelopi of Bologna, and particularly Giambattista Niccolini of Florence, whose Polyxena received a prize in 1811. The pastoral dramas of Tasso and Guarini, viz. the Aminta of the former, and the Pastor Fido of the latter, form a novel kind of dramatic poetry. They entirely eclipsed those ofNiccolo of Coreggio, Agostino Beccari, Cinthio Giraldi, Agostino Argenti and Buonarelli. Tasso succeeded in uniting the sweetest tones of Theocritus, Anacreon, and of the eclogues of Virgil, without injuring his originality. In comedy, the Italians also began with a close imitation of the ancients, not, however, of the comedy of Aristophanes, but of the Romans, Plautus and the calm Terence. These productions were called, in contradistinction from the extemporaneous comedy, commedie erudite (learned comedies). The comedies of Ariosto and the Clizia of Machiavelli exhibit this imitation. The other comedies of the latter are altogether Florentine in tlieir character, but we must admit that they are deficient in that elevated tone of comedy, which we admire in Shakspeare. We mention Tasso's Gli Inirighi d'Amore only on account of the author's name. The Tancia, by the younger Michael Angelo Buonarotti (1626), is one of the most remarkable Italian comedies, on account of the Florentine nationality so well portrayed in it. Goldoni endeavored to put an end to the commedia delV arte, by his grave moralizing comedies. On the other hand, Gozzi strove to save the extemporaneous comedy, by elevating its character. In comedies, the subjects of which were taken from fairy tales, and in tragicomedies, the materials of which were from Calcleron and Moreto, without, however, having their poetical execution or genius, he only wrote the chief parts, and these in very easy verses. In the less important parts, which were intended for the standing masks, he was satisfied with indicating merely the leading ideas, leaving the execution to the talent of the actor. He remained without a follower. Among the latest writers of comedies, we may mention Albergati, whose Prisoner received a prize at Parma, and who wrt>te a number of agreeable farces ; the Venetian Francesco Antonio Avelloni, surnamed il Poetino, an imitator of the French ; Antonio Simone Sograsi ; the Neapolitan Gualzetti; the abbate Chiari ; the Piedmontese Camillo Federici; the Roman Gherardo de' Rossi; count Giraud; Giovanni Pindemonti, &c. (See Italian Poetry.) Augustus William von Schlegel says (vol. il, p. 68, of his Dramaiische Vorlesungen), " We think it is not saying too much to assert, that dramatic poetry, as well as the histrionic art, is in the lowest state in Italy. The foundation of a national theatre has never yet been laid, and, without a total reform in principles, there is no prospect that it ever will be." Italian Art, The art of painting was early introduced both into Italy and Germany by Greek masters; but the diversities of national character, climate and religion, produced different results in the two countries. A glowing imagination, an easy life, an innate sense for the beautiful, enthusiastic piety, the constant sight of nature in her fairest forms, and the contemplation of the masterpieces of an cient art, occasioned painting, in Italy, to unfold with great magnificence ; while, in Germany, the ancient painters loved rather to dwell on the inward life and character. They were poets and philosophers, who selected colors instead of words. The Italians have therefore remained inimitable in the ideal of this art, as the Greeks in statuary. The 12th century is generally taken as the period of the beginning of the history of painting in Italy; but, even before that time, it had been the scene of the labors of Greek and Byzantine artists. During the pontificate of Leo the Great, in the year 441, a large picture in mosaic was executed in the Basilica of St. Paul, on the road to Ostia, and the portraits of the 42 first bishops, which are seen in the same church, date their origin from the same time. Mosaic and encaustic painting was then the prevalent mode. Painting in distemper was afterwards introduced. About the end of the sixth century, there were many paintings, which were not beloved to be the work of mortal hands, out were attributed to angels or blessed spirits. To this class belongs one of the most famous representations of the Savior, in wood, at Rome, called Acheiropoieta, of which a sight can be obtained only with difficulty, in the sanctum sanctorum. Whether the evangelist Luke, whom painters afterwards chose for their patron saint, was himself a painter, has been the subject of much controversy. In Rome, especially, the madonnas in Sta. Maria Maggiore, Sta. Maria del Popoli, Sta. Maria in Araceli, and the one in the neighboring Grotta Ferrata, have been ascribed to the pencil of the evangelist. In the 8th century, painting on glass, mosaic on a ground of gold, and painting in enamel, were zealously prosecuted in Italy. There were already many native artists. One of the oldest monuments of ait is the celebrated Christ on the Cross, in the Trinity church at Florence, which existed there as early as 1003. About 1200, a Greek artist, Theophanes, founded a school of painting in Venice. The genuine Italian style first bloomed, however, in Florence, and may be treated under three leading periods: 1. from Cimabue to Raphael ; 2. from Raphael to the Caracci; 3. from the Caracci to the present time. First Period. The art was first pursue ed with zeal in Pisa. Giunta Pisano, Guiclo of Sienna, Andr. Tan* and Buffalmaco precede Cimabue, who was born at Florence, in 1240. This artist, who was regarded as a prodigy by his contemporaries, first introduced more correct proportions, and gave his figures more life and expression. His scholar Giotto excelled him even in these respects, and exhibited a grace hitherto unknown. He was the friend of Dante and Petrarch, and practised, with equal success, historical painting, mosaic, sculpture, architecture, and portrait and miniature painting. He first attempted foreshortening and a natural disposition of drapery, but his style, nevertheless, remained dry and stiff. Boniface VIII invited him to Rome, where he painted the still celebrated Navicella. He was followed by Gaddi, Stefano, Maso and Simone Merami, who painted the celebrated portraits of Petrarch and Laura. But Masaccio first dispelled the darkness of the middle ages, and a brighter dawn illumined the art. The Florentine republic, in the beginning of the 15th century, had attained the summit of its splendor. Cosmo of Medici patronized all the arts and sciences; Brunelleschi then built the dome of the cathedral: Lorenzo Ghiberti cast the famous doors of the baptistery in bronze; and Donatello was to statuary what Masaccio was to painting. Masaccio's real name was Tommaso Guidi. He was born at St. Giovanni, in Val d'Arno, in the year 1402. His paintings have keeping, character and spirit. His scholars first began to paint in oil, but only upon wooden tablets or upon walls, coated with plaster of Paris. Canvass was not used till long after. Paolo Uccelli laid the foundation for the study of perspective. Luca Signorelli, who first studied anatomy, and Domenico Ghirlandaio, who combined noble forms and expression vyith a knowledge of perspectives and abolished the ex <;essive use of gilding, were distinguished in their profession. The elevated mind of Leonardo da Vinci (see Vinci), who was born in 1444, and died 1519, and who was a master in all the arts and sciences, infused so much philosophy and feeling into the art, that, by his instrumentality, it quickly reached maturity. From him the Florentine school acquired that grave, contemplative and almost melancholy character, to which it originally leaned, and which it afterwards united with the boldness and gigantic energy of Michael Angelo. The Roman school already enumerated among its founders the miniature painter Oderigi, who died in 1300. He embellished manuscripts with small figures. Guido Falrnerucci, Pietro CavaLolini and Gentile da Fabriano were his most distinguished successors. Almost all the painters of this time were accustomed to annex inscriptions to their pictures: the annunciation to the virgin Mary was their fa\orite subject. Perugia was the principal seat of the Roman school. As early as the 13th century, there was a society of painters there. Pietro Vanucci, called Perugino (who was born 1446, died 1524), first introduced more grace and nobler forms into this school, whose character acquired from him something intellectual, noble, simply pious and natural, which always remained peculiar to the Roman school. Perugino's great scholar, Raphael, soon surpassed all former masters, and banished their poverty, stiffness and dryness of style. Taste came into Venice from the East. Andr. Murano and Vittore Carpaccio are among the earliest artists of that city. Giovanni and Gentile Bellino are the most distinguished painters of the earlier Venetian school. The former was born 1424, and died 1514. The latter labored some time in Constantinople under the reign of Mohammed II. They introduced the glowing colors of the East, their style was simple and pure, without rising to the ideal. Andr. Mantegna (born at Padua, in 1431, died 1506) was the first to study the ancient models. Padua was the principal seat of the Venetian school. Mantegna afterwards transferred it to Mantua, and his style formed the transition to the Lombard school. Schools of painting nourished in Verona, Bassano and Brescia. Giovanni of IJdine (who was so distinguished by his faithful imitation of nature in secondary things, that he minted for Raphael the garlands around nis pictures in the Farnesina), Pellegrino, and Pordenone, were the most able predecessors of the two great masters of the Venetian school, Giorgione and Titian, No capital city served as the central point of the Lombard school: Bologna subsequently became the centre. Imola, Conto, Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Mantua and Milan were afterwards considered the seats of this school. Galasio, who lived about 1220, Aligbieri, Alghisi, Cosimo Tura, Ercoie Grandi, and especially Dosso Dossi (born 1479, died 1560), were the principal painters of Ferrara. The last, a friend of Ariosto, possesses a remarkable grandeur of style, united with a richness of coloring which may bear comparison with that of Titian. Bramante (bom 1444, died 1514), who was likewise a great architect, Lippo Dalmasi, and especially Francesco Raibolini (bom 1450), called Francesco Francia, were highly distinguished among the Bolognese masters. The latter, who was marked, by a tender religious expression and uncommon industry, had the greatest veneration for Raphael. It is asserted that, at the sight of the St. Cecilia of this master, he was so struck with the impossibility of attaining the same perfection, that he fell into a deep melancholy, and soon after died. Here also belongs the charming Innocenzo da Imola. But all these were far surpassed by the incomparable Antonio Allegri da Correggio, who, in fact, first founded the character of the Lombard school, so distinguished for harmony of colors, expression replete with feeling, and genuine grace. Second Period. We now come to the greatest masters of any age, who, almost at the same time, as heads of the four schools, carried every branch of the art to the highest perfection. In Italy, they and their scholars are called Cinquecentisti, from the century in which they flourished. This period of perfection passed away rapidly, and soon required the violent restoration, with which the third period commences. After Leonardo da Vinci, in the Florentine school, had settled the proportions of figures, and the rules of perspective and of light and shade, and his scholars, Luini (who united Raphael's style with that of his master), Salaino and Melzo, besides the admirable Baccio della Porta, who is famous under the name of I\a Bartolommeo (born 1469), and whose works are distinguished for elevated conception, warmth of devotion and glowing colors, had done much for the art, and after the gentle and feeling Andrea del Sarto (born 1488, died 1530), the intellectual Balthasar Peruzzi and the gay Razzi had made this school distinguished, arose died 1564). His gigantic mind grasped, with equal power, statuary, architecture and painting. His fire of composition, his knowledge of anatomy, the boldness of his attitudes and foreshortenings, leave him without a rival; but, as a model, he was detrimental to the art, because his imitators necessarily fell into exaggeration and contempt of a simple style. In grandeur, his fresco painting, the Last Judgment, in the Sistine chapel at Rome, is inimitable. Beauty was never so much his object, as power and sublimity, especially since, in the former, he could never equal Raphael, but in the latter stood alone. Dante was his favorite poet. In his later years, the erection of St. Peter's church almost entirely engrossed his thoughts. Rosso de' Rossi, Daniel of Volterra, Salviati, Angelo Bronzino, Alessandro Allori, and many others, were his scholars and imitators. In 1580, Ludov. Cigoli and Greg. Pagani began to awaken a new spirit. They returned to nature, and sought to create a better taste in the chiaro oscuro. Domenico Passignani, Cristoforo Allori and Cornodi were their followers. If we turn our attention to the Roman school, we find at its head the first of artistsRaphael Sanzio da Urbino (born 1483, died 1520). His genius showed itself as elevated in his fresco paintings, in the sianze and loggie of the Vatican (the former of which contain the School of Athens, the Parnassus and the Conflagration of the Borgo, while the latter contain scriptural scenes, from the creation through the whole Old Testament), as it appears lovely, spiritual and original in the frescos of the Farnesina (representing the life of Psyche). No less superior are his oil paintings, of which we shall only mention his madonnas, celebrated throughout the world, especially the Madonna del Sisto (in the Dresden gallery), the Madonna della Sedia (in Florence), Madonna delta Pesce (in Madrid), Maria Giardiniera (in Paris), Madonna di Foligno (in Rome), his St. Cecilia (in Bologna), and his last work, the Transfiguration of Christ. His scholars and successorsthe bold Giulio Romano (born 1492, died 1546), the more gloomy Franc. Penni il Fattore (born 1488, died 1528), the lofty Bartolommeo Ramenghi, surnamed Bagnacavallo, Pierino del Vaga, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Germgniani, Benvenuto Tisi, called Garofolo, and many otherswere skilful masters; but they forsook the path of their great pattern, and degenerated into mannerism.In spirit, he belonged to the Lombard school, as he aimed at the grace of Correggio. He possesses an uncommon degree of grace and expression. With his scholars Francesco Vanni, Pellegrini, and the brothers Zuccheri, he infused a new life into the Roman school, though the latter produced pleasing rather than great works, and fell into mannerism. Muziano was distinguished in landscape painting, and Nogari, Pulzone and Facchetti in portrait painting. At the head of the Venetian school, we find the two excellent colorists Giorgione Barbarelli di Castelfranco (born 1477, died 1511) and Tiziano Vercelli (born 1477, died 1576). The portraits of the former are celebrated for their warmth and truth. The latter was great in all the departments of art, inimitable in the disposition of his carnations, excellent as a historical and portrait painter, and the first great landscape painter. Even in extreme old age, his powers were unimpaired. Ariosto and Aretino were friends of the gay, happy Titian. He executed many works for the Spanish kings. Some of his most famous works are the altarpiece of St. Pietro Martire, his pictures of Venus, his Bacchanal and his Children Playing, in Madrid, his Cristo della Moneta, &c. He first understood the art of painting with transparent colors. In groups, he selected the form of a bunch of grapes for a model. His successorsSebastiano del Piombo, Palma Vecchio, Lorenzo Lotto, Paris Bordone, Pordenoneare distinguished, especially in coloring. Schiavone, whose chiaro oscuro and richness of color are truly remarkable; Giacomo da Ponto, called Bassano, who imitated reality, even in common things, to deception, and who was the head of a whole family of painters ; the ardent, inspired Robusti, called 11 Tintoretto (born 1512, died 1594), whom Titian, through jealousy, dismissed from his school; the fantastic, splendid Paul Veronese (bom 1532, died 1588), who painted boldly and brilliantly with a free pencil, but neglected all propriety of costume, and frequently mingled masks in historical paintings, and the Veronese Cagliari, were ornaments of the Venetian school. It likewise degenerated, and its mannerists were worse than those of the other schools, because they did not study the antiques and the ideal. At the head of the Lombard school, we find the charming Antonio Allegri, called Correggio (born 1494, died 1534), whose works are full of feeling. (See Correggio.) His successors and scholars were Fnneesco Rondani, Gatti, Lelio Orsi, and especially Francesco Mazzoia il Parmegianino (born 1503, died 1540). This artist possessed much ease, fire, and a peculiar grace, which frequently borders on mannerism. Gaudenzio Ferrari, and many others, are the ornaments of the Milanese school. In landscape painting, Lavizzario was called the Titian of Milan. The famous Sofonisba Angosciola (born 1530), of Cremona, was highly distinguished in music and painting. As an excellent portraitpainter, she was invited to Madrid, where she painted don Carlos and the whole royal family, and gave instruction to queen Elizabeth. Van Dyke declared that lie had learned more from the conversation of this woman, when she was blind from age, than he had from the study of the masters. She died in 1620. Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Maria Robusti, and Elis. Sirani were celebrated female artists of this time. Camillo and Giulio Procaccino were distinguished for strength of imagination and excellent coloring. In Bologna, we find Bagnacavallo, a distinguished artist of this period, whom we have already mentioned as one of Raphael's scholars. He flourished about 1542. Francesco Primatiecio (born 1490, died 1570), Niccolo dell'Abbate, Pellegrino Tibaldi, Passarotti and Fontana were very able Bolognese artists. Third Period. It begins with the age of the three Carracci. These excellent artists endeavored to restore a pure style, and, by the combined study of the ancient masters of nature and science, to give a new splendor to the degraded art. Their influence was powerful. The division into the four principal schools now ceases, and we find but two principal divisions the followers of the Carracci, who are called eclectics, and the followers of Michael Angelo Caravaggio, who are called naturalists. Lodovico Carracci (born 1555, died 1619) was the uncle of the two brothers Agostino (born 1558, died 1601) and Annibale {born 1560, died 1609). Lodovico was quiet, contemplative, soft and serious. His passionate teachers, Fontana and Tintoretto, at first denied him any talent: he studied therefore more zealously, and acquired the deepest views as an artist. Agostino united uncommon sagacity and the most extensive knowledge with a noble character. His brother Annibale, who made extraordinary progress in the art, under Lodovico's direction, became jealous of Agostino. The disputes between the two brothers never ceased, and the offended Agostino devoted him self chiefly to the art of engraving. The attacks of their enemies first united them, and they founded together a great academy. The brothers were invited to Rome to paint the gallery of the duke of Farnese. They soon disagreed, and Agostino retired, and left the work to his fiery brother. Annibale completed the undertaking with honor, but was shamefully cheated of the greatest part of his pay. Deeply mortified, he sought to divert his mind by new labors and a journey to Naples ; but the hostility which he there experienced, hastened his death. Meanwhile, the quiet Lodovico finished, with the aid of his scholars, one of the greatest worksthe famous portico of St. Michael in Bosco, in Bologna, on which are represented seven fine paintings, from the legends of St, Benedict and St. Cecilia. The last of the , labors of this great master was the Annunciation to Mary, represented in two colossal figures, in the cathedral of Bologna. The angel is clothed in a light dress, and, by an unhappy distribution of drapery, his right foot seems to stand where his left belongs, and vice versa. Near at hand, this is not observed ; but, as soon as the large scaffold was removed, Ludovico saw the fault, which gave occasion to the bitterest criticisms from his enemies. The chagrin which he suffered on this occasion brought him to the grave. The scholars of the Carracci are numberless. The most famous endeavored to unite the grace of Correggio with the grandeur of the Roman masters. Cesare Aretusi was distinguished for the most faithful copies of Correggio and Guido Reni (born at Bologna, 1575, died 1642), especially for the ideal beauty of his heads, the loveliness, of his infant figures, and the uncommon facility of his pencil. His fresco representing Aurora, in the palace Borghese, and his oil painting, the Ascension of Mary, in Munich, are well known. Francesco Albani (born 1578 at Bologna, died 1660) lived in constant rivalry with Guido. He produced many large church paintings, but was most celebrated for the indescribable charm with which he represented, on a smaller scale, lovely subjects from mythology, and especially groups of Cupids. His paintings in the Verospi gallery, and bis Four Elements, which he painted for the Borghese family, gained him universal reputation. The background of his landscapes is excellent. All his works breathe serenity, pleasure and grace. The third great contemporary of those already mentioned, Domenico Zampieri, called Bomenichino (born 1581, diedon account of his great modesty and timidity. Thrice were prizes awarded by Lodovico to drawings, the author of which no one could discover. At last Agostino made inquiries, and the young Domenicbino timidly confessed that the drawings were his. His industry and perseverance rendered him the favorite of his master. His works evince the most thorough knowledge, and are rich in expression of character, in force and truth. His Communion of St. Jerome, his Martyrdom of St. Agnes, and his fresco in the Grotta Ferrata, are immortal masterpieces. He was always remarkable for his timidity. He was invited to Naples, but was there persecuted and tormented by the painters; and it is even suspected that he was poisoned. Giovanni Lanfranco (born at Parma, 1580, died 1647) was especially distinguished for the effect of his light. Bartol. Schidone is one of the best colorists of this school. The Bibienas, the Molas, Al. Tierini, Pietro di Cortona, Ciro Ferri also deserve mention. At the head of the naturalists, who, with a bold and often rash pencil, iihitated nature, without selection, stands Michael Angelo Merigi, or Amerigi da Caravaggio (born 1569). His chief opponent in Rome was D'Arpino, who stood at the head of the idealists, or rather of the mannerists. Caravaggio and his successors, Manfredi, Leonello Spada, Guercino da Cento, &c, often took common nature for a model, which they servilely imitated, thus profaning the genuine dignity of the art, though they cannot be denied strength and genius. About this time, the beginning of the 17th century, the hamhocciate were introduced. (See Peter Laar.) Many artists, especially Mich. Ang. Cerquozzi, surnamed delle batlagiie, and delle bambocciate, followed this degenerate taste. Andrea Sacchi made great efforts to oppose him. His drawing was correct and grand; Raphael was his model. His most famous scholar was Carlo Maratto (born 1625, at Camerano), whose style was noble and tasteful. The cavaliere Pietro Liberi, Andrea Celesti, the female portrait painter Rosalba Camera (born at Venice, 1675, died 1757), who was distinguished for her drawings in pastel, the graceful Francesco Trevisani, Pinzetta Tiepolo, and Canaletto, a painter in perspective, were the most celebrated Venetian painters of this time. Carlo Cignani (born 1628, died at Bologna, 1719) acquired a great reputation by his originality and the strength and agreeableness of his coloring. Of his scholars, Marc. Antonio Franceschini was uiouuguiouvjvi itj*_nj.i ivjr^j, UJX;VJL JL#^CI, whose works are charming and full of soul. Giuseppe Crespi, called Spagriuoletto, deserves mention for his industry and correct style, but his pictures have unfortunately become very much: defaced by time. Among the Romans, Pompeo Battoni (born 1708, died 1787) was principally distinguished, and was a rival of the celebrated Mengs. Angelica Kaufmann deserves to be mentioned.We must not forget the Neapolitan and the Genoepe schools. Of the Neapolitans, we naLie Tommaso de' Stefani (born 1230), FiJ. Tesauro, Simone,Colantonio de'Fiori(bora 1352), Solario il Zingaro, Sabatino (born 1480), Belisario, Caracciolo, Giuseppe Ribera Spagnoletto (born 1593), Spadaro, Francesco di Maria (born 1623), Andrea Vaccaro, the spirited landscapepainter Salvator Rosa (born 1615), Preti, called il Calabresc (born 1613), and Luca Giordano (born 1632, died 1705), who was called, from the rapidity of his execution, Lmca fa Presto. Solimena (born 1657) and Conca belong to the modern masters of this school. The Genoese can name among their artists Semino (born 1485), Luca Cambiasi (born 1527), Paggi Strozzi, called il Prete Genovese, Castiglione (born 1616), Biscaino, Gaulli and Parodi. Perhaps the most distinguished of the living painters of Italy is Camoccini. This reputation, however, is not allowed him him without dispute by foreign countries, and even by many artists of his native land. His style is grand, and purely historical; his drawings are even more highly esteemed than his paintings. His pieces, however, are cold, and their estimation seems to have diminished. Landi is a distinguished portrait painter, though his coloring is rather cold. The pencil of Grassi possesses an inimitable grace, and a true enchantment. Benvenuti, directoi of the academy in Florence, is the first artist there. A French artist (Fabre) in Florence is the competitor of Benvenuti; his landscapes and his pastoral scenes are equally excellent. Colignon is also a very able artist, in the same place. Appiani, who died a few years ago at Milan, was particularly celebrated for the grace of his female figures ; and Bossi had equal reputation, in a more serious and severe style. The Florentine Sabbatelli's sketches with the pen are highly esteemed. Ermini, in Florence, is a charming miniature pamteiy in Isabey's manner. Alvarez, a Spaniard, and Ayez, a young Venetian, are in high repute at Rome. The young artist Agricola is particularly distinguished among the artists of Rome. He is a native of Urbino. In purity of style, he is thought to surpass all modern artists. (For the history of Italian painters, see Lanzi's Stoma Pittorica.)In the art of engraving, the Italians have acquired great eminence. Tommaso Finiguerra, who flourished 1460, was the first celebrated master of this art, which he taught to Baccio Bandini. They were succeeded by Mantegna; but Marco Antonio Raimondi, of Bologna, who lived in 1500, was the first to introduce greater freedom into his engravings. His copies of Raphael have always been highly valued, on account of their correctness. His manner was imitated by Bonasone, Marco di Ravenna, Di Ghisi, and others. Agostino Carracci, Parmeggiano, Carlo Maratti and Pietro Testa etched some excellent works. Stefano della Bella was distinguished for his small, spirited and elegant pieces. Among the moderns, Bartolozzi deserves mention in suppled engraving. Cunego, Volpato, and Bettelini are also distinguished; but, above all, the Florentine Raphael Morghen, who has carried the art of engraving to a degree of perfection never before anticipated. The labors of Morghen, and yet more those of Longhi, perhaps the most admirable of all modern engravers, of Toschi, of Anderloni, of Folo, of Palmerini, of Lasinio, of Garavaglia, Lapi, Schiavonetti, evince a** activity, to which new employment and new excitement have been afforded by the eagerness of travellers, and the number of splendid works on buildings (such as those on the cathedral of Milan, the Carthusian monastery of Pavia, the sacristy of Sienna, the Campo Santo of Pisa, the Monumenti sepolcrali of Tuscany, the principal edifices of Venice, the Chiese principali di JZuropa). One of the latest and best is the work of the brothers, Durelli, La Certosa di Pavia. The painter Francesco Pirovano, whose description of Milan exceeds all others in exactness, has also given us a description of this celebrated Carthusian monastery. As a medium between painting and sculpture (see Sculpture), we must mention mosaic, in which many paintings have been imitated in Italy, from the wish to render the master works imperishable. There is a distinction made between the Roman mosaic executed by Tafi, Giotto and Cavallini, and the Florentine. (See Mosaic.) Mosaic painting seems to have flourished as well in France, whither it was transplanted, as in Rome. The art of working in scagliola (see Scagliola) has flourished for two centuries in Tuscany. In later times, Lamberto Gori has distinguished himself in this branch, Rome is still the metropolis of the arts. Pope Pius VII generously supported the plans of that lover of the arts, cardinal Consalvi; and the Chiaramonti museum, by every account the most superb part of the long galleries of the Vatican, will be a lasting monument of his noble patronage. All friends of the sublime and beautiful deeply felt the accident that befell St. Paul's church, near Rome, in the conflagration of 1823. To restore it would hardly be possible. The loss of this noble Basilica is not adequately compensated by the church of St. Peter and Paul, built opposite the castle of Naples, nor by the temple of Possagno, which, before it was finished, received the ashes of its founder, the great Canova. As a monument, to the embellishment of which that distinguished man contributed the last efforts of his genius, this church is a legacy highly to be esteemed by Italian artists. Sculpture and painting here again meet architecture in a sisterly embrace. Canova's death was the cause of its first solemn consecration. (For a particular account of Canova, see the article.) Notwithstanding the excellence of their master, little is to be expected from the Italians of Canova's school. The monuments which were executed or planned by Ricei for the present grandduke of Tuscany at Arezzo, by Pisani for the princesses of the house of Este at Reggio, and by Antonio Bosa to the memory of Winckelmann, rather depress our hopes than exalt them. The principal ground of hope of future excellence is in the love which has been generally awakened for the plastic arts. Gem engraving has been carried to a very high degree of perfection; and Berini's labors well merit the wide reputation which they have acquired. As medalists, Manfredini in Milan, Pulinati and Mercandelli have produced works with which other countries present little that can compare. In Rome, Girometti and Cerbara are highly esteemed in this branch of art. Italian Music. The style of music now prevalent in Italy is characterized by the predominance of melody and song to the neglect of harmony, and is distinguished from the old Italian music. Like other branches of modem art, the music of modern times sprung from religion. The history of the art, after pointing out a few imperfect glimmerings of ancient music, conducts* us to Italy, where, in the course of centuries, the ancient was first lost in the modern. Here we first find the proper choral song, the foundation of modem church music, which was at first sung in unison, chiefly in melodies derived from the old GrecoRoman music, and adapted to Christian hymns and psalms. (See Music, and Music, Sacred.) It seems to have had its origin when bishop Ambrosius, in the fourth century, introduced into the western church songs and hymns adapted to the four authentic modes of the Greeks, and appointed psalmists or precentors. Gregory the Great, in the sixth century, enlarged the choral song by the plagal modes. From this time, singingschools were multiplied, and much was written upon music. The most important inventions for the improvement of music generally, we owe to the 11th century, and particularly to the Benedictine Guido of Arezzo, who, if he did not invent the mode of writing musical notes and the use of the clef, improved and enlarged them, determined the exact relations of the tones, named the six tones of the scale (see Solfeggio), and divided the scale into hexachords. In the 13th century, the invention of music in measure was spread in Italy, dependent upon which was that of counterpoint and figured music. Instruments were multiplied and improved in the 14th and 15th centuries. Many popes favored music, particularly vocal, and consecrated it by their briefs; yet the ecclesiastical ordinances restrained the independent developement of music. Much instruction was given in singing in the 15th century, and not entirely by monks. Music acquired the rank of a science, and vocal music in counterpoint was developed. In the 16th century, we discover distinguished composers and musicians¦ Palestrina, composer for the chapel of pope Clement XI, whose works possess great dignity and scientific modulation, and his successor, Felice Anerio, Namno da Yallerano, who, together with Giovanni da Balletri, were considered as distinguished musicians; also the celebrated contrapuntist and singer, Gregorio Allegri, and the great writer upon harmony, Giuseppe Zarlino, chapelmaster at Venice. Music at Rome and Venice was cultivated with the greatest zeal. Hence it went to Naples and Genoa; and all ITALY, schubert says, was soon a loudsounding concerthall, to which all Europe resorted to hear genuine music, particularly beautiful singing. In the 17th century, we meet with the first profane music. The first opera was performed at Venice 1624, at first with unaccompanied recitatives and choruses in unison ; it spread so quickly, that the composers of spectacles were soon unable to supply the demands of the people, and from 40 to 50 new operas appeared yearly in Italy. This caused great competition among the Italian musicians. Thus the peculiar character of the Italian music, not to be changed by foreign influence, was developed the more quickly, because this species was cultivated independently, and unrestrained by the church. Already, in the middle of the 17th century, when the music of the theatre was continually advancing, simplicity began to give place to pomp and luxuriance, and the church style to decline. Music (says Schubert) united the profane air of the drama with the fervor of the church style, and this was the first cause of the decline of the latter. Let us now consider the principal periods of the former. Vocal music must have been first; it was regulated by the discovery and improvement of instruments ; thence arose the simple, grand church music of the 15th and 16th centuries ; with it various forms of national song were developed. On the stage, the higher style of music flourished independently. Here the Italian, without much attention to the poetical part of the performance, which was, indeed, only the hasty work of a. moment, followed his inclination for melody and sweet sounds, which appears even in his language. All the southern nations show a great sensitiveness, and melody is to them as necessary as harmony to the inhabitants of the North; but to no nation so much as to the Italians, whose beautiful climate and happy organization for song (Italy produces the most beautiful alto and tenor voices few base) made melody their chief aim in their music. On the other hand, the simplicity of melody degenerated into effeminacy and luxuriance, from the time when vocal music developed itself independently, and the voice, but little supported by the instrumental music, began to be cultivated like an instrument; when, instead of poetical expression and truth, mere gratification of the ears, not deep emotion, but a momentary excitement, and a rapid change of tones, with the avoidance of all dissonance, were principally desired; when music began to predominate over poetry, which first took place on the stage, and thus the musical part of the performance obstructed the improvement of the dramatic and poetic. This taste spread over other countries so much the more easily us Italian music had advanced, by rapid strides, far before that of the rest, of Europe, as appears even from the predomi nance of Italian terms in musical language. This artificial developement of the song was promoted by the introduction of soprano singers on the stage, which destroyed the possibility of poetic truth in dramatic representation. The voice was cultivated to the highest degree by means of the numerous conservatories and singing schools. To this was added the great encouragement and the extravagant rewards of distinguished singers (Farinelli purchased a duchy); the great opportunities afforded for singing (as every place of consequence in Italy had its theatre, and many had several); besides which, music is an essential part of the service of the Catholic church, and castration was permitted ad honorem Dei, as a papal brief expresses it. The excessive culture of the voice must necessarily lead to the treatment of it as an instrument, to the neglect of poetical expression. Instrumental music, too, in this case, necessarily becomes subordinate. Instrumental music should not indeed overpower the song, as is the case in much of the French and German music; but in the Italian music, the composer is almost restricted to showing off the singer, and cannot develope the fullness and depth of harmony which depends upon the mingling of consonance and dissonance. This is the reason why the masterpieces of Mozart have never entirely satisfied the Italians. Among the best composers, since the 17th century, are Girolamo Frescobaldi, Francesco Foggia, Bapt. Lully, the celebrated violinist and composer Arcangelo Corelli. To the singers, of whom the most were also composers, belong Antimo Liberati, Matteo Simonelli, both singers in the chapel of the pope. In the beginning of the 18th century, Ant. Caldara was distinguished. He increased the effect of the singmg by the addition of instruments, but his style partook much of the theatrical. There were, besides, Brescianello, Toniri and Marotti. In the middle of this century, Italian music, especially theatrical, flourished, particularly at Naples, Lisbon, and also in Berlin. This has been declared by some the most brilliant period of Italian music. There are some distinguished instrumentalists in Italy, as the organists Scarlatti and Martinelli, the violinist Tartini (who, even in the theory of his instrument, was distinguished, and established a school, which was devoted particularly to the church style), Domenico Ferrari, Geminiani, Ant. Lolli and Nardini, scholars of Tartini, also the player upon the harpsichord and composer, Clementi, in London, and Paganini. Among the composers of the 18th century, are mentioned Traelta, who, through his refinements, injured the simplicity of composition; Galuppi, distinguished by simple and pleasing song, rich invention and good harmony; Jomelli (q. v.), who gave greater importance to instrumental music; Maio ; Nic. Porpora, the founder of a new style of singing, distinguished for his solfeggios in church music; Leo; Pergolesi, whose music is always delightful, from its simple beauty (e. g. his Stabat Mater); Pater Martini, at Bologna; the sweet Piccini, rival of Gluck; Anfossi; the agreeable Sacchini ((Edip.); Sarti. (q. v.) Of a later date are Paesiello (q. v.), Cimarosa, the ornament of the opera buffa, and Zingarelli (Romeo and Juliet), Nasolini, Paganini, Niccolini, Pavesi, and the now much celebrated General! and the copious Rossini. More like the Germans were Salieri (q. v.), and the thorough Righini (he likewise has written solfeggios). Cherubini and Spontini have more of the French character. Among the celebrated male and female singers of Italy, since the 18th century, are Francesca Cuzzoni Sandoni, and her rival Faustina Bordoni (afterwards the wife of Hasse), and the Allegrandi, the sopranists Farinelli, Caffarelli, Genesino, Caristini, Marchesi: in later times, the celebrated Crescentini and Veluti; also the singers Baldassore Ferri, Siface Matteuce; the tenorists Millico, Pacchierotti, Brixi Benelli; the female singers Tesi, Mingotti, Gabrielli, Todi, Vandi, Marchetti, the sisters Sessi, particularly Imperadrice and Mariana Sessi, Angelica Catalani, Camporesi, Borgondio. The Italian school is yet unequalled in whatever depends upon the mere improvement of the voice; but the slavish imitation of their manner leads to affectation ; therefore the German singers employ it no farther than they can without losing the spirit and poetical expression which the German song aims at. Travels in Italy. No part of Europe has been so much visited as Italy, and none deserves to be visited more than this charming country, where a cloudless sky sheds perpetual brilliancy on the monuments of ancient greatness and the relics of ancient art, which conspire with the finest works of modern genius, to delight the eye, and to carry back the mind to the great men and great even ts of former times. The sigh t of modern Italy led Gibbon to write the sad story of the decline of her ancient gran deur; and how many poets have owed to Italy their inspiration ! It is impossible to see Italy and not feel the grave monitions of history, or to pass through her happy vineyards without being cheered by the scene, or to gaze on her works of genius without feeling the worth and the dignity of the fine arts. No wonder, then, that Itaty is visited from all quarters. During the general peace in Europe, from 1815 until 1830, crowds of foreigners, particularly Englishmen, hastened to the beautiful peninsula. The latter were so numerous, that the lower classes of Italy called every foreigner un Inglese. Among these there were, of course, great numbers who, without capacity for enjoying what they saw, hurried through the country according to the direction of their guidebooks, in order to be able to say, at the teatables in London, Kow beautiful the view from Monte Pincio is! Every one who has been in Rome must have met with such a traveller, his Vosari in his hand, working his way with servile conscientiousness, through the beauties of the place. Expedition being an object with many of them, the shortest process for seeing all that was to be seen was soon found out, and flocks of travellers, at particular seasons, migrated to particular places. The average period of a jaunt through Italy is six months. The end of the journey is usually Naples, from which travellers advance south as far as the ruins of Peestum. The Alps must be passed early in the autumn. The fairy islands of the Lago Maggiore, at that time, still wear their delightful drapery of fruits and leaves. The traveller then enters, at once, the south of Europe, so different from the north. For visiting the principal places in Upper Italy, the Bolognese and Tuscany, there are two months before the beginning of the carnival, which, of course, must be enjoyed in Rome. After having visited the galleries and monuments in and about Rome, the traveller proceeds, during Lent, to Naples, to see the spring awaken in the Campagna. At Easter, he returns to Rome. Who could visit Italy without hearing the heavenly music in the Capella Sistina, during Passion week! There will perhaps be time, on the return, to make an excursion to the Mark of Ancona; if not, no one, who has been to Rome through Sienna, will now fail to take the road through Terni, Perugia and Arezzo. Genoa and Venice, as the most western and eastern points, are convenient to begin or close the journey with. It may be better, however, to begin with Lombardv and Genoa, in the autumn, and 12* not to extend the period of return far into the hot season. Lombardy attracts but little, after Rome, Florence and Naples, have been visited; but Venice, silent, melancholy Venice, still remains an object of interest, even in her decrepitude under the Austrian sway. Such a journey will occupy from the beginning of October until the middle of May, and will enable the traveller to see the finest parts of the country and the most remarkable works of art. But to become thoroughly acquainted with Italy, as it is and as it was, no one can stay long enough. Rome alone will fully occupy a man's life. He who wishes to become particularly acquainted with the middle ages, and to form a lively picture of them, will remain longer in Florence and Pisa. Late in a moonshiny night, when every thing is quiet, walk through the streets of Florence, and you may easily imagine yourself a contemporary with the Medici. He who wishes to devote himself to the antique or to Roman history, will stay longer in the alma citla. Here he will also find himself at the fountain head of sacred music. He who desires to enjoy the beauties of a bountiful nature, will remain longer in Naples, lying like a paradise surrounded by the fields of Campagna, where the gigantic vine twines round the lofty poplars, and forms an embowrering shade over the luxuriant grain. He who prefers to see a country where nature and man have not been much influenced by civili zatioDjWill proceed to Calabria and Sicily, which afford also the richest harvest to the botanist and mineralogist. He who wishes to become more fully acquainted with the history of the fine arts in the middle ages, will go to the smaller places, distant from the great roads, where he will find innumerable treasures, often unknown to most Italians themselves; as the historian finds rich treasures in the manu scripts stored up in the monasteries, illustrative of the contests of Italian powers among themselves in the middle ages, as well as of the great contest between the secular and ecclesiastical powers, the emperor and the pope : and what a boundless field is spread before the scholar in the Vati can! There are two ways of travellin g in Italy, with posthorses (in which case a carriage belonging to the traveller is almost indispensable), or with the vetturino (in a hired coach). He who travels without a family, and wishes to become acquainted with the people, will do best to adopt the latter mode. The traveller makes nis? bargain with the vetturino, not only for conveyance, out also for supper and lodging. The general price for the conveyance, from 35 to 40 miles a day, together with the meal and lodging, is about a ducat per day. As the reputation of a veiturino depends upon the good treatment of his travellers, it is his interest to procure a good meal and a clean bed ; thus travellers are spared the trouble of bargaining with the host. That the innkeepers in Italy have a general disposition to fleece the traveller, is certain ; and this leads many travellers, particularly English, not to touch a trifle in any inn without making a bargain ; for which very reason they are regularly overreached. The same disposition makes many English travellers so troublesome in Germany, where, the living being cheap, they expect to pay next to nothing in the first hotels, so that some hotels have actually refused to admit them. In large cities, where the traveller expects to stay some time, his best rule will be to make a fair bargain after the first day, when he knows what he has to expect. Another great inconvenience for travellers arises from the ciceroni or servitori di piazza. These people, who have a share of what the custodi and the poorer possessors of some single curiosities receive from the travellers, have an interest in directing the traveller to every corner where an inscription, a piece of a column, &c, is to be found. But how to avoid this, since a cicerone is indispensable ? Two general rules may be found serviceable; not to attend, in Italy, to any thing but what is peculiar to Italy; collections of minerals, Japan porcelain, &c, are to be found in other countries; and, secondly, to prepare one's self for the journey, and to know beforehand, in general, what is to be seen. Of course, these rules are only for those who do not stay for a long time in a place, and have no' time to make acquaintances for themselves. Three nations, particularly, have furnished descriptions of Italy, the English, Germans and French. We recollect to have seen a very old and curious little book, a Guide through Italy for Pilgrims. The images of the virgin, miraculous relics, &c, of course formed the great mass of the book; but antiques, columns, &c, had received a Christian character, and were named after the apostles, &c. The works of which we here speak, properly begin toward the end of the 17th century, at which time the descriptions of Italy assume a more independent character. Since that time, the number has, particularly of late, greatly increased, so that this branch of literature, in Germany, is almost in disrepute. Among the earlier works in English, the most esteemed are those of Burnet, Addison, and the others mentioned below. Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, travelled, in voluntary exile, through France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, in 1685. His observations relate principally to religion and politics, on which subjects his views are those of a zealous Protestant and Whig. His work was succeeded by that of AddisonRemarks on several Parts of Italy (1705), chiefly devoted to antiquity and the less known works of John Breval (1726) and Edward Wright (1727). The journal of the French emigrant Blainville, who had become naturalized in England, appeared after his death, and was edited by Turnbull and Guthrie in 1742. The remarks of these travellers are chiefly directed to the classical antiquities of Italy, and they therefore have been designated by the name of classical travellers. Smollett's travels treat chiefly of modern Italy and the inhabitants, and are full of a morbid querulousness. The same is true of Sharp's. Barretti defended his country from the attacks of Smollett and Sharp, in his Account of the Manners and Customs of Italy (1767). John Moore's View of Society and Manners in Italy is still interesting, and is rich in characteristic anecdotes. Patrick Brydone's picturesque description of Sicily is too celebrated to be passed over in silence, though it relates merely to that island. Among the numerous recent publications on Italy, few have acquired reputation in foreign countries. We may mention Forsyth's Remarks on Antiquities, Arts and Manners during an Excursion in Italy in 1802-3 (London, 1813). Eustace's Classical Tour through Italy (1802, in 2 vols., much enlarged in 1817, in 4 vols.) is prejudiced and inaccurate. Lady Morgan's Italy betrays the novelist. It is not to be recommended as a guide through Italy. The Florentine A. Vieusseux, who left his country in early youth, and entered the British service, travelled through Italy, and wrote Italy and the Italians in the 19th Century (London, 1824, 2 vols.). Among the other English books of travels in Italy, which have appeared within the last ten years, may .be mentioned Bell's Observations on Italy. Simond's valuable Tour in Italy and Sicily appeared in 1828; Narrative of three Years' Residence in Italy appeared in London, 1828; Lyman's Political State of Italy, Boston, 1820 ; Rembrandt Peale's Notes on Italy, Philadel phia, 1831; Bigelow's Tour in Sicily and Malta, Boston, 1831. Of the French works on this subject, we may cite first the work of Maximilian Misson, a counsellor of parliament (in 1691 ),much read at the time inEngland and Germany. The works of Rogissart (1706), of Grosley (Memoir es sur Vltalie par deux Gentilshommes Suedois, 1764), and of madame du Boccage (1765), did not preserve their reputation long. The abbe Richard's Description de Vltalie, &c. (1766, 6 vols.) was useful, as was also the work of Lalande (most complete edition, 1767),written on the same plan. It is a systematic description of a tour, and is the basis of the German work of Volkmann. Dupaty's popular Lettres sur Vltalie (1788) are recommended by elegance of style and warm feeling. Their matter is not important, and affords little information to the traveller. The/Corinna of madame de Stael does not belong to this branch of literature in form, but it does in substance. It is a noble production throughout, and even where the views are erroneous, they are nevertheless instructive. The Lettres sur Vltalie, par A. L. Castellan (Paris, 1819, 3 vols.), are entertaining and instructive. Germany, which is fertile in every branch of literature, is so in ^descriptions of Italy, or travels in Italy. There are some excellent works in German, treating of the scientific treasures of Italy ; but this is not the place to enumerate them. The German descriptions of Italy are often characterized either by a minute collection of facts, without much attention to agreeable arrangement, or a romantic exaggeration, which arrays all Italy in heavenly colors, and inhales fragrance from the very immondezza. The learned Keyssler, who wrote in 1740, complains of a host of predecessors. His work (which was augmented in 1751 and 1776) was followed by a number of translations and rifacciamenti of English and French works, particularly the excellent account of Volkmann, already mentioned (in 1770 and 1771, with additions by Bernouilli since 1777,6 vols.). A new continuation and correction of this work would afford a very useful manual for travellers. Archenholz's Italien (1785, augmented in 1787) represents the country according to English views. Jagemann opposed him in a vindication of Italy (Deutsches Museum, 1786). To this class of works belong Gothe's Fragments on Italy, published at the end of the last century, and his Journal, published but a few years since. Count Leopold von Stolberg (1794) wrote a description of jiis journey. Frederica Brun, Kiittuer (1796 and 1801),E. M. Arndt, Seume (his Spazlergang nach Syrakus is a work fitted to grarfy a sound mind, and appears to advantage among the host of sentimental publications, though it is by no means a guide), Gerning, Benkowitz and J. H. Eichholz, are among the legion of writers on Italy. Kotzebue poured out his satirical spirit, also, on this country. P. J. Rehfues has, since 1807, published several works on Italy. Madame von der Recke's Journal was translated into French by Mad. de Montolieu, and is a compendious travelling library, which touches on almost every thing important to a traveller. Kephalides (1818) unites much information with animated description. F. H. von der Hagen's (1818-1821, 4 vols.) work is valuable, particularly for its observations on the arts in the middle ages, as attention is generally paid only to classical art, and to the modern since the time of Raphael. Midler's Rom, Romer und Romerinnen has met with applause as a picture of manners and customs. There exist a number of descriptions of parts of Italy, which we have not room to enumerate. On Sicily, one of the latest works is Voyage en Sicilefait en 1820 et 1821, par Auguste de Sayve (Paris, 1825, 3 vols.). Neigebaur's Handbuchfiir Reisende in Italien (Leipsic, 1826) contains much information of value to travellers. Among the works whicli portray the beauties of Italian nature, on} of the best is Vues pittoresques de VItalie9 by Coignet, drawn after nature and lithographized (Paris, 1825).