INNOCENT

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INNOCENT ; the name of thirteen popes, among whom are the following:Innocent I, saint, a native of Albano, succeeded Anastasius I as bishop of Rome, in 402. He was in great favor with the emperor Honorius, and induced him to take severe measures against the Donatists. He supported St. Chrysostom (q. v.), and renounced the communion with the Eastern churches, on account of their treatment of that eminent man. In 409, he was sent to obtain terms of peace from Alaric, bui without success, in consequence of the opposition of the ¦pretorian prefect Jovius>. (q. v.) Rome was taken and pillaged, in 410, while Innocent was still in Ravenna. He condemned the Pelagians as heretics, in a letter to the African churches, but excited their opposition by his arrogant tone. He died in 417; according to some, in 416. He is one of the most distinguished among the saints; his day is July 28. His decrees (in the Collection of Dionysius Exiginus) and letters (most complete in Schonemann's Pontif. Rom. Epist. genuinm) prove his zeal for the establishment of the Roman supremacy ; but part of them are considered, by many critics, spurious, Zosimus was his successor.Innocent II; a Roman of noble birth, elected pope, in 1130, by a part of the cardinals, whilst the others elected Peter of Leon, who took the name of Anacletus. Innocent fled to France, where, by the mediation of Peter of Clairvanx, he was acknowledged by the council of Etampes, by Louis VI, and, soon after, by Henry II of England, also by the German king Lothaire, who conducted him, in 1133, to Rome, where he occupied the Lateran, whilst Anacletus occupied the castle of Crescentius, the church of St. Peter, and a large part of the city. Innocent was soon obliged to retire to Pisa, and, though the emperor reinstated him, in 1137, Anacletus maintained himself until his death, in 1138. Having prevailed against another antipope, heheld the second oecumenical council in the Lateran, where nearly 1000 bishops condemned Arnold of Brescia and his heresy, declared all the decrees of Anacletus null, and excommunicated Roger of Sicily, who had supported the latter. But Roger waged war against the pope, made him prisoner, and obliged Innocent to acknowledge him as king, absolve him from excommunication, and invest him and his heirs with Apulia, Calabria and Capua. Towards the end of his pontificate, he put France under an interdict, and had to struggle with constant disturbances in Rome and Tivoli. He died in 1143. Ceiestine II succeeded him. His letters are to be found in Baluze, Martene and others.Innocent III, Lothaire, count of Segni, born at Anagni, in 1161, studied in Rome, Padua and Bologna. On the death of Celestine III (1198) cardinal John of Salerno declined the pontificate, which had been offered to him, and proposed Lothaire, who was unanimously elected, at the age of 37. The death of the emperor Henry VI, in 1197, had thrown the imperial affairs in Italy into the greatest confusion. INNOCENT, in the vigor of manhood, endowed by nature with all the talents of a rider, possessed of an erudition uncommon at that time, and favored by circumstances, was better qualified than any of his predecessors to elevate the papal power, which he considered as the source of all secular power. By his clemency and prudence, he gained over the inhabitants of Rome, obliged the imperial prefect to take the oath of allegiance to him, and directed his attention to every quarter where he believed, or pretended to believe, that a papal claim of property, or of feudal rights, existed. From the imperial seneschal, duke Marquard of Romagna, he required homage for the Mark of Ancona, and, on his refusal to comply, took possession of the Mark, with the assistance of the inhabitants, who were dissatisfied with the imperial government, and excommunicated Marquard; obliged the duke Conrad of Spoleto to resign that duchy, and would also have taken Ravenna, if the archbishop had not prevented him. He concluded treaties with many cities of Tuscany for the mutual protection of their liberties and those of the church. Thus he soon obtained possession of the ecclesiastical states, in their widest extent. He conferred Na pies on the widowed empress Constantin and her minor son, afterwards the emperor Frederic II, after having abolished all the privileges conceded by Adrian IV, in 1156, assumed the guardianship of the young prince, after the decease of the empress, and frustrated all the machinations of Marquard to deprive him of his inheritance. In Germany, Innocent favored the election of Otho IV against Philip of Suabia, crowned him, in 1209, at Rome, but soon became involved in disputes with him, on account of his violations of the promises which he had made to the church. He excommunicated Philip Augustus, king of France, laid the kingdom under an interdict, in 1200, because Philip had repudiated his wife, Ingelburge, and obliged the king to submit. He was still more decided in his treatment of John (q. v.), king of England, who refused to confirm the election of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. Innocent laid the kingdom under an interdict, and, in 1212, formally deposed him, and instigated the king of France to attack England. John was finally obliged to submit, resigned his territories to Rome, and received them, as a papal fief, from Innocent, from whom he was unable to obtain absolution until he had paid large sums of money. Almost all Christendom was now subject to the pope; two crusades were undertaken at his order, and his influence extended even to Constantinople. Innocent was one of the greatest of popes and rulers; he acted in accordance with the principles laid down in his writings; he enforced purity of morals in the clergy, and was himself irreproachable in private life ; yet the cruel persecution of the Albigenses in the south of France, which he encouraged, though without approving of all its rigors, and the inquisitorial tribunals established by him in 1198, from which the inquisition itself originated, are stains on his pontificate, but partially effaced by a consideration of the spirit of the times and the disordered state of the Christian world. It may be said of his rule, as of that of Gregory VII, whom he most resembles, that, in those times, the power of the pope was salutary, as a bond of union for Europe, in which the still firmer bond of a common civilization and knowledge did not, as at present, exist. His attacks on the secular power are to be considered as the struggle between the ecclesiastical and secular power, which was natural and necessary in the developement of European civilization. If he had not subdued the monarchs, they would have crushed the papal power. In 1215, he held a council of more than 1300 archbishops, bishops, prelates and ambassadors of European princes, by which transubstantiation in the Lord's supper and auricular confession were established as dogmas, Frederic II was acknowledged as German emperor, and the Franciscan and Dominican orders were confirmed. Innocent died soon after, on the 16th of July, 1216. Some of his works on legal and theological subjects were published in Cologne, 1575, folio. The best edition of his letters, important for the history of the time (11 books), is that of Baluze (Paris, 1682). The Stabat Mater and Veni Sande Spiritus, and other sacred hymns, are said to have been written by him. Honorius III succeeded him. Innocent XI (Benedict Odescalchi) was born at Como, in 1611, served, in his youth, as a soldier, in Germany and Poland, took orders, at a later period, and rose through many important posts, until he was elected pope in 1676, on the death of Clement X. He was eminent for his probity and austerity; he zealously opposed nepotism (q. v.) and simony, restrained luxury and excess, and even prohibited women from learning music. Though hostile to the Jesuits, whose doctrine of probabilities he publicly disapproved, and attacked 65 of their opinions in the decree Super quibusdam axiomat. moralibus, yet he was obliged to condemn Molinus and the Quietists. He determined to abolish the privileged quarters (the ground for a considerable distance around the palaces of certain ambassadors in Rome, which was considered as foreign territory, in which criminals were out of reach of the authorities); but Louis XIV, the vainest of monarchs, would not yield to so just a claim, occupied Avignon, and imprisoned the papal nuncio in France; in consequence of which the authority, and particularly the acknowledgment of the infallibility of the pope, received a severe blow, by the IV Propositiones Cleri Gallicani,m 1682. (See Infallibility, and Gallican Church.) These disputes were highly favorable to the English revolution, as it induced the pope, in 1689, to unite with the allies against James II, in order to lower the influence of Louis XIV. His conduct in this respect has led many Catholics to assert that he sacrificed the Catholic religion to his personal resentment ; and it was pointedly said, that *' to put an end to the troubles of Europe, it was only necessary for James II to become a Protestant, and the pope a CathoIiV; Bayle, however, judiciously ob serves, that the extreme predominance of any great Catholic sovereign is injurious to the interests of the papacy, and mentions the similar conduct of Sixtus V, another able pope, in relation to Philip II of Spain and queen Elizabeth of England. Innocent died August 12,1689, at the age of 78, leaving behind him the character of an able and economical pontiff, and of an honest and moral man. Had he not died, an open rupture with France might have ensued. Alexander VIII succeeded him. INNS OF COURT. The colleges or me English professors and students of common law are called inns, the old English word for the houses of noblemen, bishops, and others of extraordinaiy note, being of the same signification as the French hotel. It is not possible to determine precisely the antiquity of the establishment of inns of court. The received opinion is, that societies of lawyers, which, before the conquest, held their chief abodes for study in ecclesiastical houses, began to be collected into permanent residences, soon after the court of common pleas was directed to be held in a fixed place,a stipulation which occurs in the great charters both of king John and Henry III. In these houses exercises were performed, lectures read, and degrees conferred; that of barristers, or, as they were first styled, apprentices (from apprendre, to learn), answering to bachelors; that of sergeants (servientes adlegem) to doctors. The inns of court were much celebrated for the magnificence of their revels. The last of these took place in 1733, in the Inner Temple, in honor of Mr. Talbot, when he took leave of that house, of which he was a bencher, on having the great seal delivered to him. Fortescue, lord chancellor of England in the reign of Henry VI, says, in his treatise De Laudibus Legum Anglia, that, in his time, there were about 2000 students in the inns of court and chancery, all of whom were gentlemen born. In the reign of queen Elizabeth, sir Edward Coke did not reckon above a thousand students, and the number at present is very considerably less. The inns of court are governed by masters, principals, benchers, stewards and other officers, and have public halls for exercises, readings, &c, which the students are obliged to attend and perform for a certain number of years, before they can be admitted to plead at the bar. These societies have not any judicial authority over their members ; but, instead of this, they have certain orders among themselves, which have, by consent, the force of laws. For light offences, persons are only excommoned, or put out of commons ; for greater, they lose their chambers, and are expelled the college; and, when once expelled from one society, they are never received into any of the others. The gentlemen in these societies may be divided into benchers, outer barristers, inner barristers and students. The four principal inns of court are the Inner Temple and Middle Temple (formerly the dwelling of the knights Templars, and purchased by some professors of the common law, more than three centuries since); Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn (anciently belonging to the earls of Lincoln and Gray). The other inns are the two Sergeants' Inns. Inns of Chancery were probably so called because anciently inhabited by such clerks as chiefly studied the forming of writs, which regularly belonged to the cursitors, who are officers of chancery. These are Thavie's Inn, the New Inn, Symond's Inn, Clement's Inn, Clifford's Inn (formerly the mansion of lord Clifford), Staple's Inn (which belonged to the merchants of the staple), Lion's Inn (anciently a common inn, with the sign of the lion), Furnival's Inn, and Bernard's Inn. These were formerly preparatory colleges for younger students, and many were entered here before they were admitted into the inns of court: now they are mostly taken up by attorneys, solicitors, &c. At the present day, previously to being called to the bar, it is necessary to be admitted a member of one of the inns of court. The regulations of Lincoln's Inn, to which those of the other inns bear a strong resemblance, are alone given in the following account: The applicant for admission need not be present, but the application may be made through the medium of a third person; the applicant must be recommended to the society by one of its members, or by two housekeepers, who are required to certifythat they know the applicant to be a proper person for admission. A bond must also be entered into by the applicant himself and the recommending member, or housekeepers, in the sum of £100, conditioned for the due payment of his fees to the society. The fees are generally more than £6 and less than £8 a year; the expense of admission, in the year 1827, amounted to £31 16s. Before the student commences keeping his terms for the English law, he must deposit with the society the sum of £100, which is returned, without interest, if the student dies, or quits the society, or is called to the bar. No deposit is required from those who can produce a certificate of having kept two years' termsin the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin, or of being of the faculty of advocates in Scotland, nor from those who are admitted merely for the purpose of being called to the Irish bar. Persons removing from one inn to another are allowed the terms which they have kept in their original inns. A term is kept by the student being present at five dinners during the term ; three dinners suffice for three quarters of a term; one dinner, during the grand week, for half a term. The student must keep 12 terms (60 dinners) before he can be called to the bar, and his name must have been five years on the books, unless he produces a certificate of having taken the degree of master of arts, or bachelor of law, at Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin, in which case three years will suffice. He must also have gone nine times through a certain ceremony, which is called performing an exercise. Exercises are performed thus:The student is furnished, by the steward of the society, with a piece of paper, on which is supposed to be written an argument on some point of law, but, owing to the negligence of successive copyists, the writing now consists of a piece of legal jargon, wholly unintelligible. When, after dinner, grace has been said, the student advances to the barrister's table, and commences reading from this paper ; upon which one of the senior barristers present makes him a slight bow, takes the paper from him, and tells him that it is quite sufficient. Students intended for the Irish bar keep eight terms in England, and the remainder in Ireland. When the 12 terms have been kept, and the nine exercises performed, the student may petition the benchers to call him to the bar. Except under very peculiar circumstances, the petition is granted, as a matter of course. After dinner, on the day appointed for the call, the student is required to take certain oaths. He then retires with the benchers to the council chamber, which adjoins the hall, to sign the register of his call. There are certain oaths to be taken in the courts of Westminster hall. These should be taken within six months after the call. No attorney, solicitor, clerk in chancery or the exchequer, unless he has discontinued practice for two years in such branches of his profession, and no person who is in deacon's orders, or under 21 years of age, can be called. The expense of being called is between £90 and £100. The three years, during which a student is keeping terms, are spent by him in the chambers of a conveyancer, an equity draftsman, or a special pleader.