ILLINOIS

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ILLINOIS ; one of the U. States; bounded north by the territory of Huron, east by lake Michigan and the state of Indiana, south by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and west by the Mississippi, which separates it from the state and territory ofMissouri. Lat. 37° to 42° 30' N.; Ion. 87° 'W to 91° 20' W.; 380 miles long, from north to south, and 210 miles wide, from east to west; square miles, 58,000. Population, according to the U. States' census of 1830,157,575, and according to the state census of the same year, 161,055. There are, besides, about 5900 Indians, chiefly of the tribes of the Sacks and Foxes, and the Pottawatamies. The state is divided into 48 counties. The capital of the state is named Vandalia. It is situated on the Kaskaskia river, a little south of the centre of the state. The other principal towns are Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Edwardsville and Shawneetown. The principal rivers, besides the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash, which bound the state on the west, south and east, are the Illinois, Kaskaskia, Little Wabash, Big, Muddy and Rocky rivers. The sources of the Illinois and Rocky rivers are near those of the streams which empty into Michigan lake, and the country is so flat that, in the wet seasons, the waters of the rivers unite, so that boats pass through them from the Mississippi to the lake. It is proposed to construct a canal, which shall unite the permanently navigable parts of the Illinois with lake Michigan, and, to promote this object, a large grant of land, lying upon the route of the proposed canal, has been made by congress. The southern and middle parts of the state are for the most part level. The banks of the Illinois and Kaskaskia, in some places, present a sublime and picturesque scenery. Several of their tributary streams have excavated for themselves deep and frightful gulfs, particularly those of the Kaskaskia, whose banks, near the junction of Big Hill creek, present a perpendicular front of solid limestone 140 feet high. The northwestern part of the territory is a hilly, broken country, though there are no high .nountains. The climate is not materially different from that of the same latitudes in the Atlanticstates. The low and wet lands, in the southern part, are unhealthy. The cold of winter is sometimes extremely severe. The soil has been divided into six distinct kinds:1. Bottom lands, bearing a heavy growth of honey locust, pecan, black walnut, beach, sugar maple, buckeye, pawpaw, grape vines, &.r. This land is of the first quality, and 5>found, in greater or less quantities, en vM the considerable rivers. It is of inexhaustible fertility, and is annually cultivated without manure. 2. Newlyformed land, found at the mouths and confluences of rivers. It produces sycamore, cotton wood, water maple, water ash, elm, willow, oak, &c. There are many thousand acres of this land at the mouth of the Wabash, and at the confluence of the Ohio with the Mississippi. It is annually inundated, and is unhealthy. 3. Dry prairies, approaching the rivers and bordering on the bottom land, from 30 to 100 feet higher, and from 1 to 10 miles wide. These prairies are destitute of trees, except where they are intersected by streams of water and occasional tracts of woodland. It has been estimated that as much as two thirds of the whole state consists of open prairie. The dry prairie has a black rich soil, well adapted to the purposes of agriculture, and is covered with rank grass. 4. Wet prairie, found remote from streams, or at their sources. This is generally cold and unproductive, abounding with swamps and ponds, covered with tall grass. 5. Land covered with timber, moderately hilly, well watered, and of a rich soil. 6. Hills of a sterile soil, and destitute of timber, or covered with stunted oaks and pines. The prevailing forest tree in Illinois is oak, of which as many as 13 or 14 different species have been enumerated. Honey locust, black walnut, mulberry, plum, sugar maple, black locust, elm, bass wood, beach, buckeye, hackberry, coffee nut. sycamore, spice wood, sassafras, black and white haws, crab apple, wild cherry, cucumber, and pawpaw, are found in their congenial soils throughout the territory. White pine is found on the head branches of the Illinois. On the Saline river, a branch of the Ohio, are salt springs, from which salt is manufactured at a cheap rate. About 300,000 bushels of salt are made here annually. At Galena, on Fever river, near the northwestern corner of the state, are very rich lead mines, from which great quantities of that metal are obtained at a very trifling expense. The working of these mines was begun in the year 1821. In 1824, there were made 175,220 lbs. of lead; in 18^5, 664,530 lbs.; in 1826, 958,842 lbs.; in. 1827, 5,182,180 lbs.; in 1828, 11,105,810 lbs.; in 1829, 13,343,150 lbs.; and in 1830, 8,323,998 lbs. The diminution in the quantity made in 1830, compared with the produce of the preceding year, was occasioned by the great reduction in the price of lead. The quantity of lead received by the U. States, in 1830, from the miners, for rents, was 504,214 lbs. The chief produce of the state is Indian corn, wheat, and the other agricultural productions of the Northern States. A few families emigrated from Canada about the year 1720, and settled at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, where their descendants still remain. In 1800, the whole population of the territory, which now forms the state, exclusive of Indians, was 215. In 1810, the population was 12,282; in 1820, 55,211; and in 1830,157,575, of whom, at the last named date, 1653 were free blacks, and 746 slaves. The territory of Illinois was formed into a state, and admitted into the Union, in 1818. The constitution provides that no more slaves shall be admitted into the state. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and a house of representatives. The senators are chosen for periods of four years, and the representatives for two years. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen for four years, and is ineligible for the next succeeding four years. There is a supreme court established by the constitution, and there are inferior courts established by the general assembly. The judges are appointed by the assembly, and hold their offices during good behavior, or till removed by the governor, on the address of two thirds of each branch of the general assembly. One section of land, in each township, amounting to a thirtysixth part of the township, is granted for the support of schools; and three per cent, of the net proceeds of the U. States' lands sold within the state, is appropriated for the encouragement of learning, of which a sixth part is required to be bestowed on a college or university. A further provision has been made for a university by the grant of two townships of land by the U. States. A college has been established at Jacksonville, which is yet in its infancy. It is proposed to extend the national road from Indianopolis to Vandalia, and thence to St. Louis.