HUNDRED

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HUNDRED, in England ; a division of a shire or county. It was so called, according to some writers, because each hundred found 100 fidejussors, or sureties of the king's peace, or 100 ablebodied men of war. Others think it to have been so called because originally composed of 100 families. HUNDREDs were first introduced into England by Alfred. They seem to have previously existed in Denmark ; and in France, a regulation of this sort was made, above 200 years before, by Cloth aire and Chilclebert, with a view of obliging each district to answer for the robberies committed in it. Something like this institution may be traced back to the ancient Germans, from whom were derived the Franks, who became masters of Gaul, and the Saxons, who settled in England; for both the thing and the name, as a territorial assemblage of persons, were well known to that warlike people. By various statutes, hundreds are liable to actions for injuries sustained by riots, robberies, malicious mischiefs, &c. HUNDRED COURT. (See Courts.) HUNDRED DAYS. (See Cent Jours.) HUNDSRTJCK (meaning dog's back)] a continuation of the Vosges, of moderate height, in the Prussian province of the Lower Rhine, extending from east to west between the rivers Nahe, Rhine and Moselle. The range is calcareous, and covered with wood. The highest elevation is 1600 German feet. Flax thrives well. Some write the name Hunsriick, and derive it from a colony of Huns planted here by the emperor Gratian, or from a remnant of Attila's followers, who took refuge here after his defeat at Chalons. HUNGARY ; the country of the Magyars, or Hungarians, as they were first called by their Sclavonic neighbors' in Russia. In their own language they are called Magyars, and their origin is by no means precisely ascertained. The older writers represent them as derived from the Huns of Attila. A supposed resemblance of their language to that of the Finns gave rise to the opinion that they were of Finnish origin. Fejer, keeper of the university library at Pesth, derives them from the Parthians (Scientific Magazine, in Hungarian, 1825), and Reinegg and Pallas found Magyar tribes on the east side of the Caspian. They appear to have emigrated from Asia into Europe towards the end of the 7th century, and, after occupying the country between the Don and the Dnieper for 200 years, they were pressed forward by the Petchenegues, and, in 894, they entered Hungary, under their prince Almus. In 900, under Arpad, son of Almus, they completed its reduction, after having conquered the Bulgarians, Sclavonians, Walachians, Moravians, Germans, Italians, Croatians, Szeklers and Dalmatians, who then occupied the country. The conquered territory was at first distributed only amongst the chiefs of the tribes; but the duke soon acquired the right of rewarding the courage of the soldiers by the investiture of lands without regard to their rank. The Magyars next made predatory incursions into the neighboring countries, to which they were chiefly invited by foreign princes, and advanced to the north as far as Hamburg and Bremen, to the west into Provence, on the south to Otranto, and eastward as far as Constantinople. These formidable enemies, whose active cavalry it was almost vain to attack, were first defeated by Hemy I, the German emperor, at Merseburg, in 933; they then invaded Franconia in 937, and Saxony in 938, were defeated at Stederburg, and in the Drommling on the Ohra. Their last incursion into Bavaria, 954 and 955, terminated with their complete overthrow on the Lech, where Otho I, king of the Germans, conquered them. They gradually learnt, from the Sclavonians and Germans whom they conquered, and from the prisoners whom they had taken in their incursions, the arts of peace, agriculture and manufactures. The hospitality of Geysa, and the religious zeal of Sarolta, his wife, did much to attract strangers, from different countries and of all classes, into Hungary. The Hungarians violently opposed the introduction of Christianity by the bishops Pellegrin of Passau and Adelbert of Prague, and Geysa was obliged to leave the farther extension of it to his son Stephen, who finally prevailedv by the assistance of Latin monks and German knights. Stephen was rewarded for his services in extirpating the heathens, by a crown from pope Sylvester II, part of which still remains on the sacra regni Hungarice corona, and by a patriarchal cross, with the title of apostolic king. Thus Stephen founded the kingdom in 1000, which, according to the notions of that period, he endeavored to strengthen by the power of the hierarchy and the aristocracy. He established 10 richlyendowed bishoprics, and divided the whole empire into 72 counties,*" with an officer at the head of * The counties of Hungary may consist of two or more districts. Each one has its governor, a vicegovernor, who is collector of the revenue, a notary, four superior and four inferior judges. All these civil officers must be chosen from the each, responsible only to the king, and invested with full military and civil power. These officers and the bishops formed the senate of the kingdom, with whose concurrence king Stephen granted a constitution, the principal features of which are still preserved. The unsettled state of the succession to the crown, and the consequent interference of neighboring princes, and of the Roman court, in the domestic concerns of Hungaiy, the inveterate hatred of the Magyars against the foreigners, who were favored by Peter, the successor of Stephen, the secret struggle of paganism with Christianity, and particularly the arrogance of the clergy and nobility, long retarded the prosperity of the country. The religious zeal and bravery of St. Ladislaus, and the energy and prudence of Colomann, shine amidst the darkness of this period. These two monarchs extended the boundaries of the empire, the former by the conquest of Croatia and Sclavonia (1089), the latter by the conquest of Dalmatia (1102). They asserted, with firmness, the dignity of the Hungarian crown, and the independence of the nation, against all foreign attacks, and restored order and tranquillity at home by wise laws and prudent regulations. The introduction of German colonists, from Flanders and Alsace, into Zips and Transylvania, by Geysa II (1148), had an important influence on those districts; and the connexion of Hungaiy with Constantinople during the reign of Bela III, who had been educated in that city, had a fa vorable effect on the country in general. The Magyars, who had previously passed the greater part of the year in tents, became more accustomed to living in towns, and to civil institutions. Several court officers and a royal chancellor were created on the model of the Greek court. On the other hand, Hungary became connected with France by the second marriage of Bela (1186) with Margaret, sister to Henry, king of France, and widow of Henry, king of England. She introduced French elegance at the Hungarian court, and at this time we find the first mention of Hungarians studying at Paris; but nobility who have estates in the county. In 12 counties the dignity of governor is hereditary, but in others it is connected with one of the high offices of the kingdom or. with a bishopric; or the court appoints' whom it will out of the nobility. The nobility elect the other officers of the county from three; whom the governor names. Those parts of Transylvania, Sclavonia and Croatia to which the name Land of the Hungarians is given, with the exception of the military settle ments on the frontiers, are also divided int(i counties. themselves of the weakness of Andrew II to extend their influence and power. The former extorted a confirmation and extension of their privileges by the golden bull in 1222, the latter a favorable concordats The reforms of Bela IV were interrupted by the invasions of the Mongols (1241), and the kingdom was in a most cfeplorable condition. After the retreat of these wild hordes, Bela endeavored to heal the wounds of his country. He induced Germans to settle in the depopulated country, and elevated the condition of the citizens by increasing the number of royal free cities ; but the coronation of his son, as coregent, gave rise to many disputes between them, which weakened the royal authority and hastened the decline of the state. With Andrew III the male line of the Arpad dynasty became extinct (1301). Under the princes of the house of Anjou, Hungary attained the summit of its power. These princes considered the prelates and the nobles as the supports of their thrones, yet they imposed certain obligations in return for the privileges granted them, such as that of maintaining troops. Charles I improved the currency, introduced a new system of taxation, which extended also to the peasants of the nobility and clergy, and substituted regular judicial proceedings for trials by ordeal, which were then practised. Louis I added Poland, Red Russia, Moldavia, and a part of Servia, to his kingdom. His expeditions and campaigns made the nation acquainted with foreign civilization. He founded a high school (1367) at Fiinfkirchen, delivered commerce from exorbitant duties, and banished the Jews from the country. The reign of Sigismund is interesting from his disputes with the oligarchs, who even kept him in prison for several months, the invasion of Hungary by the Turks (1391), and the war with the Hussites. Although he was much engaged, as Roman emperor, with the affairs of Germany and the Catholic church, tie introduced equality of weights and measures and the first military regulation into Hungaiy, raised the royal free cities to the privilege of an estate (1405), and founded an academy at Buda. From their first appearance, the Turks constantly disturbed the tranquillity of Hungary, which served as a bulwark to the rest of Europe. The death of Ladislaus I, in the unfortunate battle of Varna (1444), is the more to be regretted, as the plan of the hero John Hunniades, for driving the intrigues of his enemies. Matthias Corvinus, son of Hunniades, held the reins of government with a firm hand. Combining the talents of a diplomatist and a general, he silenced or defeated all his enemies at home and abroad, secured the public tranquillity,which had been but too often disturbed, by his judicial organization of the counties, and gained the love and confidence of the nation, notwithstanding the severe measures which he was often compelled to adopt. It is still a proverbial expression with the lower classes in Hungaiy, " King Matthias is dead, and justice with him." He showed his love of learning by the foundation of a new university at Presburg (Istropolis), 1467, by inviting learned men from foreign countries, particularly from Italy, and by his excellent library, in the royal castle at Buda, the treasures of which were scattered soon after his death. During the reigns of Ladislaus II and Louis II, the ambition and rapacity of the optimates, headed by Stephen Zapolya, and afterwards by his son John, excited domestic troubles, and caused an insurrection of the peasants, which was only suppressed by the severest measures (1514), while they destroyed the foreign influence of the kingdom. The battle of Mohacs (1526), in which Louis II lost his life, and which, for 160 years, made a great part of Hungaiy a Turkish province, was the natural consequence of this state of things. The rest of the country was in dispute between the rivals Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya. The contest was decided by the Protestants, who, fearing the persecution of Zapolya, declared for Ferdinand. Their adherence gave him the superiority, and Zapolya was compelled to rest satisfied with the possession of Transylvania and some counties of Upper Hungaiy ; but this division of the kingdom caused continual disputes with the descendants of Zapolya, instigated by the Turks and the French, and, together with the persecutions of the Protestants (particularly after the admission of the Jesuits, 1561), gave rise to civil commotions, which were quieted by the treaties of Vienna, with Stephen Botskay (1606), of Nikelsburg, with Gabriel Bethlen (1622), and of Lintz, with George Rakoczy (1645). These circumstances delayed the expulsion of the Turks, in which Leopold I finally succeeded so far, that he 'retook Buda (1686), and, by the peace of Carlowitz (1699), recovered the rest of Hungaiy (except the Bannat) and Transylvania. This treaty, however, and the establishment of the commissio neoacquistica, to decide all claims on the countries recovered from the Turks, gave rise to new troubles, which were not quieted until the peace of Szathmar in 1711. The congress of Passarowitz (1718) restored the Bannat to Hungary, and the peace of Belgrade (1739) terminated hostilities with the Porte for a long time. Charles VI, by the pragmatic sanction, secured the inheritance of the Hungarian crown to the female descendants of the house of Hapsburg, and improved the administration of the kingdom, by giving the royal chancery and the viceregal office an organization better suited to the age. He also formed a standing army for Hungary, and established the military contribution for its support. Maria Theresa did much for the improvement of Hungary, by the promulgation of the rural code, called Urharium (1765), the object of which was to fix the services, and improve the condition of the peasants; also by the formation of village schools (1770), and the abolishing of the order of Jesuits (1773). It cannot be doubted that Joseph II, one of the greatest sovereigns of his age, was influenced by the best intentions in the changes which he undertook in the Hungarian constitution, but his zeal made him forget the necessity of proceeding gradually in such reforms. The nation, far from entering into his views, opposed them, and Leopold II was compelled to revoke the ordinances of his brother, who, besides, had never been crowned in Hungary. Hungary, with its appendages, Croatia, Sclavonia, the Littorale and Transylvania, lies between the German provinces of Austria and Turkey. It is almost surrounded with mountains, among which the Carpathian, on the north,, extend, in numerous branches, into the centre of the country. Between the two principal rivers, the Danube and the Theis^ is a fertile plain containing more than 21,000 square miles. Rivers and streams water the country in every direction. Amongst the lakes, the Plattensee (45 miles long and 5 to 9 miles wide) and the Neusiedlersee (20 miles long, 4 to 7 miles wide), are the most extensive; and among the morasses, the Etseder morass (22 /rules long, 6 or 7 miles wide), and the (so called) Sarret, which has been partly drained, are the principal. The situation of Hungary, and particularly the nature of its surface, render* it one of the healthiest countries in Europe. Protected from the north winds by high mountains, it is open to the mild sea breezes from the south, which are tempered by the great bodies of water. It is also owing to the variety of its surface that Hungary possesses so great a diversity of climate, which, combined with the fertility of the soil, abundantly supplies her with all the natural productions necessary for the comfort of man. All kinds of corn, a sort of maize [Kukerutz), rice, kitchen vegetables and garden plants of eveiy description, melons (which are cultivated in open fields), Turkish pepper {paprika), fruits (particularly plums, for the sake of the brandy prepared from them, called Slivovitza), wines of different kinds (from 18,000,000 to 20,000,000 eimersabout 15 gallons eachannually), wood, gallnuts, potash, tobacco (300,000 quintals), hemp, flax, hops, saffron, woad, madder, sumach, cotton and rhubarb are among the products of Hungary. Horses, cattle (5,000,000), sheep (8,000,000), hogs, game (in the north, bears), poultry, fish (amongst which the sturgeon and salmon [salmo dantex] are the principal), bees ant. silkworms (which annually yield nearly 20,000 pounds of silk), are among the productions of the animal kingdom. Among the minerals are gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, zinc, cobalt, antimony, sulphur, arsenic, salt, soda, saltpetre, alum, vitriol, marble, coals, peat; amongst the precious stones, the opal and chalcedony are remarkably beautiful. No country has so many mineral and medicinal springs. The population of Hungary, exclusive of Transylvania, exceeds 9,400,000, in 52 free cities, 691 market towns, and 11,068 villages, upon a superficial area of 88,500 square miles. (Transylvania contains, besides, 23,500 square miles, with a population of 2,000,000, and the military frontiers, 12,000 square miles, with 934,000 inhabitants.) The principal towns, according to Aszalay's table, are Pesth (46,646 inhabitants), and Debreczin (40,695 inhabitants). The largest village on the European continent is Czaba, 85 miles from Pesth, which has over 20,000 inhabitants, all Sclavonians, and nearly all Protestants. The great number of distinct races, with entirely different habits, which is found in Hungary, is remarkable. The greater part of the plain country is occupied by the Magyars, whilst the Sclavonians, who are more numerous, inhabit the mountainous country, and the Germans are settled chiefly in the towns. Walachians, Greeks, Armenians, Clementines, French, Italians, Jews (whose tax for being tolerated amounts to 120,000 lagers, about 40,000), are all mingled together. Of this number, about 4,000,000 are Roman Catholics, about 1,000,000 (chiefly Germans and Sclavonians) of the Augsburg confession; of the Helvetic confession, above 1,500,000 (nearly all Magyars, on which account they call their creed the Magyaric religion); of the Eastern church, 1,400,000; of the Jewish religion, 130,000. The Hungarian has a natural inclination to agriculture and the breeding of cattle. Both are, however, still in their infancy, but the inexhaustible fertility of nature supplies every deficiency of industry and skill. It must not be forgotten, that Hungary has comparatively but a small population, that the Hungarian peasant has no property in the soil, and that foreign commerce is checked. Many improvements are made by individual proprietors, and Hungary may justly boast of two institutions, founded by private individuals, for the promotion of agriculture, the Geoigicon at Keszthely, and the agricultural institute in Hungarian Altenburg. Mining is canied on by Germans and Sclavonians. There .is a mining academy at Schemnitz, to which foreigners frequently resort. The principal artisans are tanners, furriers, manufacturers of tscliism (cordovan boots), lacemakers and barbers. There are few manufactures that flourish in Hungaiy. Iron and copper, linen, leather, alum and saltpetre, are some of the articles of industry. The potteries (the large establishment at Debreczin produces annually 11,000,000 pipe heads), the cloth manufactories at Gatsch, and the sugar refineries at Fiume, deserve to be mentioned. Trade is almost exclusively in the hands of the Germans, Greeks and Jews. Internal commerce is promoted by the Temesch and Francis canals (the former 75, the latter 60£ miles long), the fairs (which amount to 2000), and the complete absence of tolls: the clearing of the navigable rivers, and the building of regular roads, under the direction of the superintendents of the highways, are carefully attended to. The foreign commerce is limited to the natural productions, and is besides checked by the Austrian system of duties, together with the tobacco and salt monopoly of the government. The Hungarian constitution is in force in Croatia, Sclavonia, and the Littorale, but not in Transylvania and the military frontiers, which are governed by their own laws. The inhabitants are divided into pire, the chiefs of counties, dukes, counts, &c.), those individuals, with their descendants, to whom the king has granted patents of nobility, or on whom he has conferred estates, the royal free cities and some privileged districts, as bodies corporate. The nobility, styled, in official Latin, the populus Hungaricus, are exempt from taxes (except on their estates within the territories of a city, and also excepting the land tax, which they pay as vassals of other nobles). They pay no imposts (unless engaged in commerce) nor tithes, and are not liable to have soldiers quartered on them ; they cannot be imprisoned until after conviction of a crime, except in case of high treason, or unless taken in the act. The violation of their person or property (major potentia) is punished with the loss of the property of the offending party. The nobles only can hold landed estate, and they exercise the regalia on them, and certain offices can be enjoyed only by them. The estates belonging to the nobles, according to the terms of grant, descend either in the male hne alone, or to the female line also; on the extinction of the family, they revert to the crown, which, however, is bound to grant them immediately to some deserving individual. In return for their privileges, the nobility are liable to a sudden levy for military service, in case of emergency. This is called insurrectio, and they must serve in person, and at their own expense. The citizens of the royal free cities, and the inhabitants of the privileged districts, also enjoy many exemptions. The whole burthen therefore falls on the peasants, or the miseraplebs contribuens, as they are styled; for, besides contributions in money and in kind, and the labor which they are bound to perform for the lord of the manor, they also pay tithes of all their produce to the clergy, maintain the county magistracies and the army, and labor on the public works without pay. The bounty of nature, and the frugality of the Hungarian peasant, can alone explain how, under all these impositions, he can still maintain himself, and, if favored by circumstances, can sometimes even accumulate a little property. The peasant is not attached to the soil, but the state provides that the place of an emigrant shall be immediately filled, in order that the amount of the contribution may not be lessened. A second distinction consists in the difference of religion. Though all sects are, in general, equal, yet the exceptions expressly named, the indistinctness of the expression in the particular cases, and the proselyting activity of the Catholic clergy, render the Catholic religion predominant. Children, whose parents are of different religions, if the father is a Catholic, must be educated in the Catholic religion; but if he is a Protestant, only the sons can adopt his religion. This is the cause of most of the oppressions, which the people surfer from the clergy, who are very careful to prevent the Protestant religion from getting the ascendency. The legislative power is vested in the diet, that is, the king and the estates. The estates consist of the higher clergy (bishops, popes and abbots), the magnates, the two courts of appeal, and two representatives from each chapter, county, city and privileged district. They are divided into two chambers {tabula), under the presidency of the palatine and the personal (president of the royal chambers of justice). The diet has also the privilege of crowning the king (who swears to maintain the liberties and rights of the kingdom, and to recover all the lost provinces, and annex them to the kingdom), of electing the palatine (the first officer of the state), and of granting supplies and subsidies in money, in kind$ and in troops. The king has, 1. the right of patronage, or the investiture of all ecclesiastical benefices; 2. the right of conferring nobility (yet certain prelates have the power, by granting particular estates, of placing persons, not belonging to the nobility, in a condition nearly equivalent to that of the nobility); 3. the appointment to all offices and honors, excepting that of palatine; 4. the coining of money; 5. the regulation of the post; 6. the right of declaring war and making peace; 7. the command of the army; 8. the right of assembling and dissolving the diet. The inferior administration of the country is differently organized in relation to the various classes of inhabitants. The whole country is divided into 53 counties, of which there is one in the Littorale, three in Croatia, and three in Sclavonia. The county magistrates have the immediate government over both the nobility and the peasants of the county; but they are elected by the nobility, every three years, from their own members, besides which they advise with the nobility on subjects of general interest, in public meetings. The citizens of the free cities have also their own magistrates, consisting of the inner council (senators elected for life), and the outer (the electors who choose the senate and fill their own vacancies). The privileged districts also choose their own magistrates. The royal regency (in Buda), at the head of which is the palatine, is over all the offices above named. It has the supreme administration of the countiy, and is the regular organ of communication between the king and countiy; it watches over the observance of the constitution, and submits to the king any proposals for the public good. The king exercises his authority through the Hungarian chancery (in Vienna). Besides their political powers, the inferior authorities exercise the administration of justice in the first instance. But the peasant is subject to the seigneurial jurisdiction of the lord of the manor, which sometimes extends even to criminal cases, if the lord is invested with the jus gladii (as it is called). There are three county courts in civil cases, according to the importance of the subject in question; consisting either of a judge with a jury, or of the viceofficer of the county with a judge and jury, or of the supreme tribunal of the county [sedes judiciaria, Sedria), which also revises the decisions of the two other courts and of the seigneurial courts, and has the sole jurisdiction in all criminal cases in the counties. In certain civil processes, designated by law, four district tables (tabula) in Hungary, and one in Croatia, exercise original jurisdiction. The courts of appellate jurisdiction are the royal table (which, however, in several cases, has original jurisdiction) and the table of the seven (both in Pesth). They are both comprised under the name of curia regia, the sentences of which have the force of law, in case there is no positive law. The Catholic clergy in Hungary are powerful, by reason of their large landed property, and the influence which they possess over all offices. 10,000 clergymen, with 3 archbishops and 20 diocesan bishops (among whom are 4 Greek Catholics), watch over the Catholic flock. The Protestants have a primitive form of government. Laymen and clergymen united (presbyteri) manage the affairs of the different congregations, under the direction of superintendents. The adherents of the Augsburg confession have also a,general superintendent. There are seven bishops and one metropolitan of the nonunited Greeks. The education and instruction of the Catholic youth are mostly in the hands of the clergy. There are five academies for higher studies; a lyceum at Erlau, and a university at Pesth with a library of 70,000 volumes, an observatory, &c. Protestants are admitted into these establishments, and the instruction is gratuitous The Protestants have many gymnasia; the nonunited Greeks have two. The Hungarian contingent to the Austrian army consists of twelve regiments of infantry and ten of cavalry; in all, 64,000 men; to which, in cases of emergency, is added the Insurrection, which, in 1808, amounted to 40,000 men. The annual revenue from the domains, the regalia and taxes, amounts to from 30 to 40,000,000 guilders. The expenditure is small. The peasants pay the county officers; they also supply the provisions for the army, at a price fixed in 1751, which is much below, the market value. In the free cities and privileged districts, the officers are also paid by the communes. Most of the public institutions have considerable funds; and the Protestants are obliged to defray the expenses of their worship. There is no public debt. See doctor J. A. Fessler's History of Hungary, in German, 10 vols. (Leipsic, 1815 et seq.), and Histoi^y of the Magyars, by count Mailath, 3 vols. (Vienna, 1828); Beudant's Mineralogical and Geognosiical Travels in Hungary, in the Year 1818, 4 vols. (1822)¦; Bright's Travels in Hungary (1814). Hungarian Literature has received but little attention from foreign scholars, but has been treated by Hungarian writers, in the Hungarian language, by Spangar (1738), Bod (1766), Sandor, Budai, Papai, Toth, Jankowich, and others; in Latin, by Czwittinger (1711), Rotarides (1745), Bel, Schier, Haner, Schmeitzei, Weszpremi, Pray, Wallaszky, Simonchich, Belnai, Tibold, &c.; in German, by Windiseh, Seivert, Kovachich, Engel, Fessler, Miller, Schwartner, Schedius, Lubeck, Rosier, &c. The character of this singular people, their peculiar views of life and the world, are strikingly displayed in their literature, which also bears traces of the constant struggle which they have had to carry on ever since their first entrance into Europe. Nor is it deficient in qualities which render, it important in a scientific light. The language suggests many unexpected views in regard to the philosophy of language in general; the poetry, particularly the lyric, excels in beauty, and works are not wanting in the department of natural history, Roman and Grecian antiquity, philology, history in general, the laws of nations, and other subjects. The Hungarians, impelled partly by the spirit of adventure which characterized the middle ages, and partly by the demands of assistance from foreign princes, emigrated from Asia, and spread over the disconnected provinces of Eastern Europe, until they reached a country with a settled constitution and a consolidated government (Germany, under Henry I and Otho I), which set bounds to their warlike incursions (in 955). From this period, the attention of the people, previously occupied with external subjects, began to be turned inward upon itself. The civilization of the Magyars commenced, and advanced so rapidly that, in less than fifty years, the domestic and foreign security of the kingdom was established, industry awakened, milder manners introduced, and the nation prepared for the reception of Christianity; but, instead of being contented with this gradual progress, and awaiting the natural developement of the national character, Stephen I and most of his successors imprudently endeavored to hasten the progress. N The discontents caused by this policy were increased by the frequent admission of foreigners into the clerical and noble orders, by the exaltation of the clergy to the highest rank in the kingdom, by the preference given to the Latin over the national language, not only in the church, but in judicial proceedings, legal documents and forms. These circumstances gave rise to an opposition, which, though checked, m some degree, by the prudent measures of the princes of the house of Anjou, in the 14th century, was afterwards continually renewed. The Latin language predominated in this country, as it did at that time hi every countr) which had reached any degree of civiliza tion ; but in Hungary it has, from obvious causes, continued prevalent to the present day, while in other nations it is employed only as an instrument of learning. The use of a dead language in common life, as well as on all scientific subjects, could neither be advantageous to the language itself, to the general improvement of the people, nor to the national literature. Notwithstanding these disadvantages, some buds of literature from time to time unfold ed themselves, and native genius, though chained, woukj, sometimes attain distinction ; yet how much greater would have been the results, if the spirit of the nation had been permitted a free developement of its peculiarities, under the influence of national manners! As early as the 11th century, several monastic and episcopal schools were founded, and the students were numerous. In the 12th century, many young men, particularly those destined for the church, were sent to Pans, where the university had just been erected. In the beginning of the 13th century, the first studium generate was estab iished at Wessprim, a university modelled after that of Paris: it was much frequented. This studium generate was afterwards revived, and at a later period one was established at Buda. In 1473, the printing press was brought into Hungary. In the 16th century, the number of schools was much increased, particularly among the Protestants; and the situation of the country would have been very different, had not the Protestants been persecuted by the Catholics, and had not Hungary fallen under the sway of the Hapsburgs, and thus become merely a part of a great empire, to whose true interests little attention was paid. We cannot refrain from expressing a wish, that one consequence of the present commotions in Europe may be the establishment of an independent government in Hungary, whose natural advantages are at present paralyzed by a government unable to provide for the general welfare of the heterogeneous mass under its rule. Hungary can boast of many distinguished writers in the Latin language, at this early period; but this exotic literature had so little influence on the nation at large, that, though it had attained a high degree of excellence in the time of Matthias Corvinus, yet many of the higher officers of the kingdom could neither write nor read, in the reign of his successor, Ladislaus II (1491). In the 11th century, with the introduction of Christianity in Hungary, the Latin language acquired the ascendency in the church, in schools and public affairs ; yet the Hungarian was used in commerce, in the camp, and even the resolutions of the diet were first drawn up in Hungarian. When the missionaries addressed the people in Latin, an Interpreter was usually present; and there are several relics of poetry, sacred eloquence and state papers, extant in Hungarian. A new impulse was given to this language, on the accession of the house of Anjou to the throne of Hungary. The Latin was indeed still the language of church and state; but the Hungarian became the language of the court. Documents were drawn up in Hungarian, and the Hungarian oath, in the corpus juris Hung., dates from this time. The holy Scriptures were translated into Hungarian; in the imperial library of Vienna, there is a MS. translation, of 1382; and, in spite of the violent opposition of the inquisitores heretica pravitatis, several translations were published. In 1465, Janus Pannonius wrote a Hungarian grammar, which is lost. The 16th century was favorable to Hungarian literature, through the religious disputes in the coun try, the sacred, martial and popular songs, as! well as by the histories written and published for the people, and the multiplied translations of the Bible. It then reached a degree of perfection which it retained until the latter part of the 18th century. A large number of grammars and dictionaries were printed from the 16th century to the 18th. But the hopes of the further developement of Hungarian literature were not realized; a Latin period again succeeded, from 1700 to 3780. during which time numerous and finished works were composed in Latin by Hungarian writers. In 1721, a Latin newspaper was established, and the state calendar, which commenced in 1726, was, and continues to be, in Latin. In 1781, the first Hungarian newspaper was printed in Presburg. At present there are two, one in Vienna, the other in Pesth. When Joseph II died, many violent yet bloodless changes were made in the Hungarian constitution, and several laws were passed in favor of the Hungarian language. It was required to be used in all public proceedings. Courses of lectures were delivered in Hungarian in some of the schools, and it was taught in all of them. Several periodicals were established, Hungarian theatres erected in Buda and Pesth, many works were written on the grammar of the language, &c.; but these measures were gradually pursued with less zeal. (See Bowring's Specimens of the Poetry of the Magyars?) Hungarian Language. The language of the Magyars, as spoken and written at present in Hungary, is a phenomenon in philology *well worthy of study, and the knowledge of it unlocks rich stores for the philosophical historian and philologist As the Magyars belonged to the great tribe, which was spread from the southwestern part of Asia on the Caspian sea, to the northeastern extremity of Europe, to Finland, of whose branches transplanted to Europe (as the Uzi, Polovtzes, Avars, Chazars, Petschenegues, &c), only one has taken deep root; so the Magyarian language is derived from the. language which is common to that great tribe, and which comprises the Semitic and Finnish tongues. This view as Niclas Revai has shown, settles the long dispute among the learned, whether the Hungarian language is allied to the Lapland and Finland language, as some maintain (Rudbeck, Eceard, Ihre, Hell, Sajnovits, Gatterer, Schloezer, Biisching, Hagen, and particularly Gyarmathi), or to the Oriental languages, as others assert (Otroktosi, (Ertel, Kalmar, Versegi, and chiefly Beregszasgi),X lering from all European languages 3Ajept the Finnish, in internal structure and external form, the Hungarian nevertheless was obliged to express with the Roman alphabet, adopted with Christianity, all the Asiatic shades of sounds. The Hungarian distinguishes, like the inhabitant of the East, the simple vowels from the prolonged: the former, ", e, i, o, o, u, il, are pronounced sharp, whether they are long or short: the latter have always a fuller, more protracted pronunciation ; they are designated by an accent, a, e, i, o, o, u, u, and are very different from the former; for instance, kar (the arm), Mr (the injury); kerek (round), kerek (the wheel), kSrek (I beg). The Hungarian is destitute of diphthongs, like the Oriental languages, and marks the finest distinctions of sounds, particularly of consonants, with great accuracy. Sounds peculiar to it are those of gy, ny, ly, ty, where the y is the consonant J, but closely and intimately connected with the preceding consonant. At the beginning of a syllable, the Hungarian never allows more than one consonant; foreign words which begin with two consonants, are, in the mouth of a Hungarian, separated by a vowel put before them (e. g., of schola they make iskola), or put a vowel between (as from kral they make kiraly). The Hungarian has a fixed law for the order of the vowels, like the Finnish (according to Kask and Sjoegren). It has, like that language, no distinction of sex whatever, but a rich declension, with numerous inflexions of cases, which seem to prove, very evidently, what James Grimm, in his German Grammar, ventured to hint, that the inflexions of cases originated from additions of particles to the root. The difference of absolute and relative forms in languages, which is founded in the laws of our mind, and traces of which are found in many languages (in the Semitic languages, as status construdus and absolutus; in the Gothic, AngloSaxon and other Tf utonic languages, according to James Grimm, as strong and weak forms; in the French and English, in the absolute and conjunctive pronouns, &c), manifests itself in all the declensions and conjugations so distinctly and characteristically, as to present the greatest difficulty to foreigners, who meet with this distinction throughout in no other languages. The conjunctive possessive pronouns, as well as prepositions, are expressed as suffixes, family names are considered as acljecA^es, from which they mostly originated, and hence are put before the baptismal name ; for instance, Batori Gabor, as if it were the Batorish Gabor, the Gabor of the Batori family. The beautiful proportion between vowels and consonants, the accurate shadowing and full articulation which eveiy syllable requires (the Hungarian suffers no mute vowels, so calledno e muet\ and the fixed succession of vowels, give to the Hungarian language a character of magnificent and masculine harmony, in which it will bear a comparison with every other. The richness and expressiveness of its various forms give it great energy; the regularity of its inflexions and compositions, in which it is to be compared with the Sanscrit, makes it clear and distinct, and its infinite power of composition gives it the means of increasing its stores beyond almost any Western language. If it is actually not so much developed, this is easily accounted for from two circumstances ;that Sclavonic, Servian, German, modern Greek, Walachian, Italian, &c, are spoken in the country at the same time; and that it was, for a long time, excluded from public transactions, from the church, and even from conversation, where German and French took its place. Yet it found some opportunities to develope itself, partly at the couits of the Hungarian kings and magnates, particularly those of the princes of Transylvania; partly in the county diets ; partly in the diets of the realm, where the native language could not be entirely suppressed; partly in the polemic writings at the time of the reformation, and finally in the reaction produced by the law of Joseph II, to use only the German language in public business, which, aided by the then existing liberty of the press, produced many excellent Hungarian works. Among the great number of Hungarian grammars, the first which appeared in print was that by John Sylvester (or Erdoesi), in 1539. Another in the Hungarian language was published at Vienna, in 1795, by a society of learned men. That of Gyarmathi (Klausenburg, 1795) is, in many respects, excellent. Verseghi published a Grammar in German, in 1805, at Pesth, and, in 1816, in Latin. The most useful for a beginner is that first written by John Farkas, and remodelled by Francis Pethe, of which many editions have been published. Jos. Marton published a Grammar (the latest edition, Vienna, 1820). The most complete and most critical, probably, is that begun by Niclas Revai (2 vols., Pesth 1809); death prevented the author from completing it. Among the later dictionaries are those by Jos.Marion and Benj. Mokry, in Latin and Hungarian. Hungarian Wines, Hungary produces a greater quantity of wine than any country except France. The annual product of Hungary Proper and the territories belonging to it may be calculated at from 20,000,000 to 30,000,000 eimers (of about 15 gallons each). In general, the Hungarian wine contains much alcohol and iittle aqueous matter. The finest is the Tokay, which is produced in the Hegyallya (the country around the Tokay hills), in the county of Semplin, lat. 48° N. The dried grapes are carefully separated from the others, and three serts of wine are obtained. The best is the Essence; this is the oily juice, which runs of itself from the fruit, without any pressure. When this ceases to run, the grapes are moistened with common Tokaymust, and trod out; this gives the Ausbruch. A second infusion of common Tokaymust, on the remaining grapes, pressed by the hands, gives the Maszlas (Maskiass). In the same way, the Ausbruch and Maskiass are prepared in the mountains of Menesch (county of Arad), and Ausbruch in Rust (county of GEdenburg) and St. George (county of Presburg). Hungary also produces excellent table wines, of which the best are those of Buda, Erlau, Selksard, Wessmely.