GREAT BRITAIN

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GREAT BRITAIN, Geography and Statistics of. Great Britain is the largest of the European islands, and constitutes the chief part of the British European dominions. It includes the countries of England, Scotand and Wales, each of which, as well as Ireland, has a separate article. The present article treats only of what properly relates to the BRITISH EMPIRE. The island of Great Britain is situated to the west of the continent, and stretches from about 50° to 58i°N. Jat., and from 2° of E. to 6° of W. Ion.; being about 580 miles in length from north to south, and 370 in its greatest breadth along the southern coast. The English channel and the German ocean flow on the south and east between it and the continent, to wrhich it was probably formerly joined; the narrowness of the straits of Dover, and the perfect analogy between the chalky cliffs of the opposite shores, seem to prove this supposition. The North sea washes its northern shores, while the Irish sea, St. George's channel and the Atlantic ocean, complete the circle, and separate it from Ireland on the west. The shape of Great Britain is irregular, the outlines being much indented by the sea. This gives it a great extent of coast, and many excellent harbors, in proportion to its superficial area. Including these windings, the circuit has been estimated at 1800 miles, and the whole surface at 87,000 square miles. According to the census of 1821, the whole population of Great Britain was 14,391,631. This gives 165 persons for each square mile a greater comparative population than that of any of the large European states, except the Netherlands. If we adopt that of G. Britain for unity, the ratio stands thus: Great Britain,.............1,000 Netherlands, .............1,297 France,................. ,873 Germany, *.............. ,824 Austrian Empire, .......... ,661 Prussia, ................ ,555 Spain,................. ,352 The first census was taken in 1801, when the population was found to be 10,942,646 ; in 1811 it amounted to 12,596,803. The census of 1821 gives 2,429,630 houses, occupied by 2,941,383 families, of which 978,656 were employed in agriculture, 1,350,239 in manufacture or trade ; families not included in the two preceding classes, 612,488; males, 7,137,018; females, 7,254,613. The number of acres in Great Britain is 57,952,489; of these, 34,397,690 are cultivated, 10,100,000 uncultivated, 13,454,794 unprofitable. The following calculations of baron Dupin, show the comparative amount of animate and inanimate forces applied to agri culture and the arts, in Great Britain and France, based on a population of 15,000,000 for the former, and of 31,800,000 for the latter. FRANCE. men. Human agricultural power, . . 8,406,038 Commercial and manufacturing, 4,203,019 GREAT BRITAIN. men. Human agricultural powrer, . 2.132.446 Commercial and manufacturing, 4,264,893 Reckoning the labor of other animals, we find the whole animate power applied to agriculture as follows: FRANCE. mM men. Horses,......1,600,000 = 11,200,000 Oxen, asses, &c, 7,213,000 = 17,672,000 Human power, as above, .... 8,406,038 Total animate agricult'l force, 37,278,038 men. Horses,......1,250,000 = 8,750,000 Oxen, asses, &c, 5,500,000 = 13,750,000 Human power, as above, .... 2,132,446 Total animate agriculfl force, 24,632,446 The total human force applied to agriculture in G. Britain is, therefore, to the total agricultural force, nearly as 1 to 12; while in France, the ratio is as 1 to about 4£. We obtain similar results from an examination of the animate force applied to manufactures and commerce. The human force in France is 4,203,019 working men; 300,000 horses employed in these branches, carry the whole animate force to 6,303,019 men. In G. Britain, the human force is 4,264,893 men; allowing for the power of 250,000 animals, the whole animate force is 6,014,893. The total animate force of France is 43,581,057 men; of Great Britain, 30,647,339, or of the whole United Kingdom (allowing for Ireland an agricultural force of 7,455,701 men, and a commercial and manufacturing force of 1,260,604), 39,363,644 effective laborers. To these animate powers should be added, in both countries, the inanimate powers, or the force supplied by wind, water and steam. The total number of mills in France has been computed at 76,000, of which ]0,000 are windmills; the total force of hydraulic machines employed for forges, furnaces, and machinery of every kind, is equal to the third part of that of the 10,000 windmills; the wind employed in navigation is equivalent to the power of 3,000,000, and the steam engines to that of 480,000 men turning a winch. Besides the windmills, hydraulic machines, &c, the steam engines of Great Britain are calculated to exert a moving power equal to that of 6,400,000 men. We have, then, the inanimate powers of the two countries as follows: FRANCE. w^ men. Mills and hydraulic engines, . . 1,500,000 Windmills,............253,333 Wind and navigation,......3,000,000 Steam engines, .........480,000 Total, . ..............5,233,a33 GREAT BRITAIN. men Mills and hydraulic engines, . . 1,200,000 Windmills,............240,000 Wind and navigation,.....12,000,000 Steam engines,.........6,400,000 Total, ..............19,840,000If we add to this 1,002,667 for Ireland, the total inanimate commercial and manufacturing force of the United Kingdom is equivalent to 20,842,667 men ; nearly four times that of France. The total population of the British empire is estimated as follows: Great Britain and Ireland,. . . 21,380,000 Islands in the British seas,Man, Guernsey, Jersey, &c, .... 90,000 Other European dependencies, Gibraltar, Malta, &c,.....140,000 The Ionian Isles (under her protection), ............. 227,000 British India,..........83,000,000 Ceylon and other settlements in the Indian ocean,...... 1,200,000 Indian tributaries and allies, . 40,000,000 Colonies and settlements in Africa, ............... 243,000 British dominions in N. America, about........... 1,000,000 West Indies and S. America,. . 810,000 Australia, &c.New South Wales, Van Diemen's land, &c. 50,000 Total,.....!........14 8,140,000 The kingdom of Hanover, with a population of 1,582,000, belongs not to the British empire, but to the male line of the present royal family. Thus her authority extends over two thirds of the globe in reference to longitude; and it is literally true that the sun never sets upon her possessions ; for within this vast range, various places have noon and midnight at the same moment. Stretching also from the arctic circle to the 33d degree of south latitude, the four seasons are experienced within her dominions at the same time. " This ambitious power," says Dupin, " presents a spectacle unexampled in history. In Europe, the British empire borders on Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and France, in the north; on Spain, Sicily, Italy and Turkey, in the south; it commands the outlet of the Black sea and of the Baltic. In America, it touches Russia and the United States, and stands in presence of the new republics of the south. Between these two continents, and on the route from both of them to Asia, she holds the rock where her hands have chained the modern Prometheus. In Africa, she holds in check the Barbary powers, and watches over the safety of the negro nations. Beyond, where the Portuguese found only a watering place, and the Dutch constituted a plantation, she has created a new British people. The conquests of her merchants in Asia begin where those of Alexander ended, and where the Roman fTeiminuj never reached. From the banKs of the Indus to the frontiers of China, the country is ruled by a mercantile company, in a narrow street of London. Thus, by the vigor of her institutions, and the perfection of her arts, an island, which, in the Oceanic Archipelago, would hardly rank in the third class, extends the influences of her industry and her power to the extremities of four divisions of the world, and, in the fifth, peoples and civilizes regions, which will follow her laws, speak her language,adopt her manners, her commerce, her arts and her literature. This immense dispersion of colonies, which would ruin any other nation, constitutes the strength of the Britishempire." This supplies her with raw materials, consumes the manufactured arti cles, into which her industry converts them, and maintains that immense commerce, which, in 1823, employed 165,473 sailors, and 24,542 ships of 2,506,760 tons. British commerce began to rise into importance during the reign of Elizabeth, and now surpasses all that has been recorded of any nation in the annals of mankind. The number of vessels employed in the coasting trade is very GREAT, and lately exceeded 10,000, carrying a burthen of more than 1,250,000 tons. No very correct estimate can be formed of the internal commerce. The following table, from parliamentary documents, shows the amount of imports and exports for the three years designated: Years end Value of Imports at the official valuation. Value of Exports at official valuat. Dovi. Prod, and JYfanuf. exported j ing 5th January. Domestic produce and manufactures. Foreign and colonial nier'dise. Total Exports. ace. to declared value. 1827 | 1828 1829 £37,686,113 44,887,774 45,028,805 £40,965,735 52,219,280j 52,797,455 10,076,236 9,830,728 9,946,545 51,042,022 62,050,008 62,744,000 £31,536,723 37,182,857 36,814,176 The number of vessels entered inwards and cleared outwards in 1829 (including the repeated voyages), was as follows: INWARDS. Foreign. British. Vessels. Tonnaee. 13,436 2,094,357 | 4,955 eigi\ Toi 634,620 OUTWARDS. British. Foreign. Vessels. Tonnage. Vessels. Tonnage. 12,248 2,006,397 | 4,405 608,118 The exports to India and China for the same year amounted to £5,212,353; the imports from those countries, to £11,220,576. The number of horses in Great Britain is reckoned at a million and a half; of cattle, five millions and a half. The number of sheep in England and Wales has been estimated at 26 millions ; their annual produce of wool at 400,000 packs, of 240 pounds each. Adding those of Scotlandt the total number in Great Britain is about 35 millions. The amount of wool imported in 1827 was 15,996,715 lbs; in 1828, 29,142,290 ; in 1829, 30,246,898, of which Germany supplied about one third and Spain one tenth. The articles imported to the greatest amount in 1821,1822,1823, were wood for building, tallow, tea, coffee, indigo, flax, raw silk, wool and cotton. The principal articles of export for the same years were iron and copper, cotton manufactures, cotton yarn, cutlery, refined sugar, linen and woollen goods. The most valuable mineral productions are found in the western and northern parts of the island, while the southern and eastern parts, being composed of secondary formations and alluvial soil, do not present any valuable substances. Iron, lead, copper, and particularly tin, are the VOL. v. 50 principal metals. The latter is found in the southwestern part of the island, and employs about 10,000 persons, to whom it yields a yearly value of half a million Coal is the most valuable and abundant of the productions of the mineral kingdom in Great Britain. The whole property created annually in the U. Kingdom from mines and minerals, has been estimated by doctor Colquhoun at nine millions. The chief manufactures of Great Britain are of wool, cotton, linen, silk, leather, glass, pottery and metallic wares. The fabric of woollens, of different kinds, is the most ancient, and may be considered as the staple manufacture of the country. Its prosperity may be dated from the reign of Edward III. It is chiefly confined to the southern division of the island, and, including the various articles made of wool, is stated to employ half a million of people, while the value of the articles annually produced is about £18,000,000. The cotton manufacture affords an example of unparalleled rapidity of success. Unknown till the middle of the 17th century, and of not one hundredth part of its present extent at the commencement of the 18th, it is now unrivalled in any other nation. Manchester, Glasgow and Paisley may be considered as the principal centres of this branch of industry. The application of machinery has carried it to such an extent, that, notwithstanding the cheapness of the articles produced, the total value is estimated at £20,000,000, and the number of individuals employed at from 500,000 to 600,000. Linen was early established as a staple manufacture of Great Britain, but has now been superseded, in a measure, by that of cotton, the annual value of the whole not exceeding £2,500,000. Great Britain is more celebrated for hard ware, and metallic articles in general, than for any other branch of industiy. These and the woollen manufactures employ great quantities of native materials, while others, as cotton and silk, depend wholly on the growth of other countries. The total annual value of the metallic manufactures is estimated at about £18,000,000, employing 400,000 people. Large quantities of silk goods are made in London, and other places near the centre of England, estimated to be worth annually £4,200,000, and to employ 70,000 people. Leather is another important branch of industry, and, including the articles into which it is wrought, has been stated to amount to £10,000,000 annually, and to employ 300,000 workmen. Glass, earthen ware, paper, hats and porcelain, are important articles of industry. Breweries, distilleries, saltworks, copperas manufactories, &c, with those above mentioned, cany the annual production of the manufacturing industry in the United Kingdom to the amount of £114,000,000. In addition to these sources of industry, the fisheries employ great numbers of sailors, and are estimated to yield the annual value of two millions, exclusive of the colonial fisheries of Newfoundland. The total amount of new property annually created, has been estimated, by doctor Colquhoun, thus: Agriculture,.........£216,817,624 Mines and minerals,.......9,000,000 Manufactures,.........114,230,000 Inland trade,.......... 31,500,000 Foreign commerce and shipping, .............46,373,748 Coasting trade,..........2,000,000 Fisheries,.............2,100,000 Banks (chartered banks and banking establishments), . . . 3,500,000 Foreign income,.........5,000,000 Total, .......f_____430,521,372 The net revenue, for the years ending October 10, 1828 and 1829, was as follows: 1828. 1829. Customs,..... 16.358,170 15,961,206 Excise,...... 17^05,978 17,904,127 Stamps, ..... 6,575,318 6,704,792 Post office, .... 1,387,000 1,396,000 Taxes,...... 4,&36,464 4,905,886 Miscellaneous,. . 556,171 600,848 Total,......£47,619,101 47,472,659 The revenue, for the year ending January 5,1829, was £55,187,142:total expenditure, 49,336,973 ; principal items Dividends, interest and management of the public funded debt, and interest on exchequer bills,........£28,095,506 Trustees for naval and military pension money, and for bank of England,.....1,692,870 Civil list,.............1,057,00C Army,...............8,084,042 Navy,...............5,667,969 Ordnance,............1,446,972 Miscellaneous, &c,.......3,292,612 (For an account of the poor rates,in 1827, £7,784,351,.see Poor Rates.) The funded debt, January 5, 1829, was £772,322,540. At the close of the great European war (1815), the army immediately belonging to the empire amounted to 640,000 men ; the total number in British pay exceeded a million. The navy, at the same period, included more than 1000 vessels, manned by 184,000 seamen. The army, in 1828, consisted of 90,519, of which 26,888 were in Great Britain, 40,579 in the colonies, and 23,112 in Ireland. The E. India company has 276,281 troops. The naval force, in 1829, consisted of 610 vessels ; of which 131 were ships of the line, 149 frigates, 172 corvettes, 155 brigs. 179 of these ships were in service. The personnel was composed of 48 admirals, 65 viceadmirals, 68 rearadmirals, 487 captains, and 30,000 sailors.The members of the different religious denominations in the United Kingdom, in 1821, were, Episcopalians; with 6 archbishops, 42 bishops; 11,736 parishes,...........13,561,219 Presbyterians; 69 presbyteries, 839 parishes,.......1,800,000 Catholics; 4 archbishops, 23 bishops, 113 monasteries,. . . 5,200,000 Methodists ; 1,657 preachers, . . 460,000 Dissenters,............1,350,000 Jews,.................12,000 The universities are those of Members in 1828. Oxford, . . founded 1229......5,009 Cambridge,.....1279......4,830 Edinburgh,.....1581......2,242 Dublin, * founded 1591......1,254 Glasgow,......1454.......609 Aberdeen,......1471 ....... 218St. Andrew's,_____1411.......180 London,.......1829.......437 King's College,. . . 1829 The orders are, 1. the order of the garter (q. v.); 2. the order of the thistle for Scotland, founded 787, restored 1540; 3. the order of St. Patrick for Ireland, 1783; 4. the order of the Bath (q. v.), founded 1399, revived 1725, and in 1815 divided into three classesgrand crosses, commanders and knights. The title of the sovereign is "king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Lancaster and Cornwall, duke of Rothsay, duke and prince of BrunswickLuneburg, king of Hanover, sovereign protector of the Ionian Isles." The eldest eon inherits the title " duke of Cornwall," and receives that of " prince of Wales" by letters patent. The present sovereign is William IV (Henry), bora August 21, 1765, third son of George III (q. v.), late duke of Clarence and St. Andrew's, earl of Munster; married, July 11, 1818, Adelaide (Louisa Theresa), princess of SaxeMeiningen, born August 13,1792 ; ascended the throne June 28, 1830. No children. The royal brothers and sisters are, 1. Charlotte (Augusta Matilda), born 29th September, 1766, queen dowager of Wiirtemberg. 2. Edward Augustus, duke of Kent, who died in 1820, left, by his wife, Victoria, princess of SaxeCoburg, born August 17, 1786, a daughter, Alexandrina Victoria, born May 24, 1819, who is heiress presumptive to the British crown. 3. Augusta Sophia, born November 8,1768. 4. Elizabeth, born May 22,1770, dowager landgravine of HesseHomburg. 5. Ernest (Augustus), born June 5, 1771, duke of Cumberland and Tiviotdale, earl of Armagh, married, May 29,1815, Frederica (Caroline Sophia Alexandrina), princess of Strelitz,born March 2,1778. Their son, George (Frederic Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus), bom 27th May, 1819,is heir presumptive to the crown of Hanover. 6. Augustus (Frederic), born Jan. 27, 1773, duke of Sussex (q. v.), &c, married, April 3,1793, lady Augusta Murray: the marriage was declared invalid in 1801. 7. Adolphus (Frederic), born February 24,1774, duke of Cambridge, &c, governorgeneral of Hanover, married, May 7, 1818, Augusta (Wilhelmina Louisa), daughter of the landgrave of HesseCassel, born July 25, 1797. Their children are George (Frederic William Charles) and Augusta. 8. Maria, born April 25,17/6, married the duke of Gloucester, uncle to the king, Ju ly 22, 1816. 9. Sophia (Matilda), born Nov. 5,1777. The following sovereigns have reigned in England since the conquest:1. NORMANS. William I, the Conqueror, 1066-1087. William II, died 1100. Henry I, d. 1135. Stephen, d. J154.2. PLANTAGENETS. Henry II, d. 1188. Richard 1,1199. John, Lackland, d. 1216. Henry III, d. 1272. Edward I, d. 1307. Edward II, d. 1327. Edward III, d. 1377. Richard II, d. 1399.3. LANCASTER. Henry IV, d. 1413. Henry V, d. 1422. Henry VI, d. 1472.4. YORK. Edward IV, d. 1483. Edward V, d. 1483. Richard III, d. 1485.5. TUDOR. Henry VII, d. 1509. Henry VIII, d. 1547. Edward VI, d. 1553. Mary, d. 1558. Elizabeth, d. 1603.6. STUART. James I, d. 1625. Charles I, beheaded 1649. (Republic, 1646. Oliver Cromwell, protector, 1653-1658. Richard Cromwell, protector, retired from the protectorate 1659.)