GERMANY

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GERMANY, GEOGRAI>HY AND STATISTICS OF. Germany is bounded east by Western Prussia and Posen, Poland, Cracow, Galicia, Hungary and Croatia ; south by the Adriatic, the LombardoVenetian kingdom and Switzerland; west by France and the kingdom of the Netherlands, and north by the North sea, Denmark and the Baltic. It extends from 5° W to 20° 2C E. Ion., and from 45° to 55° N. lat., with an area of 250,000 square miles. It is watered by 500 rivers, among which 60 are navigable. The principal are the Danube, the Rhine, the Weser, the Elbe and the Oder [see those articles). The principal lakes are that of Constance, of Chiem, of Cirknitz, the Traunsee, thn Wurrnsee, the Diimmersee, the Plauensee, &c. The country is mountainous in the south ; in the north it is principally level. Germany descends towards the North sea and the Baltic from the south, and in the northwest, is constantly encroached upon by the sea. The most southern chain of German mountains is formed by the Tyrolese Alps, the Alps of AUgau, the Carnic and Julian Alps, running from east to west. The most northerly mountain chain extends, in a winding direction, from east to west. It begins near the Carpathian mountains, with the Sudetie chain, which gives out the Riesengebirge, between Silesia and Bohemia ; to the southwest are the Moravian mountains.to the northwest, the Bohemian forest. From the latter, the Saxon Erzgebirge goes off to the northeast, the Fichtelgebirge to the northwest, and northwest of this last lies the Thuringian forest. The most northern mountains of Germany are the Hartz, to the west of which, and crossing the Weser, extend the Weser mountains, forming, near Minden, the Westphalian Gates. Southwardly from this are the Sauerland mountains, the Westerwald aKd the Siebengebirge on the Rhine. From the Thuringian forest, to the southeast, extend the Rhoen, the Vogelsberg and the Taunus, the latter of which stretches to the Rhine. From the Rhoen mountains, southwardly, run the Spessart, the Odenwald, the Schwartzwald (Black Forest, q. v.), which extends to the Upper Rhine, and is connected towards the east with the Rough or Suabian Alps, and approaches the Alps of Allgau. Beyond the Rhine are the Donnersberg and Hundsruck, which, with part of the Ardennes, are connected with the Vosges. In northern GERMANY, there are sandy heaths and moors, and many districts contain fertile strips only along the large rivers. On the whole, the soil is fertile. The climate is temperate and healthy ; in the north more wet and severe, in the south more dry and mild. The number of inhabitants is estimated at 34,343,900 in 2390 towns, of which 100 have over 8000 inhabitants, 2340 market villages, 104,000 villages, and numerous small settlements. Of the inhabitants, there wrere, in 1825, GERMANs,.....27,705,855 Slavonic origin, . . . 5,325,000 Walloons and French, . . 309,000 Jews,........292,500 Italians, ......188,000 Gipsies,........900 Armenians and Greeks, . . 900 In the same year, the number of persons of different religions was as follows : Catholics,.....18,376,300 Protestants, .... 15,150,500 Jews,...... o o o 292,500 Greeks and Armenians, . . 900 The number of students in the universities (24) was, in 1829, about 18,000 ;* Students. Vienna, founded 1365, in 1828 had 1900 Berlin, " 1810, " 1829 " 1706 G6ttingen, " 1734, " 1829 " 1264* It must be remembered that, in Catholic countries, the name student is given to all who are pursuing classical studies ; but, in Protestant countries, it signifies only young men who have passed through the academic course. Hence the apparent superiority of the numbers in Vienna wver those in Berlin. 1348, in Students 1828 had 144C 1409, a 1829 u 1000 1826, cc 1828 (C 1776 1694, <( 1828 u 1385 1702, a 1828 u 1021 1818, u 1829 u 1002 1477, (C 1829 tt 874 1386, a 1829 u 600 1403, u 1829 it 513 1457, a 1829 u 667 1557, u 1829 tt 650 1607, u 1829 it 553 1527, it 1829 u 347 1743, u 1829 a 449 1665, a 1829 a 380 1454, it 134 1419, a 125 1631, a 4005 u 85 1826, u 300 1827, a 300 Prague,founded Leipsic, " Munich, " Halle, " Breslau, " Bonn, " Tubingen, " Heidelberg, " Wiirzburg, " Freiberg, " Jena, " Giessen, " Marburg, " Erlangen, " Kiel, " Greifswalde," Rostock, " Miinster, " Fiirth. " Innspruck, " Gratz, " There are public libraries in 150 places, with 5,113,500 volumes. 10,000 authors produce annually from about 3300 to 5000 new books. There are about 100 political journals, 220 other journals, and about 150 periodical publications. Germany is rich in natural productions. Excellent cattle are raised in many parts of the country. Holstein, Mecklenburg, &c, are distinguished for their good breed of horses. The breed of sheep has been much improved by the introduction of the merinos. Westphalia and Bavaria have an excellent breed of swine. Goats, asses, tame and wild fowl, bees, the silkworm, numerous kinds of fish, crabs, deer, and in some mountainous tracts in the south, wolves, bears, lynxes, chamois, marmots are found. Various kinds of grain are produced in sufficient quantity for exportation ; also spelt and maize are cultivated in the south, and buckwheat in the north, besides leguminous fruits, various garden vegetables, rapeseed, flax, hemp, tobacco, hops, madder, woad, safflower, saffron, anise, a great quantity of fruit in the south, including good chestnuts, almonds, and many peaches and apricots. The cultivation of the vine is successfully carried on along the Rhine in Franconia, along the Moselle and the Neckar, in Austria, and in part of Bohemia and Saxony. The northern line of the grape is Witzenhausen, in HesseCassel. The forests contain the oak, beech, fir tree, pine, birch, &c. The mineral kingdom produces some gold (some rivers contain golddust), a considerable quantity of silver (in particular, in the Erzgebirge and the Hartz,200,000 marks annually ),quicksilvei fin Idria and DeuxPonts), tin (in Bohemia and Saxony), lead, copper, iron, calamine, molybdene, cinnabar, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, alum, vitriol, zinc, sulphur, saltpetre, cobalt, coal, marble, lime, alabaster, gypsum, asbestos, slate, sandstone, freestone and pumicestone, trass, jasper, chalcedony, serpentine, basalt, granite, porphyry, many kinds of precious stones, amber, ochre, clay, the finest porcelain clay, fuller'searth, marl, peat, petrolium, spring and rock salt, and various kinds of mineral waters. The principal objects of German manufacture are linen, woollen, silk, leather and cotton goods, laces, paper hangings, paper, glass, mirrors, porcelain, delft ware, gold, silver, iron and steel wares, guns and sword blades, musical and other instruments, watches and lackered ware, wooden clocks, vitriol, alum, sugar, tobacco, beer, brandy and cordials, &c. Commerce is carried on by land and sea; internal commerce is discouraged by the many customhouse barriers between the different states. The exports are wood, grain (to the value of $7,500,000), wine, linen (formerly to the amount of $22,000,000), thread, iron and steel wares, philosophical instruments, toys, porcelain, lackered wares, quicksilver, glass, lookingglasses, cattle, particularly draught horses, succory fruits, wool, salt, minerals, Bohemian garnet, amber, smoked and salt meat, potteries, smalt, beeswax, woollen and cotton goods, lace, &c. The imports are wine, cordials, tobacco, tropical fruits, spices, sugar, coffee, tea, silk, cotton, fine woollen, cotton and silk goods, millinery and ornaments. The principal commercial ports are, on the North sea, Hamburg, Altona, Bremen and Embden ; on the Baltic, Lubeck, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Stettin; and on the Adriatic, Trieste. The commercial cities in the interior are, in North GERMANY, Leipsic, Brunswick, Magdeburg, Frankfort on the Oder, and Breslaw; in South Germany, Frankfort on the Maine, Nuremburg, Augsburg, Prague, Vienna and Bolzano. The map of Germany, by Reymann (Berlin, 1825 et. seq.), in 342 sheets, is the most complete that has appeared. Hassel's Statist Uebersicht der 39 Deutschen Bundestaaten (1825), Lichtenstein's Deutschlantfs Bundestaaten (1825), and, particularly for statistics, the GenealogischHist.Statist. Almanack (published annually at Weitnar), are among the best sources of information on the geographical and statistical state of Germany. German Commerce. Germany, in the more limited sense, that is, the Germanic confederation, has a favorable natural situation for commerce. Lying in the centre of Europe, it borders on three seas, and the direction and number of its rivers naturally fit it for a commercial state of the first rank. Since the middle of the 17th century, however, when the Hanseatic cities, and Nuremburg and Augsburg, ceased to be the first commercial places of Europe, it has held, with the exception of the Prussian and Austrian provinces, a subordinate rank among the commercial states. This was a necessary effect of its subdivision into so many small states. At the present time, the secularization of the ecclesiastical estates, and the mediatization (q. v.) of many petty princes, have diminished the number of political divisions which formerly gave rise to incessant intestine wars; but a struggle of financial parties, and a rage for regulating commerce by political ordinances, have succeeded, and exert a more unfavorable influence on commerce than even the prohibitive system of the neighboring states. Germany can carry on trade by land with France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia and Hungary; by sea, with France, Spain, Portugal, England, the Northern states, Italy, Turkey and America. Its trade by sea is chiefly with England, and is more injurious than beneficial to the country. Its great rivers, the Danube, Elbe, Weser, Rhine, Oder, &c, afford great facilities for maritime commerce. The principal of the German exports and imports are mentioned in the preceding division of this article, relating to the geography of Germany. German commerce, at present, is suffering from many causes. America supplies many of the former purchasers in the German market. France no longer wants German materials, as her own productions have increased five fold since the revolution. Spain and Portugal are again producing for themselves. The commercial policy also of her own and foreign states, has been very injurious to German commerce. The first step was taken by the British act of navigation. Austria and Prussia followed this example. Bavaria, first among the German states of the second rank, did the same. Some other German governments have imposed restrictions on commerce, for the purpose of increasing their revenue ; and this system has had the most ruinous effect. If the commerce of the German states, among themselves, should be made free, and if the restrictive system could be turned against England and Holland, in stead of against each other, Germany, with a population of 34,000,000, and such an extent of territory, could supply her own wants. But her internal commerce is burdened with excessive customs. Situated in the midst of the manufacturing states, and those which are in want of manufactures, Germany appears fitted to be the market of Europe. At the German fairs, business to the amount of more than $24,000,000 annually, is transacted. They collect persons from all parts of Europe. Those of Frankfort and Leipsic are the most important. The bulk of foreign manufactures, which they bring into Grermany, is again exported. The trade in French silks is almost exclusively in the hands of German merchants, and the commerce in English manufactures employs many hands, and increases the national revenue. The northern purchasers at the faiis also supply articles which serve as the materials of an intermediate trade with France, Switzerland and Italy. The prospects of German commerce, at present, are discouraging, unless a free intercourse between the states of the federation, a better economy in the governments, so as to leave more capital to the trading classes, and a better system of political regulations with regard to commerce, be established. German Umpire, The German empire was formed by the dismemberment of the Frankish monarchy, by the treaty of Verdun, in 843. Otho the Great added the kingdom of Italy (961), and united the Roman imperial crown with the German empire (962), which was thenceforward called the Holy Roman empire of Germany. The Italian states were not, however, members of the German empire, but merely feudal dependencies. The public deliberations of the emperor with the imperial estates in the diets, produced the fundamental laws of the empire, which, besides immemorial customs, included, 1. the perpetual peace of the empire of 1495; 2. the golden bull (q. v.) of 1356 ; 3. the decrees of the diets; 4. the electoral capitulations ; 5. the treaty of Passau, of 1552, or, rather, the religious peace of Augsburg, founded on that treaty ; 6. the peace of Westphalia of 1648. In 1500, Maximilian I and the estates divided Germany into the six circles of Franconia, Bavaria, Suabia, the Upper Rhine, Westphalia and Saxony ; which, in 1512, were increased to ten, by the addition of Austria and Burgundy, and the formation of two new circles out of the territories of the four electors on the Rhine and the two Saxon electors. Lusatia, Silesia, Bohemia, Moravia, Montbelliard, were not comprehended in this division. Each circle was governed by a prince, who assembled the estates, and was commanderinchief of the forces. After the death of Charles the Fat (888), Germany became an elective monarchy. The emperors were at first elected by all the eistutws, spiritual and temporal, in common ; but, during the interregnum (1197-1272), the archofficers of the empire assumed the exclusive right of choice, which was confirmed by the golden bull of Charles IV, in 1356. The elector of Mentz summoned the electoral princes to the election at Frankfort on the Maine. The electors appeared in person, or by ambassadors, but were allowed to be followed only by a small suite. All foreigners, and even foreign ambassadors, were obliged to leave the city on the day of the election. The emperor swore to observe the elective capitulation (see CapiU vlation\ and was then proclaimed. Tire coronation took place at first in AixlaChapelle, but afterwards at Frankfort. In case of the decease, minority, or long absence of the emperor, the elector of Saxony and the elector of the Palatinate were vicars over the greatest part of the empire ; but Austria and Bavaria could not be governed by a vicar. The estates of the empire, or those immediate members who had a seat and vote in the diet, were either spiritual, viz. the ecclesiastical electors, the archbishops, prelates, abbots, abbesses, the grand master of the Teutonic order, and the grand master of the knights of St. John ; or temporal, viz. the secular electors, dukes, princes, landgraves, margraves, burgraves, counts, and the imperial cities. After the peace of Westphalia, the estates were divided into the Protestant and the Catholic (see Corpus Caiholicorwn). The immediate nobility of the empire did not belong to the estates of the empire. They were divided into the Franconian, Suabian and Rhenish circles, with courts of judicature, and had the right of sending deputies to the diet. The emperor summoned annually two regular diets (besides the extraordinary meetings), which were held at Ratisbon, and, together with the emperor, exercised all the prerogatives of sovereignty,levying taxes, making laws, declaring war, and making peace. There were three chambers : 1. that of the electors ; .2. that of the princes, which was divided into the spiritual and temporal benches (the Protestant bishops of Osnabruck and Lubeck sat on a separate bench). The counts *f the empire did not vote individually, but they were divided into the Wetteravian, Suabian, Franconian, and Westphalian benches, each of which had one vote. The prelates and abbots, divided into the Suabian and Rhenish benches, had, also, two collective votes. 3. The chamber of the imperial cities was divided into the Rhenish and Suabian benches. Each of the three chambers deliberated separately, but the two first then met together, and decided, definitively, on any proposition, which, when ratified by the emperor, became a decree of the empire. All the decrees of a diet were called a recess of the empire. The declaration of war by the empire, was proposed by the emperor, and decided by a majority of votes. When mercenary troops began to be used, in the time of Sigismund (1411-1437), each state, instead of its former contingent of men, paid twelve florins for every horseman, and four florins for every foot soldier ; and these sums, called Roman months (because the first expeditions had generally been to Rome, and the time of the feudal service which the vassals were bound to render on these occasions, had been limited to six weeks, which they called a Roman month), were allowed to the emperor in all extraordinary cases, particularly in the wars of the empire. A Roman month, for the whole empire, consisted of 20,000 infantry and 4000 cavalry, which amounted to the sum of 128,000 florins. The estates, however, might grant troops or money at pleasure. The estates had the right of distributing the taxes, or the right of subcollecture. The judicial tribunals of the empire were the imperial chamber (q. v.), and the Aulic council (q. v.), with the provincial courts of the empire and the Austragal courts. (See the account of the Austragal courts, in the sequel of this article.) In church matters, whether relating to Protestants or Catholics, the imperial chamber and the Aulic council were incompetent to decide. The Protestant states acted, in ecclesiastical affairs, by consistories. The Catholic states were subject to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, in the hands of the popes and the bishops, and the rules of the canon law. By the peace of Westphalia, the right of coining money and of working mines was given to all the states of the empire; and the liberty and security of commerce and navigation in all the rivers and ports of the empire, were confirmed to all the members of the empire. Maximilian I established the postoffices, and appointed a postmastergeneral of the em38 * pire. The office continued hereditary in one family till 1747. The imperial revenues were so inconsiderable, that the'emperors were obliged to resort to the revenues of their hereditary dominions to support their dignity. Imperial reservations were those prerogatives which the emperors exercised throughout the empire, independently of the states. In respect to the emperor and to the empire, the lands of the estates were in part fiefs, and in part allodial, and were divided into ecclesiastical and secular. By the sovereignty of the states, from the peace of Westphalia, was understood their right of exercising sovereign powers within their own territories, so far as they were not restrained by the laws of the empire, or by treaties. All the electors, and some other estates of the empire, had the jus, or privilegium de non appeUando, and others the privilegium elcctionis fori, (See Privilege.) In ecclesiastical matters, they had the right of reformation [jus reformandi), and could introduce, and tolerate in their territories, either of the three religious parties ; yet they could not encroach upon the rights and possessions of any religious party, which existlu in their dominions in the Normal year (q. v.) of 3624, and were bound to allow them the right of emigration for five years. The Protestant rulers were, in their own territories, the heads of the church, and the Catholic princes, of their Protestant subjects ; but the Catholics were under the jurisdiction of their bishops. As consequences of their sovereignty, the members of the empire had, also, the right of making war and peace, and of concluding alliances, which, however, was limited by laws of the empire. Such were the fundamental features of a constitution, of which something may be said in favor, and much against it. It gave the GERMANs neither unity nor energy, and made one of the most extensive countries of Europe one of the most impotent. But this very impotence, in regard to foreign politics, and the absence of the excitements of party, in regard to questions of internal administration, led to the ardent pursuit of science. The reformation, too, could not have been successfully carried through, except in a country in which the interests of the princes were so divided. In the introduction of the reformation, Germany sacrificed herself for mankind. No one will doubt this, who considers the horrors of the thirty years' war. (See Thirty Years' War.) The dissolution of the German empire' (6tli August, 1806), made way, for the confedo* ration of the Rhine (q.v.), which was succeeded by the Germanic confederation, {q. v.) (See, also, Elector.) Germanic Confederation. After the German empire, which, during the 18th century, had been the mere shadow of a political body, was dissolved, in 180G, the confederation of the Rhine (q. v.), reunited many of the German states, under the protection of Napoleon, who allowed the members full sovereignty in the interior, and enlarged their territorial possession, at the expense of the interior German princes. With the fall of Napoleon, the confederation of the Rhine was dismembered,Bavaria, and the other members successively, joining the allies against their former protector,and was succeeded by the Germanic confederation, formed June 8,1815, according to the words of the instrument, to secure the independence and inviolability, and to preserve the internal peace, of the states. Germany thus presents again the semblance of a political whole, which in reality possesses no strength, even in time of peace, as many instances show. It is only necessary to mention the fruitless decrees of the Germanic diet, respecting the arbitrary ordinances of the elector of HesseCassel against the holders of the old domains, the excesses and follies of the duke of Brunswick, and the want of any general system for promoting the internal navigation of the country. In time of war, its inefficiency must be still more apparent. There is only one circumstance to console the heart of a GERMAN, whose patriotism extends beyond the narrow boundaries of the part of the country in which he happens to be bornthat there are now only thirtyeight members of the confederation, whilst formerly there were several hundred. This shows that some progress has been made towards the great object, for which Germany, as well as Italy, has sighed for centuriesthe unity and independence of their respective countries; each of which, to use the language of the great Dante, has hitherto been di dolore ostello (the dwelling of sorrow). But, at present, the Germanic confederation can be considered only as an imperfect union, directed chiefly by the two most powerful members, Austria and Prussia, which entered into it reluctantly, withholding several of their provinces from the confederacy. It needs no prophetic eye to foresee, that the time will come, when Germany will sustain that struggle which England and France ended long ago; will become united, and rest from the bloody conflicts, in which, for centuries, GERMANs have slain GERMANs, and which have wasted their wealth, checked their industry, impeded the developement of public law, and extinguished in their literature that manliness, which is so striking a feature in that of a neighboring nation, partly descended from themconflicts most fully exhibited in that heartrending tragedy, the thirty years' war. It maybe asserted, without paradox, that union is at present more necessary for Germany than liberty; at least, give her the former, and the latter will soon follow. Peace has been for a long time, and still is, the policy of the European cabinets, that the commotions of late years, caused by the indestructible spirit of growing liberty, may subside into the (socalled) "legitimate" level. But, whenever the interests of any of the continental powers shal) change this peace into a general war there is little doubt that the Germanic con federation will fall to pieces as inglorious ly as the German empire ; and eveiy un prejudiced German would wish that it might. The less powerful members would unite with foreigners, to be able to withstand the more powerful ones.The constitution of the confederation is as follows :Thirtyfour monarchical states, of very unequal extent, and four free cities, enter into a confederation, as equal sovereigns. They are, 1. Austria; 2. Prussia , 3. Bavaria; 4. Saxony ; 5. Hanover: 6. Wiirtemberg; 7. Baden ; 8. HesseCassel ; 9. HesseDarmstadt; 10. Denmark (for Holstein and Lauenburg); 11. the Netherlands (for the grandduchy of Luxemburg) ; 12. MecklenburgSchwerin ; 13. Nassau ; 14. SaxeWeimar; 15. SaxeCoburgGotha; 16. SaxeMeiningen ; 17. SaxeAltenburg ; 18. Brunswick ; 19. MecklenburgStrelitz ; 20. HolsteinOldenburg ; 21. AnhaltDessau ; 22. AnhaltBeruburg ; 23. AnhaltCothen ; 24. SchwartzburgSondershausen ; 25. SchwartzburgRudolstadt; 26. HohenzollernHechingen ; 27. Lichtenstein ; 28. HohenzollernSigmaringen ;29. Waldeck; 30. Reuss, elder branch ; 31. Reuss, younger branch ; 32. SchaumburgLippe ; 33. LippeDetmold ; 34. HesseHomburg ; 35, 36, 37, 38, The four free cities, Lubeck, Frankfort (on the Maine), Bremen, Hamburg. The house of SaxeGotha became extinct in 1825, and its vote in the diet now belongs to the three lines of the house of Gotha. The organ and representative of the confederation is the diet of plenipotentiaries, which is permanent, and HA sembles in the free city of Frankfort on the Maine. The diet is constituted in two forms: 1. as a general assembly (plenum)^ in which every member has at least one vote: the great powers have several, viz. Austria and the five kingdoms have each four votes ; Baden, HesseCassel, HesseDarmstadt, Holstein and Luxemburg, each three; Brunswick, MecklenburgSchwerin and Nassau, each two; the other states each one ; making, altogether, seventy. In the making or altering fundamental laws, in the admission of new members into the confederacy, and in religious matters, unanimity is required. In all other cases, two thirds of the votes of the general assembly are necessary for the adoption of any measure ; so that, in point of fact, unanimity is required in almost all important cases, except in the declaration of war, or conclusion of peace. The other form of the diet is the ordinary assembly, in which the thirtynine members of the general assembly have but seventeen votes. Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurtemberg, Baden, HesseCassel, HesseDarmstadt, Holstein, and Luxemburg, have each one vote (11). The other votes are collective. The twelfth is given by the grandduchy and duchies of Saxony (Ernestine branch); the thirteenth by Brunswick and Nassau ; the fourteenth by MecklenburgSchwerin and Strelitz ; the fifteenth by Oldenburg, the three houses of Anhalt, and the two Schwartzburg houses ; the sixteenth by Hohenzollern, Lichtenstein, Lippe, and SchaumburgLippe, Reuss and Waldeck; and the seventeenth by the four free cities. This assembly brings forward and discusses propositions, which must be decided in the plenum, or general assembly (in which there is no discussion). It also executes the decrees of the diet, and, in general, manages the affairs of the confederation. It decides by a simple majority of nine votes. Austria presides in both diets, and has the casting vote in the smaller assembly. The deputies have the character of plenipotentiaries, are responsible to tl eir respective governments only, and are, therefore, governed by the instructions of their courts, not by their own convictions. The sessions of the diet are partly confidential (in which the preliminary conferences take place, and of which no journal is kept), and partly formal. Disputes between the members of the confederation, the diet first endeavors to compose by a committee. If this does not succeed, a legal process is commenced, and the supreme court of one of the statesof the confederation is chosen by the parties to settle the dispute in a regular, judicial way. The chief objects of the German confederation are the following: 1. the* independence and integrity of the states; with this is connected the right of examining the disputes between members of the confederation and foreign states, and of obliging the former to yield, if they are judged to be wrong. 2. The mutual protection of the states against each other, of the preservation of the confederacy. 3. The internal tranquillity of the separatestates is left to the care of the respective' governments; but in case of the resistance' of the subjects to their government, the confederation may assist the latter. The confederacy may even interfere, without being called upon by the government, if the commotions are of a dangerous tendency, or if several states are threatened by dangerous conspiracies. A central commission for political examinations is' instituted at Mentz, which has been engaged for a number of years in the invest ligation of revolutionary plots. 4. The establishment of representative constitutions in all the states belonging to the confederation. Article 13 says: All the states' of the union shall have lundes^standische Verfassungen. This landesMndische has! been since explained in such a way, that' mockeries of constitutions, like that of Prussia, have been thought sufficient to answer the claims of the age. 5. The establishment of three degrees of jurisdiction. (See Courts of Appeal.) 6. Legal equality of all Christian denominations. 7. The establishment of a common civil law in Germany, the liberty of emigration, and the right of die subjects of each state to hold real property in every other state of the confederation. 8. The regulation of the legal relations of the mediatized princes of the old empire. (See Mediatization.) These provisions were first settled by the fundamental act of the 8th June, 1815, and confirmed, according to a decree of the congress of Vienna, as the constitution of the confederation, June 8, 1820. These acts are contained in the Corpus Juris Confcederationis Germanic^ by Meyer (Frankfort, 1822), and in the Corpus Juris publici Germanici Academicum, by Ad. Michaelis (Tubingen, 1825). (For the size, population and revenue of the several states of the German confederation, see the table of European states, under the head of Europe.*) In regard to* In those sets of this work in which the area of these states (under the head of Europe, in vol. 4) is given in German miles, and the revenue m Austria and Prussia, it must be observed, that it is only their German provinces which are considered as parts of the German confederation. Those of Austria contain about 85,000 English square miles, with a population, in 1827, of 10,655,324, and a revenue of $28,200,000. Those of Prussia contain about 71,000 square miles, with a population, in 1827, of 9,302,220, and a revenue of $25,398,200. The Danish province of Holstein contains 3646 square miles; population hi 1827,440,900 ; revenue, $840,000. The duchy of Luxemburg, belonging to the king of the Netherlands, contains 2183 square miles ; population in 1827, 296,500 ; revenue, $720,000. The court appointed to settle disputes between the members of the German confederacy, is called the court of Austrdgalinstanz. The want of a firm and vigorous administration of justice in Germany, caused principally by the weakness of the imperial authority, especially after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, obliged the princes, prelates, cities and knights, especially in southern Germany, to form many alliances for their own security ; and an essential condition of these always was, that they would choose arbiters, in case of disputes, among themselves, who would either bring about a settlement, or give a legal decision. When, at last, at the recognition of the general peace (Landfriede), in 1495, a stop was put to feuds and private warfare, a general supreme court became necessary, to decide all quarrels between the independent members of the empire, and, at the same time, the court of the imperial chamber (reichskammergericht) was founded. 2. In the confederation of the Rhine, the decision of quarrels was committed to a general congress, which was never held. 3. In the present German confederation, this judicial power of deciding quarrels between the members of the union, has likewise been intrusted to the general assembly of the confederation, who are to endeavor to compose them by means of a committee, chosen from their number, and, where a legal sentence shall be necessary, are to establish a regular court. Austria and Prussia endeavored, even at the congress of Vienna, to bring about the establishment of a permanent tribunal for these important affairs; but the other states preferred a variable court. The system requires that the accused party shall propose to the ac ffuilders, .an improved form of the table will be Found "asfan appendix to vol. 5, in which dollars nud English miles are substituted. cusing, three impartial members of the confederacy, of which he is to choose one; and in case he neglects to do so, the choice is to be made by the general assembly. The supreme court of that member of the union which is selected must then undertake a formal investigation and decision of the quarrel, and publish a report; after which the question cannot be again thrown open, except in the case of new proofs being found. The assembly provides foi the execution, by the act of the 3d August, 1820. The same process takes place in case the demands of a private person are not satisfied, tn consequence of the obligation to give satisfaction being a subject of dispute between several members of the confederacy. Several disputes have already been decided in this manner, and others are still pending. Germany, History of. The name Germania was given by the Romans not only to the inhospitable country, covered with forests, morasses and fens, which is bounded by the Danube, the Rhine, the Northern Ocean and the Vistula, but also to the region embracing Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Livonia and Prussia; all these countries, which form a third part of Europe, being inhabited by nations whose external appearance, manners and customs, announced a common origin. The inhabitants of the beautiful regions of Italy, who had never known a rougher country, could hardly believe that any nation had deserted its native soil, to dwell in the forests of Germany, where severe cold prevailed for the greater part of the year, and where, even in summer, impenetrable forests prevented the genial rays of the sun from reaching the ground. They thought that the GERMANs (Heermannm, i. e. Warmen: see Von Hammer's account of the origin of this name in the Wiener Jahrbiicher and Titze in his Vorgeschichte Deutschlands), or, as they called themselves after their national god, Teut (Thuiscon), the Teutones, must have lived there from the beginning. They therefore called them indigent (natives), and furnished us with accounts of their manner of life, from which we give the following extracts. We ought not to forget that our knowledge on this subject is derived from authors who wrote mostly with a view to hold a picture of manliness and virtue before the eye of a degenerated people, and, therefore, extolled many traits of the ancient GERMANs beyond their real worth, and, also, that the knowledge of Roman authors respecting the Germans, was, after all, scanty, derived froru observation of German captives at Rome, and the information of soldiers who had served in Germany. In order to give to these accounts their real value, we have only to call to mind how incorrect the descriptions of Indians, in our novels, are considered by those persons who have had a long intercourse with these sons of the forest; and yet the character of Indians must be better known to Cooper than that of the Germans could be to Tacitus. However, the Teutonic element has become so important an ingredient in the institutions and productions of the middle ages, in politics, religion and poetry, and, consequently, so important a basis of the institutions of the present time, founded on, or sprung from, those of the middle ages, that all the information, which has been transmitted to us, respecting the early Germans, is of great interest.A nation free from any foreign intermixture (say the Roman writers), as is proved by their peculiar national physi ¦ ognomy, inhabits the countries beyond the Rhine, with fierce blue eyes, deep yellow hair, a robust frame and a gigantic height; inured to cold and hunger, but not to thirst and heat, warlike, honest, faithful, friendly and unsuspicious towards friends, but towards enemies, cunning and dissembling ; scorning every restraint, considering independence as the most precious of all things, and, therefore, ready to give up life rather than liberty. Unacquainted with the arts of civilization, ignorant of agriculture, and of the use of metals and letters, the German lives in his forests and pastures, supported by the chase, and the produce of his herds and flocks; his life being divided between inaction, sensual pleasures and great Hardships. In time of peace, sleep and idleness, by day and night, are the sole pleasure of the indolent, discontented warrior, who longs for war, and manly, dangerous adventures. Till these arrive, he surrenders himself, with all the passion of unrestrained nature, to drinking and gaming. A beverage, prepared with little art, from wheat and barley, indemnifies him for the absence of the juice of the grape, which nature has denied him, and exhilarates his noisy feasts. His personal liberty is not too precious to be staked on the cast of a die; and, faithful to his word, he suffers himself to be fettered, without resistance, by the lucky winner, and sold into distant slavery. The form of government, in the greater part of Germany, is democratic. The German obeys general and positive laws less than the casual ascendency of birth or valor, of eloquence or superstitious reverence. On the shores of the Baltic, there are several tribes which acknowledge the authority of kings, without, however, resigning the natural rights of man. Mutual protection forming the tie which unites the Germans, the necessity was early felt of rendering individual opinion subject to that of the majority; and these few rude outlines of political society are sufficient for a nation destitute of high ambition. The youth, born of free parents, and ripened to manhood, is conducted into the general assembly of his countrymen, furnished with the shield and spear, and received as an equal and worthy member of their warlike republic. These assemblies, consisting of men able to bear arms, and belonging to the same tribe, are summoned at fixed periods, or on sudden emergencies. The free vote of the members of these councils decides on public offences, the election of magistrates, on war or peace. For though the leaders are allowed to discuss all subjects previously, yet the right of deciding and executing is solely with the people. Impatient of delay, and obeying the impulse of their passions, without regard to justice or policy, the Germans are quick in adopting resolutions. Their applause or dissatisfaction is announced by the clashing of their arms, or by a murmur. In times of danger, a leader is chosen, to whom several tribes submit. The most valiant is selected for this purpose, to lead his countrymen more by his example than his authority. As soon as the danger is past, his authority, reluctantly borne by his free minded countrymen, ceases. In times of peace, no other superior is known . than the princes, who are chosen in the assemblies to distribute justice, or compose differences in their respective districts. Every prince has a guard, and a council of 100 persons. Although the Romans called several German princes kings, yet these rulers had not so much as the right of punishing a freeman with death, or imprisonment, or blows. (See Prince.) A nation to which every kind of restraint was thus odious, and which acknowledged no authority, respected no obligations, but those which they imposed upon memselves. To leaders of approved valor, the noblest youths voluntarily devoted their arms and services ; and as the former vied with each other in assembling the bravest companions around them, so the latter contended for the favor of their leaders. It was the duty of the leader to be the first in courage in the hour of danger, and the duty of his companions not to be inferior to him. To survive his fall was an indelible disgrace to his companions, for it was their most sacred duty to defend his person, and to heighten his glory by their own deeds. The leader fought for victory; his companions, for their leader. Valor was the grace of man; chastity the virtue of woman. The primitive nations of German origin attached something of a sacred character to the female sex. Polygamy was only permitted to the princes, as a means of extending their connexions; , divorce was forbidden rather by a sense of propriety than by law. Adultery was considered an inexpiable crime, and was, therefore, very rare. Seduction was not to be excused on any consideration. The religious notions of this nation could not but be rude and imperfect. The sun and moon, fire and earth, were their deities, whom they worshipped, with some imaginary beings, to whom they ascribed the direction of the most important circumstances of life, and whose will the priests pretended to divine by secret arts. Their temples were caverns, rendered sacred by the veneration of many generations. The ordeals, so famous in the middle ages, were considered by them as infallible in all dubious cases. Religion afforded the most powerful means for inflaming their courage. The sacred standards, preserved in the dark recesses of consecrated caverns, were raised on the field of battle, and their enemies were devoted, with dreadful imprecations, to the gods of war and thunder. The valiant, only, enjoyed the favor of the gods; a warlike life, and death in battle, were considered as the surest means of attaining the joys of the other world, where the heroes were rejoiced by the relation of their deeds, while sitting around the festal table, and quaffing beer out of large horns, or the skulls of then* enemies. (See Mythology, Northern.) But the glory which the priests promised after death, was conferred by the bards on earth. They celebrated in the battle, and at the triumphal feasts, the glorious heroes of past days, the ancestors of the brave, who listened to their simple but fiery strains, and were inspired by them with contempt of death, and kindled to glorious deeds. Such were the free and unconquered tribes which once inhabited the forests of Germany. If we inquire into their origin, we are directed to Asia, the common cradle of mankind, although we find but faint traces of their emigration from that, part of the world in the writings of the ancient historians. Joseph von Hammer (in the work above cited) calls them a BoxtroMedian stock, from the highlands of Ariana; and Mirchond, the Persian poet, says Chorasan (the land of Chawilah) is the name of that country, in which were assembled the learned and wise, and which, in olden times, was called Dshermania. Before the Scythians, or Scoteles, were forced back by the Massagetae to the Pontus Euxinus, the Cimmerii, a nation related to the Germans, lived in those regions which at present are called Crimea and European Tartary, and, when pushed forward by the Scythians to the Vistula, intermingled with the Teutonic tribes that lived there, and of whom we have no historical accounts. In this way, Scandinavia and Germany were peopled, and a tradition was preserved among the inhabitants of those countries, that their ancestors had formerly dwelt on the banks of the Vistula. There were three chief branches of the Germans: the Istaevones, Ingsevones and Hermiones. The Hermiones lived between the Elbe and the Vistula, were the parent stock, and were also called Teutones and Semnones. From them, the Istaevones emigrated to the west, the Ingsevones to the north. These three chief branches differed essentially from each other; and if it could be proved, that the Westphalians, Lower Saxons, Danes and Swedes are descended from the Ingsevones; the inhabitants of the Rhine, the Franconians and Hessians, from the Istaevones; and the Bavarians and Austrians from the Hermiones, the differences, at least so far as they relate to language, still exist. In the south of Germany, we find only tribes of emigrants, belonging to different stocks, some of whom, afterwards uniting together, founded large states. Such southern colonists were the Quadi, Marcomanni, and their descendants, the Boiarii, the Hermunduri, and their descendants, the Suevi. The Romans first became acquainted with the Germans in the year of the city 640, when a swarm of barbarians, who called themselves Cimbri, appeared on the Alps, seeking new habitations, defeated the consul, Papirius Carbo, and, having united with the Tigurini, turned their arms against the Allobroges. After having here also defeated the Romans, in two great battles, they united with the Teutones and Ambrones, broke into Trans alpine Gaul, and vanquished the Romans again on the Rhone. They then spread westwardly, but, being checked in their course by the bravery of the Iberians and Belgians, turned towards Italy, into which the Teutones and Ambrones attempted to penetrate, over the westem Alps, and the Cimbri and Tigurini over the northern. Marius became the deliverer of Rome; he defeated the former at Aix, in the year of the city 651 (102 B. C), and the Cimbri in the following year. Those who escaped spread themselves over Gaul, or returned to the Danube. Caesar, after having subjected Gaul, and earned his victorious arms as far as the Rhine, first became acquainted with a nation called Germans. Ariovistus, their leader, who had formerly lived on the south of the Danube, formed the design of settling in Gaul, but was defeated by Caesar, and compelled to retreat over the Rhine. The Bricocci and Nemetes, who had belonged to diat collection of tribes, alone remained on the western bank of the Rhine. Of the fugitives who returned over the Rhine, the nation of the Marcomanni seems to have been formed. Caesar crossed the Rhine twice; not with the view of making conquests in that wilderness, but to secure Gaul against the destructive irruptions of the barbarians. He even enlisted Germans in his army, first against the Gauls, then against Pompey. He obtained an accurate knowledge of those tribes only that lived nearest to the Rhine, as the Ubii, Sygambri, Usipetes and Teucteri. The rest of Germany, he was told, was inhabited by the Suevi, wrho were divided into 100 districts (Gauen), each of which annually sent 1000 men in quest of booty. They lived more by hunting and pasture than by agriculture, held their fields in common, and prevented the approach of foreign nations by devastating their borders. This account is true, if it is applied to the Germans in general, and if by the 100 districts are understood different tribes. The civil wars diverted the attention of the Romans from Germany. The confederacy of the Sygambri made inroads into Gaul with impunity, and Agrippa transferred the Ubii, who were hard pressed by them, to the west side of the Rhine. But the Sygambri, having defeated Lollius, the legate of Augustus (A. U. C. 739), the emperor himself hastened to the Rhine, erected fortifications along the bank of this river, to oppose the progress of the enemy, and gave his stepson, Drusus (q. v.), the chief command against them. This great general was victorious in several expeditions, and advanced as far as the Elbe. He died in the year of Rome 745. Tiberius, after him, held the chief command on the Rhine during 2 years, and exercised more cunning than force against the Germans, He induced them to enter the Roman service. The body guard of Augustus was composed of Germans, and the Cheruscan Arminius (q. v.) was raised to the dignity of knight. From 740 to 755, different Roman generals commanded in those regions. Tiberius, having received the chief command a second time (A. U. C. 756), advanced to the Elbe; and the Romans would probably have succeeded in making Germany a Roman province, but for the imprudence of his successor, Quinctilius Varus, by which all the advantages, that had been previously gained, were lost. His violent measures for changing the manners and customs of the Germans, produced a general conspiracy, headed by the Cheruscan Arminius, who had received his education in Rome. Decoyed, with three legions, into the forest of Teut©burg, Varus was attacked and destroyed, with his army. A few fugitives only were saved by the legate Asprenas, who was stationed, with three legions, in the vicinity of Cologne. The consequence of this victory, gained by the Germans A. D. 9, was the loss of all the Roman possessions beyond the Rhine; the fortress of Aliso, built by Drusus, was destroyed. The Cherusci then became the principal nation of Germany. Four years after, the Romans, under the command of Germanicus (q. v.), made a new expedition against the Germans ; but, notwithstanding the valor and military skill of the young hero, he did not succeed in reestablishing the Roman dominion. The Romans then renounced the project of subjugating the Germans, whose invasions they easily repulsed, and against any serious attacks from whom they were secured by the internal dissensions which had arisen in Germany, Maroboduus, who had been educated at the court of Augustus, had united, partly by persuasion, and partly by force, several Suevian tribes in a confederacy, which is known under the name of the Marcomannic confederacy. At the head of this powerful league, he attacked the great kingdom of the Boii, in the southern part of Bohemia and Franconia, conquered it, and founded a formidable state, whose authority extended over t|^e Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Qnadi, Longobardi and Semnones, and which was able to send 70,000 fighting men into the field. Augustus had ordered Tiberius, with twelve legions, to attack Maroboduus, and destroy his power; but a general rebel lion in Dalmatia obliged him to conclude a disadvantageous peace. The disasters which afterwards befell the Romans in the west of Germany, prevented them from renewing their attempts against the Marcomanni, who ventured to make frequent invasions into the southern parts of Germany. Two powerful nations, therefore, now existed in Germany, the Marcomanni and the Cherusci, who, however, soon became engaged in disputes. On the one hand, the Longobardi and Semnones, disgusted with the oppressions of Maroboduus, deserted his confederacy, and joined the Cherusci; and on the other, Inguiomerus, the uncle of Arminius, having become jealous of his nephew, went over to Maroboduus. After the war between the two rivals had been carried on for a considerable time, according to the rules of military art, which Arminius and Maroboduus had learned in the school of the Romans, the victory at last remained with the Cherusci. Tiberius, instead of assisting Maroboduus, who had solicited his help, instigated Catualda, king of the Goths, to fall upon him, forced him to leave his country, and to seek refuge with the Romans. Catualda, however, soon experienced the same fate from the Hermunduri, who now appear as the principal tribe among the Marcomanni. The Cherusci, after the loss of their great leader, Arminius, A. D. 21, fell from their high rank among the German nations. Weakened by internal dissensions, they finally received a king from Rome, by the name of Italicus, who was the last descendant of Arminius. During his reign, they quarrelled with their confederates, the Longobardi, and sunk to an insignificant tribe on the south side of the Hercinian forest. On the other hand, the Catti, who lived in the western part of Germany, rose into importance. The Frisians rebelled, on account of a tribute imposed on them by the Romans, and were with difficulty overpowered; while the Catti, on the Upper Rhine, made repeated assaults upon the Roman fortresses on the opposite bank. Their pride, however, was humbled by Galba, who compelled them to abandon the country between the Lahn, the Maine and the Rhine, which was distributed among Roman veterans. Eighteen years later, a dispute arose between the Hermunduri and Catti, on account of the saltsprings of the Franconian Saale. Meanwhile, the numerous companions of Maroboduus and Catualda, having settled en the north of the Danube, between the rivers Gran and Morava, had founded, under Vannius, whom they had received as king from the Romans, a new kingdom, which began to become oppressive to the neighboring tribes. Although Vannius had entered into an alliance with the Sarmatian JazygaB, he was overpowered by the united arms of the Hermunduri. Lygii and western Quadi (A. D. 50), and was compelled to fly for refuge to the Romans. His soninlaw, Sido, was now at the head of the government. He was a friend of the Romans, and rendered important services to Vespasian. In the west, the power of the Romans was shaken by the Batavi, so that they maintained themselves with the greatest difneufty. A war now broke out, that was terminated only with the downfall of Rome. The Suevi, being attacked by the Lygii, asked for assistance from Domitian, who sent them 100 horsemen. Such paltry succors only offended the Suevi. Entering into an alliance with the Jazygse, in Dacia, they threatened Pannonia. Domitian was defeated. Nerva checked them, andv Trajan gained a complete victory over them. But, from the time of Antoninus, the philosopher, the flames of war continued to blaze in those regions. The Roman empire was perpetually harassed, on two sides by the barbarians, on one side by a number of small tribes, who, pressed by the Goths, were forced to invade Dacia, in quest of new habitations. The southern regions were assigned to them to pacify them. But a war of more moment was carried on against Rome on the other side, by the united forces of the Marcomanni, Hermunduri and Quadi, which is commonly called the Marcomannic war. Marcus Aurelius fought against them to the end of his life, and Commodus bought a peace (A. D. 180). Meantime the Catti devastated Gaul and Rheetia, the Cherusci forced the Longobardi back to the Elbe, and now appear under the name of Franks. A. D. 220, new barbarians appeared in Dacia, the Visigoths, Gepidae and Heruli, and waged war against the Romans. At the same time, in the reign of Caracalla, a new confederacy appeared in the southern part of Germanythe Alemanni, consisting of Istsevonian tribes. Rome, in order to defend its provinces against them, erected the la mous Vallum Romanorum (Roman wall), the ruins of which are still visible from Jaxthausen to Oehringen. But the power of the Romans sunk more and more, partly by the incessant struggle against the barbarians, partly by internal agitations. At the time when the Roman power had been weakened by civil wars, in the frequent military revolutions during the government of the emperors, the Franks forced their way as far as Spain, and, in the reign of the emperor Probus, they also conquered the island of the Batavi. Thus the Franks and Alemanni were now the most powerful German nations. Under Julian, the former lost the island of the Batavi, which wTas conquered by the Saxons, and the latter were humbled by the armies of Rome. But this was Rome's last victory. In the beginning of the 5th century, barbarians assailed the Roman empire on all sides. The Vandals, Suevi and Alans occupied Gaul and Spain; the Burgundians followed them to Gaul, the Visigoths to Italy and Spain; the Burgundians were followed by the Franks, the Visigoths by the Ostrogoths, and these by the Longobardi (Lombards). Thus began those migrations of the innumerable hosts, that spread themselves, from the North and East, over all Europe, subduing every thing in their course. This event is called the great migration of (lie nations. The principal consequences of the general irruption of the barbarians were, the destruction of the western empire by the German Odoacer, who made himself If mg of Italy, the conquest of Gaul by the Franks, and the establishment of an empire which was to give to Germany itself, where the Saxons, the Frisians, Thuringians and Alemanni remained, a political constitution under a single head. Clovis, first king of France, professed the Christian religion (496), and with him com menced the series of the Merovingian kings, the last of whom was removed to a monastery (752). The Carlovingians ascended the throne of France, and the conflicts with the neighboring Germans, not incorporated with the Frankish kingdom, among whom the Saxons were the most dangerous enemies, became more violent. Charlemagne (768-814) resolved to put an end to the conflict, by forcing the rude Saxons to embrace Christianity, and uniting them, in a political whole, under his sceptre; but he met with an unexpected resistance for 30 years. Wittikind the Great, duke of Saxony, finally submitted, and, to spare the blood of his subjects, which Charlemagne had shed in torrents, consented to be baptized, with his army. Thus the great Frankish monarchy, comprehending Gaul, Italy, and Germany to the North sea, was founded. It is, however, erroneous to suppose, that, in this long war, the whole nation engaged in the re peated insurrections against Charlemagne. The Saxons, on the left bank of the Weser, submitted after the first victory of Charlemagne, and did not revolt afterwards; but the officers and priests of Charlemagne (q. v.) governed with so much severity, that many of them removed to the right bank of the Weser, and from thence attacked the Franks and their own countrymen, who remained behind. After many alternations of defeat and victoiy, the right bank of the Weser was also obliged to acknowledge the sway of Charlemagne ; but priests and nobles, who retired before the conqueror, from the right bank of the Elbe, again renewed the war. By transplanting several thousands of the most turbulent families from beyond the Elbe into Picardy, and by granting others the vacant lands on the river, Charlemagne finally succeeded in obliging them to abandon their savage manners, permitted them to govern themselves, and thus restored peace. Frankish Germany became an independ ent kingdom, when the sons of Charlemagne divided the empire. The treaty of Verdun declared Louis (the German) the first king of Germany (843-876). At this period, the Rhine formed the frontier of Germany on one side (Spire, Worms and Mentz, on the left bank of the Rhine, with their territories, were, however, included ; not, indeed, on account of their inhabitants, but for their vineyards, of which the eastern kingdom would otherwise have been destitute); the other boundaries were nearly the same as at present. The constitution of the country, which was of Frankish origin, remained. Undei the reign of Louis, margraves were appointed, and castles built as securities against the invasions of the Normans and Sclavonians, particularly the Wendes. He enlarged his dominions by the annexation of Cologne, Treves, AixlaChapelle, Utrecht, Metz, Strasburg, Basle, and several places on the left banks of the Rhine, from the hereditary possessions of his nephew Lothaire II. Louis died 876, and his three sons, Carloman, Louis the Younger and Charles the Fat, divided his dominions among themselves. From 884, Germany andFrance were again under the same sovereign, Charles the Fat, who nearly restored the limits of the kingdom of his grandfather; but the spirit of Charlemagne, which alone had been able to hold together the heterogeneous mass, had long since fled, and Charles the Fat sunk so low in the estimation of the nation, that the Germans declared the crown forfeited (887), and raised his nephew Arnold of Carinthia, a natural son of Carloman, to the new throne. After several severe struggles with the Sclavonians in Moravia, against whom he called to his aid the Hungarians (who, in 889, had seated themselves at the foot of the Carpathian mountains), he acquired the imperial crown (896) by the defeat of Berengarius, duke of Friuli. In 899, Arnold died, and Louis the Infant, his son, was made king, at the age of six years, by whose death, in 911, the Carlovingian race became extinct in Germany. With Henry the Fowler commenced the line of Saxon emperors, distinguished for warlike vigor, for their victories over the Hungarians, and for the foundation of cities in Germany. Otho the Illustrious duke of Saxony, having declined the royal dignity, on account of his great age, Conrad I, duke of Franconia, was elected king of Germany by his influence; and, from this time, Germany remained an elective monarchy, till the dissolution of the empire in 1806. If we examine this period of 970 years, we find Germany, for a long time, in an unsettled state, suffering under the arbitrary power of its rulers, the feudal oppressions, and the struggle of secular authority against the usurpations of the clergy, till Conrad II (1024-39) organized the feudal system by a new statute, and first checked the fury of private warfare, by establishing the truce of God, by which the prosecution of deadly feuds, in certain places and on certain days of the week, was attended with the punishment of outlawry. He enlarged the empire by the addition of Burgundy. His successor, Henry III (103956), humbled the papal pride by deposing three popes successively. But the authority of Rome, which exerted so great influence in Germany, gained the ascendency under Henry IV (1056-1106) and pope Gregory VII. That emperor was too weak to prevent the establishment of the maxim, that the secular power was subject to the spiritual. The warlike spirit of the German nobility found a theatre of action in the crusades, which powerfully promoted the civilization of all Europe. (See Crusades.) The establishment of the first orders of knighthood, the knights of St. John, the Templars and the Teutonic order (q. v.), had an important influence on future events. The constitution of the empire was the chief obstacle to the rising commerce, which now began to introduce the productions of Asiatic industry into Germany. For security against violence and plunder,by land and sea, associations for selfdefence were formed. Thus, during the reign of the emperor Frederic I Barbarossa (1152-90), the cities on the Rhine, the North sea and the Baltic, formed the Hanseatic league, for the mutual protection of their commerce. Under this emperor, and, still more, under Frederic II (1218-50), poetry and the first germs of literature began to flourish. The peace of the empire, which forbade all private warfare, unless after a previous declaration of three days, contributed to restore public security. The assemblies of the estates of the empire were imitated by the separate members of which the empire was composed. These convoked the syndics of the towns, the superiors of the monasteries, and the great proprietors, to deliberate on public affairs: this was the origin of the provincial diets. The character of Frederic II had a beneficial influence upon all Germany; which was, however, in a measure, limited by his wars in Italy. The claims of the German emperors, in that country, had, from the beginning, weakened their power, and prevented them from establishing and maintaining domestic order. His plans were also counteracted by the opposition of the pope and the powerful enemies of his (the Hohenstaufen) family. On his death, in 1250 (or, perhaps we may say, on the election of his rival, Henry Raspe, by the instigation of the pope), the great interregnum began. Conrad IV, son of Frederic II, elected king in 1237, had to contend with his rivals, William of Brabant, Alphonso of Castile and Richard of Cornwall, and was so much occupied with his own personal safety, that, in the disordered state of the empire, all treaties were violated, the laws disregarded, and all the excesses of private warfare renewed. The nobles in Suabia, Franconia, and on the Rhine, rendered themselves immediate vassals of the empire, as there were no dukes powerful enough to keep them in check. Thus almost every thing that Frederic II had done for the constitution, for the arts and sciences, was destroyed. The last of the Hohenstaufen, Conradin of Suabia, perished on the scaffold, in Naples. Rodolph I, count of Hapsburg, was raised to the German throne (1272-1291), and restored order with a powerful, and, often, severe hand. The castles of the predatoiy nobility were destroyed, the right of private warfare almost entirely abolished, and the more powerful princes attached to the government by marriages. Rodolph took Austria, Styria and Carniola from Ottocar, king of Bohemia, and became the founder of the dynasty which, in the female branch, still reigns in Austria. The reign of Albert of Austria, second successor of Rodolph (1298-1308) is remarkable for the foundation of the liberty of Switzerland. Under Henry VII of Luxemburg (1308-1313), the celebrated division of the Guelfs and Ghibelines took the shape of a continued struggle between the emperors and the popes. On his death, in Italy, the empire was again torn by the rivalry of Frederic of Austria and Louis of Bavaria, the latter of whom was victorious, and received (1330-1347) the imperial crown from the pope; but new difficulties with the holy father ensued, and Germany was laid under an interdict. Six of the electors concluded the elective union of 1338, to prevent the interference of the popes in the election, and determined that the choice of the electors should be decisive without the papal sanction. Charles IV, king of Bohemia, then became sole emperor, and issued (1356) the golden bull, which settled the manner of conducting the elections of emperor, and abolished private warfare. Learning and freedom of opinion received a new impulse in Germany ; the university of Prague was founded, in which the disciples of WicklifFe introduced the spirit of opposition to ecclesiastical abuses. The natural propensity of the Germans to appeal to the sword, revived the right of private warfare in the time of Wenceslaus (1378-1410). Of three competitors of Wenceslaus, Sigismund (1411 1437) succeeded him. During his reign was held the council of Constance (see Council, and Constance), by which Huss was condemned; and the war of the Hussites followed in Bohemia, Misnia, Franconia and Bavaria. Albert II of Austria (1437-39) died too soon for the execution of his projects for the restoration of order. The reign of Frederic III was marked by the revival of learning, the foundation of several universities, and by the enterprise and activity excited by the discovery of America, which aroused all Europe. Feudal warfare and the tyranny of the nobles still oppressed the country, as is shown in the confederation of the Suabian cities. Maximilian I (1493- 1519), an active and enterprising prince, established the perpetual peace of the empire, introduced a chamber of justice, and other institutions, and divided Germany first into six, and afterwards into ten, circles, lie took the title of Roman emperor, and even intended to ascend the papal throne, but was anticipated by the cardinals. He also established the postoffice (1516). The commencement of the reformation (1517) at the university of Wittenberg closes his important reign. To his successor and grandson, Charles V, king of Spain, an elective capitulation was proposed, to which he was required to swear, but which he violated in almost every measure of his reign. The reformation begun by Luther made rapid progress; the peasants' war, under Thomas of Munster, spread desolation; the union of the landgrave Philip of Hesse and the elector of Saxony, in favor of the reformation ; the solemn protest of the adherents of the new doctrine (1529), and the Smalcaldic league of the Protestant princes (1530), preceded the Smalcaldic war (1546). After the deposition of the elector John Frederic of Saxony, and the interim (q. v.) of 1548, the elector Maurice allied himself with France and with the Smalcaldic league. Charles V was obliged, by the treaty of Passau (1552), to grant the Protestants entire liberty of conscience and equal civil rights with the Catholics, which were principally confirmed by the religious peace of Augsburg (1555). Charles confirmed the administration of the empire, and renewed the laws for the preservation of the peace of the empire and of the chamber of justice. In 1556, he abdicated the government, and died (1558) in a Spanish monastery. On th0 succession of Ferdinand I, brother of* Charles, the religious peace was included in the elective capitulation (see Capitulation), and the council of Trent (begun in 1545) was concluded, which rendered the separation of the Protestants and the Catholics permanent. Under his successor, Maximilian II (1564-76), the divisions among the Protestants themselves, the controversies between Melanchthon and Calvin, and the separation of the Calvinists from the Lutherans, by the formula Concordia, took place, and, in the reign of his son, Rodolph II, the thirty years' war was prepared by the establishment of the union and of the league. Under Matthias (1618), the two parties took up arms. The fanaticism of Ferdinand (161937) kindled the spark into aflame. The thirty years' war began with all its terrors. Notwithstanding the bloody resistance of the union, Tilly and Wallenstein reduced the greater part of the empire to submission; the edict of restitution, requiring all the foundations and estates of the church, which the Protestants had seized since 1552, to be restored to the Catholic church, and authorizing the Catholic states to oblige their Protestant subjects either to embrace the Catholic religion or to emigrate, was already put in force in several places; and Ferdinand thought he had attained his aim when Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, in pursuance of the plan of cardinal Richelieu, came to the relief of the Protestants. After his death, France opposed Austria ; the great elector, Frederic William of Brandenburg, declared (1640) for the Protestants ; Banner and Torstenson, Wrangel and Turenne, distinguished themselves on the same side, until, after thirty dreadful years, the peace of Westphalia restored rest to disturbed Europe (1648). This was during the reign of Ferdinand III (1637-57). Entire equality of sects, liberty of conscience, the free exercise of all religions, except in the Austrian domains, and the independence of Switzerland and the Netherlands, were acknowledged by this peace. Among the important consequences of this peace, which settled the constitution of Germany more definitely, was also the restriction of the Hanseatic league to Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, the maintenance of standing armies, and a more regular system of taxation. Under Leopold I, who ascended the imperial throne in 1657, the diet became permanent from 1663. This emperor became involved in several wars with Turkey and France. He died before the end of the Spanish war of succession. The eighth electorate had been established by the peace of Westphalia, for the Bavarian house; the duke of Hanover was now made the ninth elector. Prussia, in the mean time, had raised herself to the rank of a kingdom, and obtained a new importance in the affairs of Germany. Under Joseph I (1705 1711), the Spanish war was continued; under Charles VI, the peace of Utrecht and that of Rastadt (1714) put an end to the project of uniting the Spanish with the German crown, and the succession in the house of Austria was settled by the pragmatic sanction. The peace of Vienna terminated the war produced by the Polish election in favor of Saxony, and the peace of Belgrade (1739) concluded the war with Turkey, by which Austria was obliged to make some cessions. With the death of Charles VI (1740), the male line of the Hapsburg dynasty became extinct, and his daughter, Maria Theresa, assumed the government of the hereditary Austrian dominions. But the elector, Charles Albert of Bavaria, came forward with claimson the Austrian hereditary dominions, and (in 1742) as German emperor, under the title of Charles VIL The eight years' war of the Austrian succession was terminated on the death of Charles VII, by the peace of Fiissen (1745), and by that of AixlaChapelle (q.v.) (1748) in favor of Maria Theresa, who, in the mean while, had carried on two wars against Frederic II, the Great. Sept. 15, 1745, her husband, Francis I, was elected German emperor. The seven years' war, so ruinous for Germany, was terminated by the peace of Hubertsburg (1763). Joseph II, the distinguished son of Francis I, succeeded his father in the imperial dignity (1765). His first labor was a reform of the administration of justice and of the chamber of justice; this was followed by the abolition of the order of the Jesuits in his states (1773), after the example of other European powers, by the abolition of the superfluous monasteries, the edict of toleration of 1781, and a greater liberty of the press. The troubles in Belgium, anu the renewal of hostilities with Turkey, disturbed the end of his reign, and he died 1790, with many fears for the fate of his benevolent and liberal plans. Leopold II concluded peace with the Sublime Porte through the mediation of Prussia. The French revolution broke out, and Leopold and Frederic William of Prussia formed an alliance at Pilnitz (1791), for maintaining the constitution of Germany and the royal dignity in France. This alliance became of the greatest historical importance : it was the cause of a great part of the excesses in France, the reaction of which on Germany is well known. Leopold died suddenly, in 1792, and his son, Francis II,continued the alliance with Prussia. After the national assembly had declared war against Austria, the German empire, in return, declared war against Franc $; but Prussia and several German princes made separate treaties with the new republic, and the peace of CampoFormio (q. v.) was signed between Austria and France (1797). Negotiations for a peace with the German empire were in train at Rastadt, but, before their conclusion, the war broke out anew. The peace of Luneville (q. v.), in 1801, made the Rhine the boundary between France and Germany; the latter thus lost more than 26,000 square miles of territory, and nearly 4,000,000 inhabitants. The Austrian monarch founded the hereditary empire of Austria (1804), and the first consul of France (Bonaparte) was declared emperor of the French, under the title of Napoleon L Austria and Russia soon after united against Napoleon, and the peace of Presburg (Dec. 26,1805) terminated the war, in which three states of the German empire, Bavaria, Wiirtemberg and Baden, had taken part as allies of France. In the following year, sixteen German princes renounced their connexion with the German empire, and entered into a union at Paris (1806), under the name of the confederation of the Rhine, which acknowledged the emperor of France as its protector. This decisive step was followed by a second. The German empire was dissolved; the emperor Francis resigned the German crown, and declared his German hereditary dominions separated from the German empire. With this begins the history of the confederation of the Rhine. (See Confederation of the Rhine.) Germany from 1806 to 1815. The first year of the existence of the confederation had not elapsed, when its armies, united with those of France, were marched to the Saale, the Elbe and the Oder, against the Prussians, and afterwards to the Vistula, against the Russians. After the peace of Tilsit (q. v.), the confederation was strengthened by the accession of eleven princely houses of Northern Germany. The kingdom of Westphalia was established, and Jerome, the brother of Napoleon, put upon the throne. Four kings, five granddukes, and 25 dukes and other princes were united in the new confederacy. The peace of Vienna (1809) increased its extent and power. The northwestern parts, however, and the Hanseatic cities, Bremen, Hamburg, and Lubeck, were united with France in 1810. In 1812, Napoleon undertook his fatal expedition to Russia, and the contingents of the Rhenish confederation joined his army. About 100,000 Germans found their grave^Ui the snows of Russia. The Russians pursued their advantages to the frontiers of Germany. Prussia, wearied with her long sufferings, joined them with enthusiasm (Kalisch, Feb. 28,1813); and, at the same time, some of the states of the north of Germany united with them. Lubeck and Hamburg rose against the French, and all Germany was animated with the cheering hope of liberation. August 10, Austria joined the alliance against Napoleon. The war, owing to the enthusiasm of the people, soon assumed a most favorable appearance for the allies, and, Oct. 8, 1813, Bavaria joined the allied arms. Ten days afterwards, the battle of Leipsic destroyed the French dominion in Germany, and dissolved the confederation of the Rhine. November 2, the 39* king of Wurtemberg, and the other princes of the south, joined the great alliance. After the battle of Hanau, October 30, the French army had retreated over the Rhine. With the exception of some fortresses, the French power was every where annihilated in Germany. Neither the kingdom of Westphalia nor the grandduchy of Berg any longer existed. Throughout Germany, immense preparations were made for the preservation of the recovered independence. Harmony prevailed between the people and the princes, increased by the promises, made by the princes, of conferring liberal constitutions on their subjects. The victorious armies passed the Rhine on the first days of the following year, and all the territory which the French had conquered from Germany since 1793 was regained and secured by the events of the campaign in France and the peace of Paris, May 30. France restored all her acquisitions, with the exception of Montbelliard and some smaller districts; but the circle of Burgundy, with Liege, was annexed to the new kingdom of the Netherlands. It was stipulated, by the articles of this peace, that the German states should be independent, but connected together by a federative system. This provision of the treaty was carried into effect by the congress of Vienna, Nov. 1, 1814, and by the statutes of the Germanic confederation (q. v.), June 8, 1815. The German empire ivas not revived, but was superseded by a confederation of equal and sovereign states. The return of Napoleon kindled a new war, the results of which were unexpectedly rapid and fortunate for the allies. The treaty of November 20, 1815, restored to Germany, besides Montbelliard and some territories in Lorraine, all the former possessions which had remained in the hands of France, with the addition of Landau and the territory appertaining to it. Nov. 5, 1816, the diet of the new Germanic confederation was opened. (See German Confederation, German Empire, and RussianGeiman War, 1812-15.*) Since that time, the German confederation has done little but prosecute liberal ideas (see Congress), adopt, in the diet, resolutions which have never been executed, and organize an army of the confederacy, which, from its very organization, would be little worthy of reliance. We close this article in the midst of mo* Consult Posselt's Geschichte der Deutschen, continued by Politz (Leipsic. 1819, 4 vols.); Schmidt's Geschichte der Deutschen, continued by Millbiller and Dresch; Heinrich's Deutsche Jleichsgeschichte (Leipsic, 1805, 9 vols.). mentous events in Europe, which can hardly fail to have the greatest influence on Germany. May she soon work out her own freedom and union, and may she escape all unnecessary suffering in the struggle through which she must pass to attain them; for' bitter enough has been the cup of this unhappy country, always the theatre of foreign aggression, domestic convulsion and political oppression. German Language; a branch of the old Teutonic language, which the German tribes carried with them over the greatest part of Europe. In France, it was lost HI the mixture of Roman and Gallic languages, from which sprung the modern French. In Spain, it left but few traces. In England, it united with the Latin and French to form the present English. Its modifications, not more dissimilar to each other than different dialects, have remained written and spoken languages in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, in Germany Proper, and in the greater part of Switzerland. The Germans call their language Teutsche, or Deutsche, from the Teutones, or from their ancestor, Teut. The word is sometimes derived from the word Theut, or Deut (from which comes the modern diet), signifying veople. Its origin has been a subject of many learned discussions. A number of similar words in the Sanscrit, Persian, and other kindred tongues, have convinced some that it is derived from the Indian and old Persian languages, or is of the same origin with them. Others, on account of the resemblance of its words and forms, have derived it from the Greek, or even the Greek from the elder German. According to ancient tradition, the early Grecians received their civilization, with the worship of Bacchus and the muses, from the northern Thrace; and history mentions, in Thrace or Scythia, a Teutonic tribe of Goths on the Black sea, who, although they had been separated more than a thousand years from their native country, showed a striking resemblance, in the forms of their language, to the Greek. This, at least, seems certain, .that, in accordance with the traditions of the nations who spoke it, it was of Asiatic origin, and was brought by those nations to Europe. The changes of the language can be historically traced no farther back than the middle of the fourth century, when Ulphilas introduced the art of writing it, and made a translation of the Gospels. The language of this version is a mixture of High German and Low German with some foreign, perhaps Thracian, Words, and does not essentially differ from most of the present German dialects in its grammatical forms. It has, also, a dual number, like the Greek. The first of the following lines is a specimen of it. The second is from Luther's translation of the Bible, Matthew, c. 26. Mit aitha swarands thatei ni kann ihana mannen, Mit (eine?n) Eide schworend, dassich mcht kenne den Mann. With (an) oath swearing, that I know not that man. Charlemagne began a German grammar, and made great efforts for improving the language, and promoting the progress of poetry and letters. A comparison between the language of his time and the present, may be given in a few words:Kescrip (Geschreibe, writing); Keschrifti (Schrift, something written); Scop, Scaf (Schaf, sheep); erhipit, (ergibt, renders); chcddan (halte?i, to hold); Unchuschida (Unkeuschheit, unchastity); aikan (eigen, own); piscauuohe (beschauen, to view); scuunto (scliauend, viewing); Fiur (Feuer, fire). As an example of the declension:Singular, Weg, Weges, Wege and JVega, Weg; plural, nom. Wega, gen. Wego, dat. Wegum and Wegon, ace. JVega. The verbs present similar modifications; the formation of the preterite, by means of the auxiliary haben, was then entirely unknown, This Franconian dialect gave way to the Alemannic or Suabian, which was cultivated particularly under the emperors of the family of Hohenstaufen. A great number of full sounding vowels give the language of the Minnesingers a certain melody. It has many expletives, particles, prefixes, ellipses; it readily forms derivatives and diminutives and compound words. The grammatical construction in the celebrated epic poem, the Niebelungenlied (q. v.), is simple and highly finished. The use of the particles, and the liberty of varying the position of the adjective, contribute much to the ease and beauty of the diction. The High German (which had, however, been previously formed as a written language, equally distant from the Low and from the Upper German), as it is used at the present day, with some slight modifications in the forms of the verbs and in the orthography, became the general written language of Germany, through Luther's translation of the Bible. In the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries, it was mixed with many foreign words, particularly French, which, however, on account of the characteristic peculiarities of the GERMAN, could not coalesce with its roots and forms Hence it was not difficult, even at the time in which Frederic the Great, and the German courts in general, displayed their contempt for their native language, for Lessing, Gottsched and others, by precept and example, to purify it from its' foreign additions. The German language at present exists under the following forms: on the northern coast, through a great part of Lower Saxony and Westphalia, the Low German is spoken among the lower classes, and several works, of an early date, prove its adaptation to the purposes of a written language. This dialect is smooth. The vowels are full, and the consonants pronounced softly. It has less accent than melody. Through the greater part of Lower and Upper Saxony, Hanover and Prussia, and the Russian provinces of Esthonia and Courland, the dialect approaches more to the forms of the written language than in other places. Through Hesse, along the Maine, in Central Germany and in Francoma, the Franconian dialect prevails (with short vowels, sharp, hissing consonants, and an easy and quick pronunciation). In Suabia, a great part of Bavaria, Alsatia and the German countries of Switzerland, the Suabian or Alemannic dialect prevails, with broad but soft vowels and diphthongs, characterized, besides, in the mountainous regions, and along the Upper Rhine, by strongly aspirated gutturals. The pronunciation is mostly slow. It has much melody and accent. In many places, it differs but little from the language of the Minnesingers, and of the Niebelungenlied; yet it is deprived of one of its former chief beauties, of the participle and the simple preterite and imperfect, which are now always supplied by the auxiliaries seyn and haben. In the eastern part of Bavaria, in the Tyrol, Austria, the German part of Bohemia, the dialect is a medium between the Franconian and Suabian. This dialect is distinguished by frequent diminutives in I. Besides these, there are many transitions and mixtures, as, for instance, the idiom of the Riesengebirge in Silesia, rougher and broader; that of the Erzgebirge and of Thuringia, distinguished equally by harsher and deeper sounds. The language of conversation, among the cultivated classes throughout Germany, and the language of public speakers, is the written High GERMAN, pronounced the purest in some parts of Hanover, by the Courlandish nobility, and in some parts of Prussia, yet vvery where more or less affected by provincialisms. The German language in general is distinguished by its richness in words, far exceeding that of any other European language ; and it is capable of being continually developed from its own substance. As an original language, it has its accents on the radical syllables Hence the additional accents in combinations can be changed with ease, according to the sense. The prepositions may be either connected closely with the chief word, or separated in the construction, which imparts to the language a great pliability of construction, which is still increased by the number of syllables of inflexion and derivation. It is thus particularly fitted for a concise, scientific style, in which it is of importance to give a series of ideas, which belong together, in the same period, and in logical order; though, by this veiy quality, the German prose writers are often seduced to swell and prolong their periods to a tiring and confounding extent. The richness of words, and the life and capacity for variations, in the language, have pievented the origin of fixed phrases} in which the same words are exclusively used for the same notions. For this reason, the language of conversation is not so easily to be learned, and not to be used with so great precision, as the French, for instance; but the writer retains, in a higher degree, the power of using the words in such a way as to show and impress the full force of his ideas, independent of any phrase or construction, as well as to produce, on the other hand, the finest shades in the meaning and strength of words, by varying their place and rank in the construction. From these united causes, its fitness for poetical expression, its susceptibility of all kinds of rhythm and verse, and its capacity of entering into the spirit of every foreign language, are easily explained. The Germans have translations of Shakspeare and Calderon, of Ariosto and Tasso, of Plato's Dialogues, of Homer and Virgil, in which the spirit of the original is faithfully rendered in the rhythm and metre of the original. The veiy plays upon words are preserved, or analogous ones substituted. Foreigners often consider the language harsh. Mela declares that Ro man lips could hardly pronounce it, and Nazarius asserts that the hearing of it excited a shudder. It is true that the aspirated consonants and rough vowels, which prevail in the German mountain districts, do, indeed, strike the ear harshly: and, in general, the accumulation of the consonants seems incompatible with a soft and harmonious utterance ; but that this is not necessarily the case is shown in the pro nunciation of the High German by the higher classes, and of some provincial dialects, as in the Polish and other languages. The long and pure vowels of the language, and their capability of being lengthened and shortened, as time and rhythm require, make it well adapted for music. There is no dictionary which comprehends the whole verbal treasure of the language, comprising, also, provincialisms. Excellent foundations are laid for such a work in the dictionaries of Adelung, Campe, Fulda, Kinderling, VoigteJ, Stosch, Eberhard, Heinsius, &c. The best modern grammars are those of Adelung, Heynatz, Moritz, Roth, Hiinerkoch, Reinbeck, Heyse, Heinsius, Politz and Grimm. German prosody has been very ably treated by VossZeitmessung der Deutschen Sprache. The following GermanEnglish dictionaries may be recommended to students :Eber's, in 5 vols., 8vo.; Kiittner and Nicholson's, also in 5 vols. 8vo.; Bailey and Falirenkrtiger's (new edition by Wagner), 2 vols. 8vo.; Ficks Erlangen; Burckhard's Pocket Dictionary, 1 vol.; Rabenhorst's, 1 vol. Of grammars, that of doctor Follen (Boston, 1828) is superior, in practical usefulness, to those of Nohden and Rowbotham. German Literature and Science. It has been questioned, even by Germans, whether there is a German literature. If we consider national literature as the expression of the character of a nation, contained in a series of original works, which bear a common stamp of nationality, we shall not hesitate to call the body of German works a national literature. We may, perhaps, say that it is not yet complete ; but then we must allow that it is capable of developing itself further. We shall see in it parts of a more comprehensive whole, than the spirit and taste of a court or of an academy can give. If we find it deficient in finish, yet we shall see that it is penetrated with a love for liberty and independence of thought, an impartial zeal for the truth, and a subordination of art to nature. (Of German poetry, we shall treat in a particular article.) The earliest written monument of the German language, dates from the year 360. It is the translation of the four Gospels into the Mcesogothic, by bishop Ulphilas. The German language was therefore written earlier than any of the living European tongues. The Franks established schools in Gaul, in the 6th century, which taught, however, only reading, writing, and a little bad Latin.J The first period of German literature begins with the reign of Charlemagne (768), who established several monastic schools, formed a kind of learned society at his court, collected the monuments of the German language, in particular the ancient laws and songs, ordered the preaching to be in GERMAN, and caused several translations to be made from the Latin. His successors did not preserve the same spirit; but the separation of Germany from the Frankish empire was favorable to the independent developement of the German language and character. The greatest progress was made under the Saxon emperors (from 919), particularly the three Othos, and under the Franconian emperors (from 1024). In the 10th century, there were several distinguished chapter and abbey schools, which were endowed with libraries. To this period belong the writers of chronicles, Eginhard, Witikind, Dithmar, Lambert, Bruno ; the philosophical and miscellaneous writer^ Alcuin and Rhabanus Maurus (776-856), ancU particularly those who wrote in German ; Otfried of Weissenburg, whose metrical translation of the Gospels is remarkably faithful and concise (see Otfried) ; Notker (abbot of Saint Gall, died 1022) ; Willeram (abbot of Ebersberg, in Bavaria, died 1085,) and the author of the hymn to St. Anno.II. A second period commences with the Suabian emperors (1138), and extends to the time of the reformation, in the beginning of the 16th century. Germany had begun to be settled and cultivated in its interior, and cities were founded. The monastic schools, the expeditions to Italy, the crusades, the commerce, which took its way from the East through Germany, had diffused knowledge. Acquaintance with foreign countries, with science and refinement, had contributed much to the cultivation of the nation, particularly of the nobility. The court of the emperors of the Hohenstaufen dynasty spoke the Suabian dialect, and made it the general language of literature. The Minnesingers (see this article; see also German Poetry), and, after them, the Mastersingers (q. v.), used and refined this language, as the vehicle of the German romantic poetry. The privileges, rights and laws of German countries and cities, began to be collected and put into writing in the beginning of the 13th century. The Roman law had been made the subject of treatises as early as the 11th century, and applied to German institutions. Histories were also written, such as the Chronicle of bishop Otho of Freysingen, and his history of Frederic I; the works of Henry of Herford (died 1370), Gobelinus Persona (1420), and many others in the Latin language. The Chronicle of Ottocar of Horneck, in rhyme, (born 1264), is the oldest great historical work in the German language. Sebastian Franke's Chronicle of the World is the first universal history. Philosophy, which had before consisted merely of translations of the philosophical works of the ancients, and of the Arabians, was now more diligently cultivated ; it was combined with theology, and used for the defence of the tenets of the church, by which it was in turn influenced. Among the schoolmen, several Germans were distinguished in the beginning of the 13th century, among whom was the Dominican, Albertus Magnus of Lauingen on the Danube (died 1280), who taught metaphysics in Paris, and in several German cities, and made extensive researches in natu ral philosophy. As a theological writer, the mystic John Tauler (died 1361) exercised a great influence. In the following century, the Strasburg theologian, Geyler of Kaisersberg, Sebastian Brant, a severe satirist (born 1458, died 1520), and his successor Thomas Murner (born 1475), were distinguished. At the end of this period, mathematics, astronomy and mechanics were diligently studied in Germany, and several important discoveries were made. In the 14th century, the establishment of universities, and, in the 15th, the invention of the art of printing, made new epochs in. literature. The ruin of the Greek empire (1453), the scholars of which fled to Italy, and spread the germs of a new civilization over all Europe, by rendering the classical authors more generally known, cooperated powerfully with the circumstances above mentioned. The spirit of inquiry, which was excited in the universities by the study of the ancients, was the chief cause of the efforts in favor of a reformation. Among those who, at a very early period, promoted the progress of learning and civilization, are Rhodolphiis Agricola (1442-85), professor in the university of Heidelberg:, Conrad Celtes, (14591508), Johannes Trithemius (1462 1516), and, above all, Reuchlin, professor in Tubingen (1454-1525), andUlric of Hutten (1458-1523), Melanchtkon, Joachim Camerarius, and the celebrated Erasmus of Rotterdam.III. Modern Literature, from the Reformation to our own THmes. 1. With Luther, who, by his masterly translation of the Christian Scriptures, created the German r>ro**e and the High German language of literature, was united Melanchthon, the mild and learned disciple of Reuchlin Luther was more active in public, while Melanchthon labored for the improve ment of schools and the diffusion of learn ing. Latin schools and libraries were established by the Protestant princes, and theology and philology mutually assisted each other. But after the dogmatical system of the Protestant church had become more settled, less attention was paid to the study of the ancient . languages; a scholastic and polemical theology prevailed, to which mystical doctrines were beneficially opposed. Melanchthon had already endeavored, by philosophical compendiums, to supplant the scholastic philosophy ; and from that time efforts were made to approach the original peripatetic doctrines. The mystics attached themselves either to the Cabbala, to which Reuchlin was led by his study of the Hebrew literature, or to chemistry and astronomy which at that time, however, differed little from alchemy and astrology. At the head of the mystics were the celebrated Paracelsus, Valentine Weigel, Jacob Bohme, and others. In the natural sciences, the great metallurgist, George Agricola of Meissen, and Conrad Gesner (1542), the father of natural history, were distinguished. Theophrastus Paracelsus (1526) gave a new impulse to chemistry, applied it with success to medicine, and invented several chemical preparations. Medicine, mathematics and mechanics, also, made some progress. Diirer wrote a work on perspective, in the German language. In astronomy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe were succeeded by Kepler. The jurists of this period occupied themselves with the Roman law, and their science was increased by the church regulations of the Protestants. The foundation of the German political law was laid by the introduction of several fundamental laws of the empire, in the 16th century. The civil code was formed by collecting the laws already existing, and was followed by the criminal code of Charles V, called the Carolina, (q. v.) History was less cultivated. The Chronicle of Carion (1532) excited general interest, and was translated into several languages. The universal history of Sleidanus, written \u Latin, was more celebrated. Particular history was more attended to. In the middle of the 16th century, the chronicles and documents of the middle ages were collected, and the history of foreign nations was cultivated. The centuriators of Magdeburg (see Centuries of Magdeburg) wrote on ecclesiastical history with diligence and accuracy. Literary history commenced with Conrad Gesner ; and, in 1564, a catalogue of the books at the Frankfort fair was published. Learned societies and mutual correspondence maintained a connexion among the scholars of Germany. 2, The thirty years' war threatened to destroy all the work of civilization in Germany ; but it could not interrupt the private labors of the retired scholar, although it left him destitute of all public encouragement. During this war, the German language and poetry received a new impulse from the Silesian poets, as they are calledMartin Opitz. (1597-1639), Flemming, Andrew Gryphius, &c, and from the foundation of several literary societies (for instance, the Fruitbearing Society (q. v.), or the Order of the Palm, the Order of the Swan, the Flower Order, the Shepherds of the Pegnitz). The peace of Westphalia (1648) had the most salutary influence on exhausted Germany. As there was no central point, no capital to dictate laws to the nation, a freedom of investigation, of opinion and of expression prevailed, which was found hardly any where else. Freedom of thought was particularly favored in the rising state of Prussia. Different branches began to be treated in a philosophical manner; history and its auxiliary sciences, and public and private law, were thus raised to a more elevated character. Hermann Conring and Samuel von Puffendorf are great names, which must be mentioned here. Otto Guerike stands at the head of German natural philosophers. Whilst the grossest spirit of dogmatical controversy reigned in theology, there were men, like Spener and others, whose devout mysticism had a beneficial influence. One of the chief obstacles to the progress of German literature in this period, was the corruption of the German language. (See German Language.) After the thirty years' war (1617-1648), during which the Spaniards and French had exerted so great an influence, it was corrupted by the mixture of foreign words, particularly Latin and French ; but the learned John Daniel Morhof (died 1691), and the diligent Justus George Schottel, endeavored to supply the want of a German grammar ; and from the time of Christian Thomasius, the German language was used for literary purposes. With the increase of the political influence of France, this corruption of the language increased also. The greatest genius of his time in Germany Leibnitz (1646-1716), made use of the French language, in preference to his mother tongue. The efforts of Christian von Wolf to render philosophy intelligible in the German language, were of great importance. His system was adopted and extended by numerous followers, and assailed by others, for instance, Crusius ; and thus speculation, as well as style and language, was improved. The Berlin academy of science, founded by Leibnitz, led the way to great discoveries in the mathematical and natural sciences. Literary societies and associations were every where formed. The book trade began to flourish, and many critical tribunals were instituted, to pass judgment on science and art. The Germans began to make the purity and elegance of their native language an object of attention. Alexander Baumgarten, the founder of philosophical criticism, and Gottsched (1700- 66), contributed greatly to produce this effect. The latter purified the language, but endeavored, at the same time, to introduce the French taste for a tame style, both in poetry and prose. (See German Criticism.) His school, which was called the Leipsic school, was successfully opposed by that of Zurich, at the head of which wereBedmer and Breitinger. The poets, Haller, Hagedorn,Gellert, J.C. Schlegel,gave energy,elegance and ease to their native tongue. The researches of German scholars were also directed towards classic antiquity, by philologists and archaeologists (Joh. Mat. Gesner, Joh. Dav. Michaelis, J. A. Ernesti, and others ^particularly after the foundation of the university of Gottingen. 3. These beginnings were matured, in the third part of this period, by Lessing, Klopstock, Winckelmann, Heyne, the Stolbergs, Herder, Wieland, Voss, Schiller, Gothe. Lessing, gifted with a rare wit and penetration, appeared as the antagonist of the popular French taste, and the founder of acute criticism. Winckelmann % (q. v.), under the influence of enthusiasm for antiquity and art, produced his immortal work, a specimen of elevated taste and extensive learning, in the midst of literary degeneracy and barrenness. Klopstock raised the German language and poetry, by his sacred songs, to a pitch of loftiness, richness and originality, which it had never before attained. In addition to this must be mentioned the influence of English literature, particularly the translation of Shakspeare. Adelung, Voss, and others, made critical researches into the structure and extent of the language, which was, at the same time, applied to every department of science. Numerous criti cal works endeavored to give a right direction to the overflowing stream of German literature. A profound study of theology was promoted by the efforts of Michaelis and Emesti, Mosheim, Semler, Storr, Reinhard, Schleiermacher, De Wette. Philosophy, particularly metaphysics, was developed in the original systems of Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Jacobi, and others. Philology was advanced by the labors of Heyne, Wolf, Hermann, Bockh, Vater, Gesenius, and many others. History presents names like those of John Midler, Woltmann, Schrockh, Schmidt, Spittler, Eichhom, Heeren, Niebuhr, Luden, Plank, &c. Nor should the services of Voss, Creuzer, Kanne, Gorres, in mythology, and of the creators of the most comprehensive criticism (see German Criticism), be forgotten in the general history of literature. A multitude of original minds have extended German literature in all directions. If the objection which has been made to modern German literature be well founded, that the manner has received too little of the attention which has been paid to the matter, it may be said, on the other hand, that a greater number of German works are imperfection account of the novelty and greatness of the undertakings, and the excessive minuteness of investigation, than from a superficial treatment of the subject. (Compare the views of madame de Stael on Germany, and the opinions of the English reviewers, in the 52d number of the Edinburgh Review.) In regard to the recent German literature, it may be observed, that a struggle has pervaded all the brandies of literature. In theology, philosophy and art, it is the contest between mysticism and the romantic spirit on one side, and rationalism and the severity of the ancient style on the other. In politics, history and natural law, it is the contest between liberal ideas and legitimacy. In theology, this opposition appeal's in the systems of rationalism and suprarationalism. In philosophy, the different systems, with regard to the sources of human knowledge, might almost be designated by the same names. In poetry and the fine arts, the spirit of classical and that of romantic description are in opposition. Of an unquestionable and important influence upon German literature, have been the latest political events. The great body of literary men are deeply imbued with the patriotic tendency of the time. The German writers, since the general peace in Europe, have given to their works much more of a practical character than the writers of the previous times. Theological literature has displayed the old controversy between the rationalists and supematuralists, the former of whom either deduce religion from the principles of reason, and endeavor to explain the Scriptures in accordance with those principles, or merely endeavor to free religion from what appears to them supernatural. The latter are either dogmatists, founding their system on doctrines deduced from the Scriptures by a more or less literal interpretation, or mystics, who have adopted the idea of a divine illumination, proving and even extending the truths of revelation. Dogmatical manuals have been written by Reinhard, Bret , Schneider, Wegscheider, Schleiermacher, De Wette. A few writers, like A. L. Kahler, in his connexion between rationalism and supernaturalism, and A. Klein, in his GruncUinien des Religiosismus, have made fruitless attempts towards a reconciliation. The Catholics have begun to extend their literature in this period more than ever before. With Van Ess's translation of the New Testament, and the truly Christian eloquence displayed by Sayler, an intolerant spirit has appeared in other works. The increasing prevalence of the Catholic religion has inspired many Protestant writers with a greater activity. A temporary excitement was occasioned by the theses of Harms, the miraculous cures of the prince Hohenlohe, and other productions of mysticism or enthusiasm. The discussions for the purpose of uniting the Lutheran and Calvinistic churches (which has been actually effected in some of the small states of Germany) have been of great interest; whilst, in the republic of letters, Schleiermacher's Christlicht Glaubenslehre, in which the Christian doctrine was exhibited without a dogmatical dress, was intended as an instrument of peace. Meanwhile, theology, as a science, has made great progress. Exegetics have been improved; biblical archaeology and criticism have been extended on every side, by men like Gesenius, Griesbach, Rosenmiiller, Kuinol, Bretschneider, De Wette, Paulus, Flatt, and others. The history of the church, and of dogmas, has been treated by many learned writers, as Spittler, Staudlin, Bengel, Giessler. Christian morality has been ably and profoundly handled by Reinhard, Flatt, De Wette, Eichhorn, and others. General theology has been cultivated by Staudlii and Bertholdt. In practical theology, we may mention, as sermon writers, Ammon, Driiseke, Schuderoff, Tzschimer, and many others. Many useful popular theo logical works, also, have appeared, among which some of the most interesting are of the mystical kind, as the works of doctor Jung (Stilling), Kanne, and many others. The science of the law could not escape the influence of the age. Not only highly important questions of law, as, for instance, the subject of literary property, the liberty of the press, and the free navigation of the rivers, have been discussed, but the spirit of the time has demanded fundamental changes in the law, the establishment of civil liberty, the participation of the nation in the government, and the publicity of trials. The struggle between the adherents of the old system and the advocates of the new principles, has been renewed, but the princes have succeeded (till lately) in making the question entirely a literary quarrel, and in preventing it from resulting in action. One of the most valuable works on this subject is Feuerbach's Betrachtungen iiber die Oeffentlichkeit und Miindlichkeit der Gerechtigkeitsjrflege (1821)Considerations on public oral Trials. Another principal object of legal controversy in Germany, has been the question, whether the Roman law was not entirely contrary to the national character and institutions, and required to be superseded by laws of native growth, corresponding to the wants of the nation and of the age. Though the practical results of these discussions have not been very perceptible, yet the science could not but be improved by them. The histories of the law, by Savigny, Eichhorn, Goschen, Schrader, and others, are of the greatest merit. At the same time, the science of criminal legislation has been ably treated by Kleinschrod, Feuerbach, Konopack, Mittermaier. Numerous methodical digests of the law, among which those of Wening and Falck are esteemed,facilitated the study. Philosophy, which had, for a long time, been employed in pulling down old systems and building new ones, heard the call of the a^e, and came from the schools into life, and found, in the affairs of the state and the church, objects worthy of its activity. Dead forms, as well as the dialectic art, had long since ceased to satisfy an age which valued speculation only in its relations to practical life. (See Philosophy.^ Political writings have naturally been extensively read in a time of so much excitement. Though many of them could not but trouble or revolt impartial minds, and though but few will outlive the times in which they originated, yet 1ney have, at least, the merit of having produced the discussion of opposite views. One of the chief subjects of discussion, in political writings, has been the question of representative constitutions, which were promised at the time when the German princes wished to rouse the whole population, to deliver the country from the yoke of Napoleon. The promise was afterwards evaded in most of the larger states, but was partially fulfilled in Wurtemberg, Baden and Bavaria. Among the works which appeared on this subject, was Wangenheim's Idee der Staatsverfassung. Another subject of interest was the murder of Kotzebue, and the establishment of apolitical inquisition atMetz. The celebration of the reformation at the Wartburg, by the students (see JVartharg), afforded new causes of controversy between the liberals, on the one side, and the adherents of the old system and mercenary authors, on the other. Gorres, in his Europe and the Revolution, and Germany and the Revolution, displayed with boldness and profound views the system of deception practised by the oppressors of Europe and Germany. The feeling of independence among the Germans, kindled anew by a victorious war against foreign domination, gave rise to new researches into the history of the country,and to associations for promoting the study. Such was the society established at Frankfort on the Maine, in 1818, for the publication of historical documents, and original writers on German history in the middle ages. Other early documents of German history wTere, also, diligently examined Luden's history of the Germans is an important work. Menzel also wrote a history of Germany. Whilst recent times have been accurately described by Saalfeld, the middle ages, so often depreciated or overrated, have found an impartial historian in H. Luden. Universal history, also, has been treated with great learning, by Frederic Christian Schlosser, and the period of the crusades has been critically examined by Wilken. Ancient history has not been neglected. Frederic von Raumers Vorlesungen iiber alte Geschiehte opened a new method of investigation. In particular, the study of the ancient Greek history has been illustrated, in many essential points, by Muller and Kortum. The earlier history of Rome and Greece has received new light from the labors of Niebuhr and Wachsmuth. The controversy on the mythology of the ancient nations has been carried on by Creuzer, Moser, Ritter, Voss, Hermann, D. Muller, Lobeck, Baur, and others ; and so much, at least, has been agreed upon, that, in tracing back all the Hellenic institutions to India, the system had been carried too far, in some instances. L. Wachler has continued his labors on the history of literature. On the histoiy of ancient art, with particular reference to lord Elgin's marbles and the remains of JEginetic art, Thiersch, Hirt, Grotefend, D. Muller, and others, have distinguished themselves. Stieglitz, Busching, Fiorillo, Moller, Von der Hagen, Joanna Schopenhauer, Waagen, and particularly the brothers Boisseree, have contributed to illustrate the history of ancient German art. Philology, to which the Germans have always been particularly devoted, has not been neglected. It is only necessary to mention the editions of the classics, by various scholars, Ast (Plato), Poppo (Thucydides), Bockh (Pitidar), Hermann (Sophocles), Lobeck (Phrynichus), Bothe (Horace, after Fea), Bekker (Attic orators), Schafier, &c, and the translations by Thierscli (Pindar), J. H. Voss (Aristophanes), Von Knebel (Lucretius), and the lexicographical labors of J. G. Schneider, Passow, Lunemann, and others; and the great undertaking of the Berlin academy, the Corpus Inscript. Grade., edited by Bockh, the excellent Latin grammar of Schneider, &c. The Oriental languages and literature have been illustrated by the labors of Gesenius, Von Hammer, Gorres (who translated the SchahNamah), and others. Hindoo literature has been cultivated by A. W. Schlegel, J. G. L. Kosegarten, D. Frank, and Francis Bopp. The great Encyclopaedia of Ersch and Gruber may furnish future times with a standard of the cultivation of the present. The bibliographical lexicon of Ebert will fill a void in bibliography. The biographical work of Ersch has been enlarged and improved, in a new edition. Among the periodical publications, the IAtteraturzeitungen of Halle and Jena, the Gottingen gelehrte Anzeiger, review every new publication of importance. The Heidelbergher Jahrbiicher der Lnlteratur, Hermes, and the Wiener Jahrbiicher, confine themselves more to the most important publications. The Isis of Oken was chiefly remarkable as the representative of the spirit of the age, though natural philosophy, politics, voyages and discoveries were discussed, in it with much ability. It was suppressed by the government. The Morgenblatt, the Zeitung far die elegante Welt, &c, are calculated, not only for amusement, but also for instruction of the cultivated classes. The Literarischen Conversaiionsblatt (pub"shed since 1820) pre sents the opinions of all literary parties. There is one journal, called Britannia, relating to Great Britain, and two reviews relating to America. The history of German literature is given in the excellent lectures of Wachler (Frankfort on the Maine, 1818, 2 vols.) ( For further information on subjects of German literature, see the subsequent divisions, German Prose and German Poetry.) German Prose. This has undergone more numerous changes than German poetry. The first attempts at composition in German were translations, as early as the 11th century. At a later period, many of the romantic tales, and fragments of epic poetry, were translated into prose; but this owed its complete developement more particularly to some mystical theologians, of w om Tauler (died 1361) was the earliesi and the most distinguished. He himself, however, wTrote mostly in Latin; but his sermons were written down by his friends in German. The painter Albert Durer (bom 1471, died 1528) used the German in his works on fortification, and on the proportions of the human figure. John Turmayr (Aventinus), in his historical works, Sebastian Franke, both in his historical and theological writings, and otheis, wrote before Luther. Luther, from the beginning of the reformation to his death, continued to improve his style, and gave to the literary language, the High GERMAN, which had been formed amidst the different spoken dialects, authority and grammatical consistency. The mystical writings of Jacob Bohme enriched the language with metaphysical and philosophical expressions, whilst Fischart, Schuppe, and other satirical writers, gave it life and point. The writings of Abraham a Sancta Clara (Megerle), the representative of the popular style of preaching of his time, are full of wit, imagination and truth, but are coarse and undignified. The thirty years' war was follower ^j a period of barbarism, in which the German language was a corrupt medley of foreign words from the ancient and modern languages, particularly the French. The language of the learned was Latin, that of the courts was French. German survived only in the pulpit and in society. Thomasius revived the use of the vernacular tongue in scientific works. From this period, a gradual improvement of die German language is perceptible, notwithstanding the Gallomania of Frederic the Great and his court, until its complete triumph in the hands of Lessing. Two circumstances rendered this difficult. Tho language eras behind society in refinement, a* the French was the language of courts and the higher classes, and there was never any room for political or forensic eloquence. There were only three fields for the prose stylesacred eloquence, works of fiction, and the language of science. Pulpit eloquence was restored to its dignity by Laurence Mosheim, born 1694, died 1755. He was followed by a series of pulpit oratorsSack, Jerusalem, Cramer, Spalding, Gieseke, J. A. Schlegel, Zollikoffer, Teller, Sturm, Reinbard, Marezol, Amnion, Niemeyer, Hanstein, Ribbeck, Stolz, Laffler, Dniseke, Harms, Krummacher, Sailer, Schleiermacher, De Wette, Schatter, Tzschirner and others, many of whom are highly distinguished in other branches of literature. The elegant prose literature, and in particular the German novel, had been improved by the endeavors of Gottsched, and the many critical journals of his time. Haller published his Usong,midother political novels, and Gellert his Life of the Swedish Countess O. the first example of a representation of domestic life. At the same time, he improved the epistolary style. The novels of Richardson were translated into German by Dusch. Hermes wrote many successful works in the style of Richardson. The novel became the favorite branch of the German authors, for the purposes of amusement, or of moral, philosophical and political instruction. Engel, E. J. Midler, Nicolai, Sebaldus Nothanker, A. G. Meissner, J. H. Jung, F. Schultz, are interesting novelists. Naubhard and Fessler wrote historical novels, whilst Miller's Sigwart was distinguished for its excessive sentimentality. Aug. Lafontaine followed his first interesting and original novels with an endless flood of inferior imitations of the first. Jacobi and Fries wrote philosophical novels. Doctor Jung published religious novels and tales ; Pestalozzi, a tale called Lienhand and Gertrude. F. Klinger is a satirical novelist. Though Wieland's Greek heroes and heroines frequently philosophize, they do it with an Attic grace, and generally with Attic wit. He gave to the stiff prose of his time the ease and beauty of nature, though he often wrote with too much negligence. Gothe, after his Sorrows of Werther had powerfully excited the sentimentality of that period, gave, in his Wilhelm Meister, to the most various situations of life a high poetical interest, by the spirit with which he analyzed and harmoniously arranged their elements, and by the rich simplicity of his language. He is a master in narrative and descripth * Drose. Jean Paul Frederich Richter overflows with wit and original humor. Virtuous enthusiasm and the tenderest love of mankind breathe from his deep reflections, as well as from his charming details of humble life, and his attacks on the crimes and follies of our time. Novalis expressed his mystical feelings, in the novel Heinrich von Oflerdingen, in inspired language, full of romantic simplicity. Wagner gave philosophical views and picturesque situations of fife, in a dignified and animated style. Thiim mel and Clauren were two writers of a sentimental and witty, but graceful frivolity. While Charles Hoffmann gave vent, in comic and passionate description, to his sparkling humor and his feverish melancholy, T'eresa von Huber described, in the most refined language, the manners of the higher classes and of religious sects. Carolina von Pichler is also to be mentioned as an elegant and highly interesting authoress. Besides these, there is a number of very interesting novels, of as different a tendency as the style and the talents of the authors are various, the names cf which cannot be mentioned here. The mass of the terrible stories of knights, ghosts and robbers, which used to fill the circulating libraries, and the imagination of the middle classes of readers, must not be forgotten. Spiess and Cramer were two of the principal writers of works of this class. The scientific and critical German prose writers are mentioned under the articles German Literature, German Criticism, &c. (See, also, the article Philosophy, in a subsequent volume.) There remain to be mentioned the authors distinguished by their style as historical writersSpittler, Heeren, Eichhorn, Joh. Miiller, Joh. N. Voigt, Posselt, Schiller, Woltmann, Plank, Luden, Politz ; as philosophical writers, Kant, Heidenreich, Fichte (in particular in his addresses to the German nation), Schelling (for in stance, his Discourse on the Relation of Nature to the Plastic Art), Friedrich Hein rich Jacobi, StefFens (On the Present Age\ Winckelmann (died 1768), Justus Moser (died 1794), Helf. Peter Sturz (died 1799), Johann Kasp. Lavater (died 1801), George Forster, traveller and political writer, Lichtenberg, a man of striking wit and a caustic mind, best known by his illustrations of Hogarth's caricatures, Sulzer (died 1779, author of the Theorv of the Fine Arts), Thorn. AbH (died 1776), Garve (died 1798), Mosep Mendelssohn, but, above all, Lessing, the two Schlegels, in particular A. *V. Schlegel, Koppen, the truly popular Claudius ^Wandsbecker Bote), Voss, Amdt, Gorres and others; in the proper oratory style, Gedike, Niemeyer, Jacobs, Delbriick; in the treatment of particular branches of science, Feuerbach, Zacharia; in the picturesque description of nature, Humboldt, Zimmermann. German Poetry. If under the name German poetry, we include all the poetical productions of the nation, from the earliest time to the present day, it will be difficult to describe it by any general term, as its tendencies have been so different at different times. But excluding every thing foreign, every mere accidental modification, we shall find that German poetry is characterized by depth of feeling, truth, and a reflecting spirit, clothed in a strong, picturesque and expressive language. The history of German poetry may be divided into three periods, according to the divisions made in art. German literature.I. The heroic songs of the ancient Germans, of which Tacitus speaks, are lost. They served as chronicles to a nation ignorant of the art of writing, and preserved the memory of their heroes and princes. It has been conjectured, that the songs which Charlemagne caused to be collected and written out, were of this kind, but without sufficient grounds. If any of those productions are extant, the fragment from the song of Hildebrand, published by the brothers Grimm, from a manuscript in Cassel (1812), must be reckoned among them. During the period immediately succeeding the introduction of Christianity into Germany, German poetry consisted merely of translations and paraphrases from the Bible, valuable only as monuments of the language. Ottfried's Harmony of the Gospels, in rhyme, written in the time of Louis the GERMAN, is the most important of these biblical poems. The earliest German ballad celebrates the victory of Louis III, king of Neiistria, over the Normans (881). From the time of the emperor Henry IV, we have the hymn in honor of his tutor, St. Anno, archbishop of Cologne, in the dialect of the lower IjMiine. In the other poems which we have mentioned, the Upper German dialect, particularly the Franconian, prevails.II. The reign of the Suabian emperors of the Hohenstaufen family is included in the first division of this period. It is the age of the poetry of chivalry and of the Minnesingers, and is usually called the Suabian age, in the history of poetry, on account of the Suabian origin, both of the Hohenstaufen emperors and the best poets of the time, and on account of the universal prevalence of the Suabian dialect, which was the richest and most cultivated, as the language of poetry. The increasing cultivation of Germany, arising from the growing wealth which commerce and foreign conquests had produced; its connexions with Italy and France, in particular, from the time of the residence of Frederic Barbarossa in Provence; the crusades, which kindled the spirit of chivalry to a romantic enthusiasm ; the taste for the arts cherished by the Hohenstaufen race,combined with other causes to promote the rapid developement of poetry in this period. German emperors and princes were themselves Minnesingers (q. v.); their courts resounded with the notes of wandering minstrels, and poetical games alternated with tournaments. The example of the princes was imitated by the nobles, and poetry thus became an essential element in the life of the higher classes. The series of Minnesingers, that is, amatory poets, begins with Henry of Veldeck (1170); and the names of almost 300 poets, who, during this short period, sang of love, the ladies, and the honors of knighthood, are known to us. A collection made by Rudiger von Manessa, in 1313, contains the works of 140 of them (Zurich, 1758-59, 2 vols., 4to). The most celebrated are Wolfram of Eschenbach, Walter von der Vogelweide, Henry of Ofterdingen, Hartniann of Aue, Ulric of Lichtenstein, Godfrey of Strasburg ; and one of the latest is Conrad of Wurtzburg. Most of the Minnesingers confined themselves to the subject which their name denotes. They sung of love and of their ladies in lyric strains, full of delicate, deep and animated feeling, and, at the same time, with few exceptions, with great purity of feeling. Many of them also wrote epics. The national tales are often wrought from traditions of the old times of paganism, and relate to the storms and wanderings of the nation, at the period of the overthrow of the Western Empire. The principal heroes of these stories are Attila, the king of the Huns, and Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths. The principal poems of this kind are the Niebelungenlied (q. v.), a romantic epic of great merit, both in regard to the plan and execution; and the Heldenbuch (q. v.), composed by different authors, and founded on traditions of the highest antiquity. The foreign materials are mostly of Provencal, Norman and British origin. They consistof traditions relating to Charlemagne and his paladins, and king Arthur and his round table, and the son graal (the plate from which the Savior ate the last supper, and which afterwards received his blood). Among the poems of this series, are Wolfram of Eschenbach's Markgraf von Narbonne, Titurel and Parcival ; Godfrey of Strasburg's Tristan ; Hartmann's twain, and many others. The Roman and Greek antiquity and history also furnished materials, which were, however, arrayed in the dress of modern chivalry. Henry of Veldeck's Eneid, and the Trojan War, by Conrad of Wurtzburg, are of this kind. With Rodolph of Hapsburg, and the turbulent times of feudal violence, began the decline of genuine chivalry in Germany, and of the poetry which sprang from it and was dependent on it. In the period of transition from the poetry of the Minnesingers, and of chivalry, to that of the Mastersingers and of civic life, are found some didactic and satirical works, as Der Renner of Hugh of Irymberg (in 1300), and the fables of Boner, entitled Der Edelstein (1324). About the middle of the 14th centu^, the schools of the Mastersingers were formed, particularly in the cities of Mentz, Nuremberg and Strasburg. These schools partook of the nature of academies and of guilds, and the art of poetry degenerated to a mere mechanical labor. Nevertheless, there were, among the Mastersingers, men like Hans Sachs, and before him, Hans Rosenpliit and Hans Folz, who laid the foundation of the German theatre. Hans Sachs (1494-1576), perhaps the most fertile of poets, excepting the Spaniard, Lope de Vega, was the most distinguished. The period of the Mastersingers, in general, displays much comic and satiric humor. The celebrated satirical poems of this period were, at the same time, effects and causes of the great intellectual fermentation which resulted in the reformation. Among them are distinguished Renard the Fox, by Henry of Alckmaer ; the Narrenschiff (Ship of Fools), by Sebastian Bra \d; Thomas Murner's Narrenbeschworung (Conspiracy of Fools), and Schellenzunft, Rollenhagen's Froschmausler, and the writings of John Fischart. Unconnected with these schools are many popular songs, produced in the 13th century, which, from the variety of their subjects, relating to all the ranks, feelings and situations of life in those times, and their spirit, liveliness, boldness and gayety, present a phenomenon in literature. In the 14th and 15th centuries, singing and music had become a necessary amusement of the German people. This produced a popular poetry, which spread through all classes of society, and superseded, in some measure, the degenerate productions of the Mastersingers ; as instances, may be mentioned the excellent war songs of Veit Weber. In the 17th century, the revival of learning, and the decline of the national prosperity, were equally injurious to this kind of poetry. In the 15th and 16th centuries, epic poetiy began to assume an allegorical and historical character, as, for instance, Melchior Pfinzing's Teuerdank (of which the emperor Maximilian 1 is the hero), and to approach the form of the romance. Ballads had already become distinct from the longer romantic poems, and gave rise to those popular books, Die Melusine, Magalone, the reading of which is the delight of the lower classes at the present day ; and to which have been added later original productions, as the famous Till Eulenspiegel. (See Eulenspiegel)III. The third period of German poetry commences with Luther, not so much on account of his poetry as on account of his influence as the creator of a new German language. As a religious poet, he stands between this and the former period. His hymns are animated and vigorous ; his images are taken from the Bible; his poetical style and language he formed himself, and took the materials, not so much from any preceding poetiy as from the circumstances of his country at the time. With him began a series of sacred poetry, which for a long time was unaffected by the influences of profane poetry. Melissus Andrea and Weckherlin were the earliest writers of the new school. The latter entertained the design of transforming the poetiy of his country. He introduced the Alexandrine verse. At the head of the first Silesian school was Martin Opitz, of Boberfeld (born at Buntzlau, 1579, died 1639). He endeavored to supply by correctness what he wanted in inventive genius, and, in this respect, was of service to the language. The ancient classics were his models; yet he was contented with imitating the French, and their imitators, the Dutch poets. He introduced the use of quantity, instead of framing his verses merely with reference to the number of syllables. As be is not without richness of imagery and warmth of feeling, his lyrical poems contributed, notwithstanding his false taste, to revive and enrich German poetry. Among his ni* n*erous followers, many of whom are religious poets, the most distinguished are Paul Flemming (1606-40), Sim. Dach Q605-59), A. Tscherning (1611-59), Paul Gerhard (1606-76), F. von Logau (1604-55), A.Gryphius (1616-46), John Rist (1607-67), George Phil. Harsdorfer and J oh. Klai, the founders of the Order of Flowers. The 30 years' war destroyed, in a great measure, the German national character and feeling. In the midst of its desolation appeared two poets, full of patriotism and mystical enthusiasm, both Jesuits. The first, Jacob Balde (1603-62), wrote in Latin verse ; the other, Frederic Spee, published his poems in GERMAN, under the title Trutz JVacktigall. In this period, a number of poetical societies were established; for instance, Die fruchthingende (the fruit bearing), founded 1616, by prince Louis of Anhalt; the Order of Flowers, the Shepherds of the Pegnitz, established 1644, at Nuremberg, and others, most of which aimed at the improvement and unity of the language, and the reformation of poetry, but eventually degenerated into petty pedantry and affectation. With the second Silesian school, an affected imitation of foreign taste, particularly of the French, degraded German poetry to the lowest degree. Christian Hoffmann, of Hoffmannswaldau (1618- 79), a poet of some wit, but without genuine feeling, introduced the conceits of Marino and similar poetasters to the admiration of his contemporaries. His poetry is bombastic, impure and empty ; he endeavored to hide his want of genuine feeling by a revolting sentimentality. The same false taste also wasted the poetical talents of Daniel Gaspar von Lohenstein (1635-83), to whom fire and originality cannot be denied, notwithstanding his conceited and antithetical style. His novel Arminius and Tkusnelda unites uncommon vigor with the greatest faults of his time. His imitators are distinguished by exaggeration and affected sentimentality ; as, for instance, Henry Anselm von Ziegler (1663-97), author of the Asiatic Baruse. This mania lasted till the middle of the 18th century, and was ineffectually opposed by the satire ui" Wernike and others. It was followed oy a flood of stale and insipid occasional poems, among the authors of which, the baron Canitz (1654 99), Neukirch, Besser, &c, were celebrated in their time. Only a genius like that of the unfortunate Gunther, was able to sustain itself above the general deluge. Gottsched endeavored to purify the language from foreign additions; but, on the 40* other hand, he deprived poetry of life, by placing its chief merit in smoothness and clearness, in the French taste. He was soon opposed by the Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, who were animated by the great minds of antiquity and the spirit of English poetry, and who endeavored to revive the German poetry of the middle ages. Albert von Haller supported this school by his vigorous poems, abounding in thought. Gottsched's school was followed by the Leipsic association of young er poets and authors, some of whom are to be mentioned as the heralds of the golden age of German poetry ; as, for instance, J. A. Cramer (died 1788), Chr. Furchtegott Gellert (died 1769), with his fables and sacred hymns; G. W. Rabener (died 1770), known by his satires ; F. W. Gleim (died 1803), more successful in his war songs than in his anacreontics ; Chr. F. von Kleist (died 1759), I. P. Uz (died 1796), F. VV. Zacharia (died 1777), a satirical poet, iiot without wit and imagination. Freaeric von Hagedorn (died 1754) was distinguished for an easy and natural style and refined taste; Solomon Gessner, the creator of a new idyllic poetry, was characterized by simplicity and innocence, and a taste for the beauties of nature. The revolution was finally effected chiefly by three men, unlike each other ii: every respect, except in their just esteem for antiquity, and an independence and originality of genius ; they were Lessing, Klopstock and Wieland. G. F. Le^ing (born 1729, died 1781), with his clear, classical understanding, exposed foreign and native absurdities in taste, and exhibited, in his own productions, an example of the manner in which original thoughts adopt appropriate forms, without imitation of any kind. He is the founder of the national German drama, and of German criticism. F. G. Klopstock was taught by the ancients, that there is no true poetry without patriotism and religion ; the former lie derived from the German history of early times; with the latter he was inspired by the holiest and highest conceptions of Christianity, which produced his Messias. He also used the perfect metrical forms of the ancients, and imparted to his native language a high degree of dignity and correctness. Christian M. Wieland (born 17:33, died 18.12). an imitator neither of the Attic style, noi of the French taste, called to Lis aid the genius of grace, which inspires the former, and the natural facility which pre vails in the latter, to give effect to the creations of his own rich and iuoxhfc Jstihle imagination. His muse, though often sensual, often verbose, is full of natural grace and warm feeling. He contributed a great deal to give to the German language a greater pliability and ease. The introduction of Shakspeare into Germany could not but produce a decisive influence, after the revival of a taste for the earlier German poetry and the old English ballads. The growing romantic tendency manifested itself in many poets of the Gbttingen Union, as it was called, in the ballads of Burger, the elegies of Holty and in the poems of the counts of Stolberg. The latter, however, showed the influences of Homer and the Greek tragedians. Their friend Voss (born 1751) was unfortunate enough to forget, in his love for the ancient classical poetry, that its chief merit consists in its living spirit, and accommodation to the character of their times; but his translations of Homer improved the metre and displayed the richness of the German language, and his idyllic poetry, though often unnatural in its Greek dress, is not wanting in dignity and beauty. Herder, Schiller and Gothe next appear on the German Parnassus. Herder's romantic poetry was drawn from every time and nation. Witness his translation of Balde, his Cid, his Voices of the Nations, his Legends, as well as the poetiy in his critical and other works. Schiller followed the ideas of Klopstock, but he gave them shape and body. His inspiration, instead of pervading the distant heavens, and representing the conversations of God and the seraphs, exhibited the struggle of human virtue and human will with life and fate. His ideals are as holy and elevated as Klopstock's, but they appear clothed in reality and truth. It has been objected to him that the poetical is too often lost in the philosophical. In German tragedy, his dramatical works are undoubtedly the first. In comparing Gothe with Wieland, we hardly find any other points of resemblance than their grace and fulness, their liveliness and ease; but, in Wieland, this appears to be owing principally to the happy temper of the poet, and his continual study of Greek and French models, while, in Gothe, it is owing to the strength with which his bold and penetrating spirit pervades the unlimited variety of nature and the hidden recesses of the human heart; to the harmony with which his rich and refined feeling echoes every voice, every movement of the living world, and finds, in his bright and abundant imagination, the lii^ans of the most simple r>nd strik ing representation. One tlung, however* is wanting in Gothe's productions. He does not set forth strongly the moral dig nity of man, the power with which his spirit opposes the accidents of life. The varied play of human passion he portrays in a masterly manner. With these great names, the age has produced many other poets, of whom we will mention only the most eminent, or those who had at least their period of distinction. Matthison charmed by his tender pictures of nature. The poetry of Salis was more vigorous. Tiedge is known by his Urania, in six cantos; A. Schlegel, by his excellent translations of Shakspeare, and Calderon, and many original pieces of much merit; Claudius, by his popular songs and religious hymns. Of the humor, wit, genius and virtue of Jean Paul Friederich Itichter, Menzel says rightly, " No one had so much power to do ill, and no one was in fact so pious and childlike." Ludwig Tieck possesses poetical resources hardly inferior to Gothe's; and his productions, moreover, are distinguished for virtue and purity as well as for poetical spirit. He is, moreover, one of the most learned commentators on Shakspeare. Novalis, to whom the world was one great poem, wrote sacred hymns of the most intense feeling and the highest spirit. Ernest Scliulze, at an early age, was the author of two romantic epic poems, the Enchanted Rose and Cecilia. Full of the spirit of the war of independence, in which he lived and died, was the patriotic Theodore Korner, so celebrated for his war songs and his tragedies, which breathe the spirit of Schiller, as well as for his chivalrous death. (See Korner.) Max. von Schenkendorf was, like him, a patriotic and productive poet; Friederich Riickert, a poet of the most refined and abundant imagination; Ludwig Uhland, a genius deep, rich and unassuming: his poems breathe the true spirit of romance. He endeavored to make German tragedy more national. Among the romantic modern poets is also distinguished Gustavus Schwab. Gries and Streckfuss have become celebrated as translators of Tasso and Dante. As dramatic poets, we may mention, besides those already named, Werner and Mullner, Grillparzer, Hou wald, AurFenberg, Klingemann, llaupach, Immerman; in comedies and operas/ Mahlmann, Von Maltitz. Ohlenschlager (a Dane), Weissenthurn, Steigentesch, Schmidt, Heinrich von Kleist, Schiitz. The dramatical muse of Kolzebue was fertile, but without dignity, and frejuentlv without good morals. Iflland was the author of numerous family pieces. Whether the Germans have a national theatre has been doubted by many even among themselves. It seems, indeed, that, notwithstanding the many excellent dramatic works which they have produced, the difference in their form and spirit indicate a deficiency in the causes which should give the stamp of nationality to the productions of the German theatre. That community of feeling and spirit in a nation, which are necessary to give a strongly marked character of individuality to its drama, are difficult to be found amid the political division of the present time. The sources of common interest must be looked for in the earlier history of Germany, under the emperors, and in the middle ages. But the attempts which have been made by Uhland and others are too few and too recent to enable us to judge of the prospect of their success. A few words remain to be said on the sacred poetry of the Germans. During all the aberrations and changes of taste in the other branches of poetry, this one has retained its dignity, except, perhaps, in the controversial period of the Protestant church succeeding the reformation, when doctrinal distinctions formed the subject of 3 great number of hymns. After the Catholic poetry of the middle ages, which was written mostly in Latin verse, but often presented the most beautiful exhibitions of devout feeling, the later sacred poetry begins with the vigorous and pious accents of Luther. Paul Gerhard (1607- 1676) produced hymns full of feeling and deep piety. Erdmann Neuermeister in the middle of the 18th century, Klopstock, Lavater, Gellert, Schubart, Cramer, Claudius Niemeyer, Herder, form a series of sacred poets. Besides these, there is a large number of others, particularly in the first period of Protestantism. In the first part of the 18th century, there were more than 33,000 hymns in the German language, by more than 500 authors. The essence of deep religious inspiration seems to breathe in the religious poems of Novalis. German Criticism. German literature is truly the child of the nation. Their political and civil constitution was given to the Germans by their princes and the events of history; their spiritual life they created themselves. A literary court of justice, universally acknowledged as the academie Franpaise in France, was inconsistent with the numerous political divisions of Germany. No standard of fashion.no courtly rules, ever held dominion over their literature, and limited the authors to certain favorite forms and manners; and even the universities exerted no domi' neering influence. From the time of Opitz (q. v.), the poets poured forth their strains in the most various styles, and without being called to account for their irregularity. Exterior influences were required to produce controversy and party spirit. Till then, only frivolous Italian writers, belonging to the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, were studied and imitated; and from the French literature, with a strange neglect of the first classics, only some worthless novels and poems were selected as models, and even the Dutch imitators of the French were made use of for the same purpose. Besides this, no notice was taken of foreign literature. Almost a century elapsed after Opitz, before a comparison of the existing state of the German literature with the foreign, gave life to German criticism. Bodmer and Breitinger, two Swiss literati, published, in 1721, the Discourses of the Painters, and endeavored, by the exposition of views drawn from the study of Milton's Paradise Lost, to raise the standard of German poetry. Attending more to the substance than to the form, they proceeded in their investigations with as much penetration as impartiality. Professor Gottsched, in Leipsic, inclined towards the French literature, and endeavored to establish, as a chief rule for German literature, that it should be made intelligible to every body by a certain easy, conversational tone of writing. But whilst he strove, with this view, to promote the purity and fluency of the language, and ease of versification, he overlooked the more important subject of the spirit of the literature, and misunderstood the character and the wants of his nation. While Gottsched was thus sinking into insipidity, the Swiss were running into scholastic subtilties; and yet German literature owes a new life, and German criticism owes its foundation, to the disputes between these two parties. The weighty and vigorous ideas in the poems of Haller, and the Messias of Klopstock, produced a powerful excitement (1748). If the results of their contentions were not very A isible at the moment, yet they prepared the minds of their countrymen for independent judgment, and awakened them from the torpor in which the rules of Baumgarten and Batteux and Du Bos would have left them. Shortly after, Lessing cam* forth, one of the greatest critics Germany ever possessed. Without predilection for any nation, and appreciating all, free from prejudices and the fear of men, his honest and profound spirit of investigation strove only for truth; and he united with comprehensive learning, a penetrating and clear judgment, a refined and a striking conciseness in expressing the results, so that he may be considered, at the same time, as the founder of German criticism, and as an excellent model for imitation by critical writers. His own original productions aided the effect of his critical rules. At the same time, the bookseller Nicolai, in Berlin, contributed to the success of his labors, by the establishment of several critical journals. Herder came forth with striking originality and elevation of ideas in his KritiscJien Waldern (Critical Woods, 1769). He permitted himself to be limited by no conventional rule, but his luminous understanding was often overwhelmed by his fiery imagination, and his criticism was not seldom deficient in clearness and precision. The Elements of Criticism, by lord Karnes, was not without influence, at this time, on the critical spirit of Germany. It was translated into German by Meinhard. Most of the champions of German criticism of this period contended against the French taste; but Wieland, by his Deutschen Mercur, gave it currency again, without intending to restore its former authority. Wieland had cultivated his mind too comprehensively and profoundly, and was too familiar with the ancient and modern literature of the most refined nations, to attempt the introduction of any part of the French literature, but what was of a general application, and had a certain relation with the character of German literature. And to this influence it is partly to be attributed, that German criticism, with undiminished life and profoundness, acquired a more varied and general character, and a tone of mild and refined dignity, which manifested itself particularly in the Allgemeine LAieraturzeitung of Jena, founded in 1785. Kant's Kritik der Uriheilskraft (Criticism of the Power of Judgment, 1790) maintained that the judgment of correct taste is independent of excitement and emotion. This principle was acknowledged by Schiller, in his Reich der Formen (Kingdom of Forms), but the adherents of the new school did not harmonize in their systems of aesthetics, and the nation, which, in general, in matters 3i* feeling, had never accepted of laws from any school, was not influenced by the new principles. The original Herdey, in his Kalligone, violently opposed the new doctrine. Schiller's unjust criticism of the poetry of Burger showed to what the principles of Kant must lead. A spirit of fresh and glowing feeling, opposed to the prosaic views of Kant, and connected with a keenness and bold impartiality, which called back the memory of Lessing, was manifested in the Athenceum of the brothers Schlegel, in which deep reflection was united with a keen sense of the beautiful. Their intimate union with Tieck, Bernhardi, Novalis, and other kindred spirits, has had an important influence on German criticism. The deep glance which they cast into the middle ages gave them a romantic and even mystical tendency, which found many friends and a new support in the system of Schelling, but has also had its opponents. Among the latter, Kotzebue, by his periodical publication Der Freimi'dhige, made himself most known; and, in a more dignified way, Bouterwek, in his History of Poetry and Eloquence. German Philosophy. (See Philosophy.) German School of Art The war songs, which Tacitus mentions, the armorial bearings on the escutcheons, the early romantic poetry, and the mythology of the Edda, display the early taste of the German nation for poetry and the fine arts. Soon after the introduction of Christianity, art began to extend beyond the mere dec orations of weapons, and appears first in churches and monasteries. Here music was first cultivated. Architecture wa*> elevated above the mere purposes of shelter, and Gothic arches and spires towereo towards heaven. Poetry was cherisheu by the monks, who preserved the remains of their heathen ancestors, and made imitations of the Roman and Greek classics. On the miniature ornaments of their manuscripts, and on the altarpieces of their churches, painting [see the next division) fixed her first rude but inspired traces. It is uncertain how much the early Saxon castles were affected by the Byzantine modification of the Greek and Roman architecture, and the ornaments of later periods. It is certain that this bold and living, though often gloomy and severe, style has nowhere else reached the perfection which it attained in the German countries. German painting sprung from the imitation of the Byzantine pictures of saints, but soon rose above the lifeless and dry diligence of that school. From the 13th to the 15th century was the golden age of German architecture. The German school of painting flourished almost as early, chiefly on the Rhine and in Suabia. The greatest painters, numerous and skilful founders, carvers in wood, woodengravers, and probably the earliest engravers on copper, and etchers, lived in the 15th century, particularly in the south of Germany. The invention of the art of engraving on copper with the burin, is ascribed to a goldsmith in Upper Germany, who lived 1460, and that of etching to Michael Wohlgemuth, 1434-1519; but neither opinion is sufficiently established. At this period, Germany displayed a great number of Gothic cathedrals,risingfrorn the midst of dark and narrow buildings, the extent and grandeur of which are visible in the cathedrals of Cologne, Strasburg, Vienna, and many other places, whose altars are ornamented with the works of Van Eyk and Albert Durer, and the gloomy majesty of whose aisles received a dim light through the colors of beautiful glass paintings. Sculpture, though less favored by Christianity, produced works like the sepulchre of St. Sebastian in Nuremberg, and the numerous beautiful representations of the holy sepulchre. The castles contained drinking horns, fine carvings on the walls, and other curious and rare works, elaborately finished. The houses of the free and wealthy citizens of the Hanseatic or Suabian league, were often richer in works of art than in means of comfort. The monasteries were filled with productions of art of every kind. The religious troubles in the 16th century put an end to this flourishing period, and, as the German school of art was entirely religious, prevented its farther developement. The art of engraving and cutting in wood survived almost alone; in general, extravagance of ornament usurped the place of beauty. After the storms of the thirty years' war, by which the division of the nation was widened, the Protestant states of Germany were distinguished by the cultivation of learning, particularly of che Latin language, which checked, for a ong time, the developement of a national character; but the German character was more injuriously affected by the imitation of the French, in the second half of the 7th century. The academies of art, instituted on the model of the French, could effect little for the creation of a national taste. The galleries of pictures, which were then founded, first awakened the interest of the learned. Lessing, Winckelmann and Mengs had a decisive influenceon the direction of Geiman taste, and excited the enthusiasm of amateurs and artists for classic antiquity. Heyne's archaeological investigations had a similar influence. This enthusiasm became extravagant, and seduced the artists from the imitation of nature, to an excessive imitation of ancient models, under the alluring title of the beau ideal of the Greek form. The events of the tunes, and the patriotic spirit of Gothe, Schiller and Herder subsequently awakened a zeal for German antiquity, particularly for the religious period of the middle ages. Wackenroder's Herzensergiessungen tines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (1797), the romantic writingsof Tieck and Novalis, the criticisms of the Schlegels, the revival of the JVibelungenlied, and the collection of the finest old pictures by the brothers Boisseree and others, turned the attention of the young artists towards the romantic. From the beginning of the present century, the German painters in Rome have manifested a tendency to religious and historical subjects in the manner of the old German and the kindred Italian school. Against this tendency many Hellenists, among whom is Gothe, have raised their voice, forgetting that the art of a country must take root in its native soil, before it can attain a natural and vigorous growth. Among the German painters in Rome, who endeavor to unite the spirit of the old religious schools with the classical perfection of form, is Peter Cornelius, of Diisseldorf (see Cornelius; also Cartoon, and German School of Painting). This change has not been confined to painting, though modern art seems to prefer the expression of its religious, romantic spirit by light and colors, whilst the ancients preferred the perfect form of the body. German sculpture was, therefore, chiefly confined, in elder times, to subjects taken from sacred pictures, and, in recent times, has devoted itself principally to imitations of the antique style, and, in this manner, the most excellent works have been produced. The art of engraving was naturally the companion of painting, through all its changes of style. (See Engraving.) The principal seats of art in Germany are, Vienna, Munich, Dresden, Berlin, each of which has an academy of art. German School of Painting With the decline of the Eastern empire, Byzantine art and science were spread over Europe. In Germany as well as in Italy, and particularly on the Rhine, the gloomy dry style of the Byzantine school prevailed. M^ny pictures of this early period have been preserved; they are distinguished by a o gold ground and ornamented glories made of silver, shaded with brown ; their colors are bright, without harmony and without life ; their outlines are delicate. In Austria, the abbot Reginbald, founder of the monastery of Murr, awakened a taste for the arts about 900. He was followed by St. Thiemo, at Saltzburg, and, in particular, by Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen of Hungary. Louis the Debonnaire received rostly works of art as presents from the flyzantine emperor. The Silesian and Moravian princes kept up a friendly connexion with the Greek emperors. St. Methodius, the missionary to the Sclavonians (863), is mentioned as a distinguished painter ; and the first Silesian bishops who came from Italy, made use of sacred pictures for spreading their religion. In the churches of St. Elizabeth and of St. Barbara, at Breslau, there are some remarkable pictures of this period. The church of St. Bernardine contains the Hedwig's Table, upon which events in the life of St. Hedwig are painted, in 32 compartments. In Bavaria, Theodore II endeavored to propagate Christianity by the instrumentality of St. Rupert, whom he called from Worms (696); and here also the introduction of painting followed that of Christianity. The arts were most zealously cultivated in the monasteries of the Benedictines. Alfred and Ariram, the latter a monk of St. Emmeran, were the most distinguished Bavarian artists of this time. In Franconia, we find the first traces of art in the time of St. Bruno, who (1042) rebuilt the cathedral at Wi'irtzburg. The emperor Henry II and his queen, St. Cunigund, were patrons of the arts. In the monastery of Heilsbronn, there are several paintings of the time of St. Otho, bishop of Bamberg, who died 1139. Nuremberg deserves to be mentioned as a place where painting and carving in wood were early earned to a high degree of perfection. The churches of the Virgin Mary and St. Sebaldus contain some very old pictures. In Suabia, the monastery of Hirschau was early celebrated for its treasures of art. Many monasteries and churches contained manuscripts with excellent miniatures. In Augsburg, Culm, Nordlingen, there were skilful artists at a very early period. From the time of Charlemagne, many branches of art were practised in the cities on the Upper Rhine. Mentz, Treves, and particularly Cologne, were the most distinguished seats of German art at that time. The period from 1153 to 1330 was not less decisive for German art than for German poetry and language. The eldest German school of painters, which far surpassed the later school of Nuremberg in purity of style, depth of expression and quiet loveliness, flourished at Cologne, in this period. Their pictures are generally on wood, which was first covered with a layer of chalk, and then with linen, upon which were laid another ground of chalk and bole, and, lastly, a gold ground. They preserve their colors with a remark able freshness. The most celebrated of these works is the altarpiece in the cathedral of Cologne, which some ascribed to William of Cologne, others to Peter Calf. The collections of Wallraf, Boisseree (q. v.) and Bettendorf contain the finest specimens of this period. In Frankfort, the painters on glass were distinguished. The most poetical of the old German masters, Hemmelink, whose works are full of boldness and fire, lived in this period. The builder of the Wartburg, count Louis II, wras a patron of the arts in Hesse and Thuringia. The old church of St. Elizabeth, at Marburg, contains many early monuments. Henry I protected the arts in Saxony. There were distinguished artists in the abbeys of Corvey, Minden, Hildesheim and Osnabriick, in Lower Saxony and Westphalia. The number of the monuments of art, from this early time, is incredible. They are found everywhere in Germany, not only in altarpieces in the churches and monasteries, but also in elegantly ornamented manuscripts, in chasubles embroidered by the nuns, in needlework and altarcloths. The emperor, Charles IV, invited many skilful painters to Bohemia, where, as early as 1348, a corporation of painters was formed. In 1450, a distinguished school of painters began to flourish in Breslau, still earlier than that of Nuremberg. Werner of Tegernsee was distinguished for his excellent glasspaintings. In the 15th century, Gleissmyller, Maier, Machselkircher, Fiiterer and Zawnhack were celebrated Bavarian painters; in Nuremberg, Hans Traut, Kulenbach, Hans Bauerlein, and Michael Wohlgemuth, the latter the teacher of Albert Durer, were eminent. A second period of German art begins with Albert Durer (q. v.), who was esteemed by Raphael (from 1471-1528). After having studied in the school of Wohlgemuth, he travelled through Germany, the Netherlands and Italy. Martin Schon may be called the German Perugino; his works bear a great resemblance to those of that master. The paintingsof Luke Cranach (born 1470, died 1553) have acquired a particular interest from containing the portraits of the most distinguished persons of his time. The Holbein family produced many skilful painters ; the most distinguished was Hans ii.ilbein (born 1495, died 1554). Most of the principal painters of the German school, in the 16th century, were at the same time engravers. Their ideas were truly poetical, but sometimes too allegorical. The execution is finished, but they are deficient in beauty of forms and correctness of outline. Their glowing coloring, the expressive attitudes of the figures, the piety which breathes from their countenances, and, particularly, the spirit of their landscapes and back grounds, must strike every eye. In the 17th and in the first half of the 18th century, art in Germany was in a low state. The German school hardly survived Albert Durer and Holbein. The difficult and artificial only was admired; nature and spirit gave way to labored ornament. The causes of this decline were the reformation and the thirty years' war. A melancholy period of imitation followed, in which the taste of Louis XIV and the exaggerated modern Italian school was the standard. Although Mengs cannot be considered as a restorer of art, at least for Germany, as his plastic principle was entirely opposed to the spirit of painting in general, and, in particular, to the German school, yet he improved the taste of his time by his severe manner. Most of his scholars, however, inclined to a gaudy and often superficial style. They have produced, however, many pleasing pieces; among them are Maron,Unterberger, Oser and An, gelica Kaufmann. William Tischbein, who was born in Hesse, and lived for a long time in Eutin, is among the best artists of our time. His taste is pure, his style noble, his imagination creative and poetical ; his sketches from Homer are celebrated. Many young German artists in Rome have lately imitated the manner of the old German school, even so far as to copy its faults. More extensive information on German painting may be obtained in Fiorillo's Geschichte der zeichnenden kunste in DeutscMand und den Niederlanden, and in Gothe's Kunst und Alterthum. German Law (jus Germanicum) is at present little more than a name. It signifies merely the civil law in GERMANY, so far as it is not derived from the ancient Roman, or from the canonical law, or from the laws of particular countries. From the fifth to the ninth century, the laws in the countries held by Germans, consisted of rules which were in part articles agreed upon between the conquerors and the former inhabitants of the Roman provinces, living under Roman laws; in part, a compromise between the old pagan customs and license, and the Christian notions of religion and law; and, ii. part, compacts between the princes and their military followers, or the community Such were the laws of the Visigoths* drawn up by king Eurichus, 466-484; of the Salian Francs, towards the end of the 5th century; of the Burgundians; pi the Ripuarian Francs; of the Bavarians and Alemarmi; of the Frisians; Saxons; of the Angles from the time of Charlemagne ; of the Lombards (634-724); of the AngloSaxons till the Norman con quest. From the tenth century, the feudal tenure was almost the only mode of hold ing landed property, and the foundation of public law ; but the feudal regulations were so far from constituting a complete and regular system of law, that the Roman lawr, which was taught in the uni versities of Lombardy, attracted scholars from all places, and influenced all th" legal constitutions. The laws of the native tribes began to be collected systematically after the example had been given by the Sachsen spiegel (1215 and 1235), and many cities had their own codes of written or customary laws. The authority of the Roman law continually increased, and influenced public affairs. The native laws, however, continued in the courts, and retained, though greatly diversified, many principles in common. From the 15th century, the provincial legislation became more and more fixed. Almost every county received its Landesordnung, that is, a particular system of laws. The institution of the imperial chamber, in 1495, was followed by the Landesprocessordnungen, the criminal code of the emperor Charles V, and by criminal laws of separate states. George Beyer first delivered lectures on the German municipal law, at Wittenberg, in 1707. Of modern writers, Mittermaier's Grundsaize des Deutsches Privatrechts (Heidelberg, 1823,2d edition, 1826) deserves mention.