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GEOGRAPHY {Greek)description of the earth, of the condition of our globe: in a narrower sense, also, the description of the condition of one of its parts ; for instance, the geography of Europe, Russia, Saxony, &c. The earth may be considered as a world, in relation to the other worlds ; or as a body of different parts, properties and phenomena, which, at the same time, is inhabited by beings of different natures; or as the residence of free moral agents, among whom its surface is divided, and through whose influence it undergoes many changes. Geography, therefore, is commonly divided into mathematical, physical and political. The two first, taken together, are also called general geography. Mathematical geography (q. v.) is a part of applied mathematics. Physical geography comprises, 1. geology (q. v.); 2. hydrographies, which treats of the seas (tUeir depth, coior, temperature, motion, beds, downs, cliffs, shoals, banks, bars), and of inland waterssprings (their origin, nature, temperature), streams, rivers (their sources, direction, falls, mouths, &c), lakes; 3. meteorology, which treats of air and ether, of the different regions of the atmosphere, of the temperature of the air (limits of perpetual snow in different climates), of the mot'ons of the air, winds, tradewinds, breezes, of meteors, &c.; 4. a description of the kingdoms of nature, comprised under zoology, botany, mineralogy; 5. anthropology, or a description of men. In political geography, the earth is considered as the abode of rational beings, according to their diffusion over the globe, and their social relations, as they are divided into larger or smaller societies. Although political geography, particularly since the time of Biisching, has been treated profoundly, yet many things have obtained a place in it, that belong exclusively to the science of statistics, which, indeed, was first reduced to a scientific form in the first half of the 18th century. It is important, however, to draw the boundary line between political geography and statistics with exactness, and to remove from the former science all that belongs solely to the latter. For, while statistics represents the individual state, as a whole connected in itself, with a perpetual regard to public law, politics and policy, because the constitution, administration and political relation of one state to the rest can only be explained with precision through the medium of those sciences, geography treats exclusively of the local relations of a country. This science describes the individual divisions, wherever it finds them; it treats of the departments, circles and provinces of states and kingdoms, and specifies the natural peculiarities of the surface, mountains, rivers, the cities, villages, the different means of subsistence and profit, and the most remarkable curiosities, always with regard to local situation. Probably the statistical remarks, in which our geographical works have abounded, have been received into them with the view to render the study of geography more attractive to youth, or to adapt the manuals and corapendiums more to the wants of readers of different stations. This VOL. v. 36 error in geographical manuals and compendiums, together with the continual changes in the political condition of the European states and countries, with which the geographical works, notwithstanding their rapid succession, and the repeated editions of the same, could never keep pace, induced several thinking men to propose and execute a pure geography, so called, in which they took the natural condition of the globe, as it is exhibited in seas, chains of mountains, and rivers, as the foundation, divided the surface of the earth according to these natural boundaries, and endeavored to produce in this manner a complete system. But although this mode of treating geography recommends itself by the simplicity of its principle, as well as by its strict exclusion of statistics, yet it is to be feared, particularly if it should become the general method in the instruction of youth, that the want of a well ordered political geography will be sensibly felt. The experiments which have hitherto been made, are not sufficient for the establishment of the system. It is evident that political geography cannot be the same in all ages; it is divided, with respect to history, into ancient, middle and modern. Ancient geography, in its widest sense, comprises not only the representation of the condition of the earth and its inhabitants, historically known, from the first creditable historical accounts, to the overthrow of the Roman empire in the West, but also the single traces of information of this kind, which may be found in the preceding ages. It extends to all the ancient nations. A part of it the biblical geographynecessary to a learned exegesis of the Bible, has principally been cultivated by Bochart, Michaelis, Rosenmiiller, J. Schulthess, &c. To these works may be added, Richard Palmer's Bible Atlas, or, Sacred Geography delineated, in 26 small maps, Lond. 1823. Middle geography, which commences with the downfall of the western Roman empire, reaches to the discoveiy of America (from 476 to 1492). Modern geography comprises the period from the discovery of America to the present time. In the history of geography, the following periods may be fixed: 1. The mythical period, from the remotest times of tradition to Herodotus: the sources of our information, respecting this period, are the writings of Moses, Homer and Hesiod. Most of the events, that fall in this period, are wrapped in darkness; the accounts are few, and more of a chorographical than a geographical nature. 2. The period in which the detached accounts were collected, from Herodotus to Eratosthenes, 270 years B. C. Hanno, Scylax, Pytheas, Aristotle, Dica?archus, furnish interesting accounts of different countries. 3. Systematical period, from Eratosthenes to Claudius PtoJemy, A. D. 161. Polybius, Hipparchus, Artemidorus, Posidonius, Strabo, Dionysius Periegetes, Pomponius Mela and Pliny belong to it. 4. Geometrical period, from Ptolemy to Copernicus, A. D. 1520. The longitude and latitude of places now become fixed. Here we may distinguish (a) the times before the Arabians (sources, Pausanias, Marcianus, Agathemerus, Peutingerian table, Cosmas) ; (h) times from the Arabians, from A. D. 800 (sources, AIMarun, Abu Ischak, Scherif Edrisi, Nasir Eddin, Abulfeda, Ulugh Begh; the sole Christian geographer is Guido of Ravenna). 5. Scientific period, from Copernicus to our times. Now we find more exact astronomical estimates, accurate accounts of travels by land and by water, more trustworthy and systematic topographies, more precise measurements of countries, and the measures given in square miles, besides scientific geographical systems and compendiums. In this period, the first attempt has also been made, with some success, towards a systematical geography of the ancient world. Much more, however, has been done in these times for the ancient than the middle geography. Christopher Cellarius here led the way. His work first appeared at Leipsic, in 1686, 12mo.Geographia antiqua ad veterum Historicorum faciliorem Erplicationem apparata; revised: Noiitia, orbis antiqui, 2 vol. 4to., Leipsic, 1701. The latest edition appeared in 1773. After him, John Dav. Kohler wrote an Introduction to Ancient and Middle Geography, with 37 maps, in 3 vols. (Nuremburg, 1730). The Manual of Ancient Geography, by d'Anville, in 5 vols., was revised and enriched with very valuable additions, by several German scholars (Nuremberg, 1800, et seq., 12 maps). Conrad Mannert wrote a valuable geography of the Greeks and Romans, drawn from their writings, in 8 parts (the 2 first have appeared in a new, entirely revised, edition), 1788-1820. Valuable researches on subjects of ancient geography are contained in Heeren's Ideas on the Policy, Intercourse and Commerce of the principal Nations of the ancient World (4th edition, in the collection of his works, the 10-14 vol., Gottingen, 1824). Funke's Atlas of the ancient World, 12 maps, with explanatory tables (Weimar, 1800, 4to.), is a valuable school book; as is also Heusinger's and Dufour's School Atlas for Ancient Geography, 15 sheets (Brunswick) ; Reichard's Orbis Terr arum antiquus (Nuremberg, 1819, et seq.) is better, and for schools, K archer's Orbis Terr arum, antiquus et Europa Medii JEvi, 23 sheets, Carlsruhe, 1824 (epitomized under the title Atlas Minor, in 9 sheets). A good view of the history of geography, down to the year 1800, is given in MalteBrun's History of Geography. This work, however, does not supersede Sprengel's History of the most important geographical Discoveries, until the Arrival of the Portuguese in Japan (2d edit., Halle, 1792). A work on the geography of the middle ages, written with critical and extensive knowledge, is still wanting; for Christopher Junker's Introduction to the Geography of the Middle Ages (Jena, 1712,4to.) renders that want but the more sensible. For comparative geography, the works of Gosselin and Mentelle are of value. Modern geography, though in earlier works very unsatisfactorily treated, and though its foundation was so uncertain, gained much, in the first half of the 18th century, by Hiibner's Complete System of Geography, which ran through many editions; as also by Hager's geographical writings, and the New European Geography of States and Travelsa work compiled with great diligence, in 16 vols. (Leipsic, 1750, et seq.). But the first foundation of a scientific system of geography was laid by Ant. Fred. Biisching, whose New Description of the Globe appeared first in Hamburg, 1754. The 8th edition of this classical work was published in 1787, and contains, in the whole, 11 vols. From the great changes, which geography has undergone since that period,, the form of the work has become a little antiquated, and is no longer quite adapted to the present time ; it has, also, for a geographical system, too much that belongs to statistics, and the arrangement is, in some parts, incomplete. Of the new revised edition of this work, which has been announced, only the Geography of Portugal by Ebeling, that of Sweden by Riihs, that of America (incomplete), in 7 vols., by Ebeling, of Africa by Hartmann, and the continuation of Asia by Sprengel and Wahl, have as yet appeared. Other geographical works have been undertaken by Normann Gaspari, Bruns and Canzler but remain unfinished. The compendiums of GattererAbridgement of Geography (Gottingen, 1772), and Short Introductionto Geography (Gottingen, 1789; new edit. 1793)display a critical mind. With reference to the latest changes and revolutions in the political world, prof. Stein, in Berlin, wrote his Manual of Geography, according to the latest views, which is calculated for colleges and academies, and appeared in 2 vols. (Leipsic, 1808), and in a 5th edition (Leipsic, 1825), 3 vols, (but since the 2d edition, under the altered title, Manual of Geography and Statistics). The epitome of this work, for the use of elementary schools, appeared, in a 14th edition, in 1825. A valuable compendium, of which the 11th edition appeared in 1827 (Ilmenau), has been furnished by Cannabich. The large work, prepared by Gaspari, Hassel, Cannabich, Gutsmutlis and Uckert, which, since 1819, has appeared at Weimar (Complete Manual of the latest Geography), 23 vols., combines geography and statistics, is executed with care, and is intended to supply the place of Busching. No other nation possesses, as yet, a similar work of such extent and completeness. Most of the manuals, as well as compendiums, of geography furnish, in their introductions, a survey of mathematical and physical geography. The first outlines of a system of pure geography were drawn by Gatterer, in his Short Summary of Geography. In modern times, the idea has been taken up by Zeune, in his Gea (Berlin, 1808), which, in 1811, appeared in a second edition, with the title Gcea, an Essay towards a scientific Geography; by Kaiser, by Stein, by Hommeyer, by Kunz, &c. Ch. Hitter's Geography, in its Relation to the Nature and History of Mankind, or General comparative Geography (Berlin, 1817 et seq.), is a valuable work. As collections for the study of geography, must be mentioned, Neue Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden (New General Geogr. Ephemerides), to the year 1827, 21 vols.; Lander und Volkerkunde (Description of Countries and Nations, Weimar, in 24 vols., not continued) ; Bibliothek der neuesten Reisebeichreibungen (Library of the latest Travels), uitil 1826, 43 vols.; Journal des Voyages, T)ecouvertes et Navigations modernes^ published by Verneux, in Paris (in 1824 appeared the 66th series); and similar colections ; for instance, the Globus, by Streit and Cannabich, and HertJia, by Berghaus and Hoffmann, Stuttgart, since 1825. HassePs General GeographicStatistical Dictionary, in 2 vols. (Weimar, 1817), and Stein's Gazette, Post and Mercantile Dictionary, in 4 vols., with additions (Leipsic, 1818 et seq.), are among the most valua ble of the late works on geography. Among English geographical works, the Edinburgh Gazetteer, or Geographical Dictionary, which appeared in 1817 et seq. in 6 vols., accompanied by an Atlas byArrowsmith,also Cruttwell's Gazetteer, are distinguished. Besides these, there are geographical works by Pinkerton, Guthrie, Gordon, Salmon, and many others. Among the French works, the Didionnaire Geographique Universel, by Beudaut Billard, Douaix, Dubrena, Eyries, A. v. Humboldt, &c. (Paris, 1824 et seq.); and Didionnaire Classique et Universel de Geographie Moderne, with an atlas of ancient, and one of modern geography, by Hyaz Langlois (Paris, since 1825), deserve honorable mention. Van der Meelen's General Adas for the Physical and Mineralogical Geography of all the Parts of the Earth (Brussels, 1826 et seq.) is valuable. Among the manuals for travellers, the French and German works of Reichard, Guide des Voyageurs en Europe} and Passagier auf der Reise in Deutschland, in der Schwetiz, zu Paris und Petersburg (Traveller on a Tour through Germany and Switzerland, to Paris and Petersburg), are the most distinguished, and have run through many editions. (For further information, see the article Gazetteer,)