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GENEVA ; a Protestant cant zerland (q. v.), with 9137 sq and 53,560 inhabitants; of t are Calvinists, 15,800 Catholi therans, and 60 Jews. The re canton, in 1829, was 1,558,512 ders; expenditure, 1,516,220 gu city of Geneva, on the lake ( name, the Swiss Athens, is w fortified, enriched by commen ufactures, and contains 25,000 in about 900 houses. The R] passes through the lake of Ge the city itself, and divides it in equal parts, connected by brid most flourishing period of he neva contained 700 master w and about 6000 workmen. A timo frlioro aro r"riltr OftfiO r"oiCi mostly in French funds, part of which was lost in the French revolution. In the middle ages, Geneva was subject to a bishop and a count, who disputed with 'each other for their respective privileges. The count's right came, at last, into the hands of the dukes of Savoy, who soon brought the bishop over to their side. The citizens had also many privileges from the emperors. Hence arose disputes; and, as the dukes were pressed by the French on the one side, and the Genevese supported by the Swiss on the other, the former could not easily make good their claims. In 1524, the city released herself from the ducal government, and, in nine years after, from the bishop's also, by openly adopting Protestant doctrines. Several families, adherents of the duke, were banished. The claims of the dukes, for a long time, gave rise to contentions ; and, in 1602, the reigning duke made a last attempt to get the city into his power by surprise. The attempt failed, and an annual festival was instituted on the 12th of December, to commemorate the escalade. In 1603, by the mediation of Berne, Zurich, and Henry IV of France, a permanent accommodation was effected with Savoy, by which that power renounced all her claims, and the three mediators guarantied to Geneva a free government. This constitution was a mixture of democracy and aristocracy. The citizens formed the general or sovereign council, which had power to make laws, and to decide in matters of most importance to the public weal. A great council, consisting of 200, and subsequently of 250 members, was elected from among the citizens; and from these a small council of 25 members was chosen, under the presidency of the syndic. These had the executive power, the care of the public treasure, and the management of ordinary daily business. As early as 1536, it was determined that nothing should come before the great council till the smaller had signified their approbation, and that the great council must first approve whatever was presented to the burgesses. This form the government retained for a long time, to the entire satisfaction of the people, until it degenerated into an oligarchy ; particular families monopolizing the most important offices, and treating the citizens as their dependants. Signs of the disaffection thus produced di"covered themselves, in the course of the 38th century, very frequently, in violent eruptions, and in the demand for an sentatives, and the adherents of the council families, negatives, Th*" evil was increased by the old constitution of Geneva, according to which the inhabitants were divided into three classes, viz., the citizens, or such burgesses as were, by birth, entitled to citizenship, and were eligible to all offices; the bourgeois, or such commoners as sprang from families recently introduced from abroad, who might attend the general council, but could not be members of the smaller council, nor be invested with public office; and, lastly, the householders, or commoners at largesuch as had no right of citizenship whatever, and whose descendants were styled natives, simply. All these classes had cause for discontent; and, on this very account, the small council was able to sustain itself longer in its usurped privileges. In 1781, they broke out into a violent rupture. The strife was terminated by the mediating powers, especially the French minister, Vergennes, with arms in their hands, in favor of the oligarchy ; but the consequence was, that many families emigrated to Constance, to Neufchatel, England and America, carrying much of the skill and industry of the country with them. * A later revolution, in 1789, placed the rights of the citizens on a better footing, and many of the emigrants and exiles returned; but the French revolution now broke out, and, during the reign of terror, in 1792, Soulavie was appointed by his government resident at Geneva, and acted over there the horrible scenes then taking place in France. Many citizens, without form of law, lost home, property and life. After this storm succeeded a few years of tranquillity. In 1798, French troops were quartered in the city, which was now incorporated with the republic of France Geneva was the capital of the department of Leman. Dec. 30, 1813, Geneva capitulated to the allies. Since then, it has formed the 22d canton of the Helvetic confederation. The constitution of Geneva is aristocraticodemocratical. A council of state, composed of four syndics of the present and four of the past year, with 21 counsellors of noble rank, possess the executive power. The ..egislative authority is vested in a representative assembly of 276 members. The Genevese are as much distinguished by their interest in science as by their public spirit; and it excites admiration to see how much they have done, and are still doing, with their limited means, for the interestsof learning and the advancement of society. This patriotic spirit extends even to the laboring classes, who, to give an instance, in 1815, when Decandolle wished for a botanic garden, offered voluntarily to build, without remuneration, a hothouse, &c, and to furnish the necessary glass at. their own expense. The university, founded in 1368, was revived in 1538 by the influence of Calvin and Beza. It has a public library, an observatory, built in 1770, an academic museum of natural science, founded in 1818, and comprising Saussure's mineral collection, Haller's herbarium, Pictet's philosophical apparatus. The society of arts have appropriated 80,000 francs to the erection of a splendid edifice, where the cabinets of natural science and of the arts might be deposited. In 1825, also, a new penitentiary was built, after the model of that in New York. In 1820, an agricultural school for poor children, like that at Hofwyl, was established at Carra, in the canton of Geneva. Among the objects worthy of notice, in and around Geneva, are, the house in which Rousseau was born ; Calvin's tomb, without inscription or monument; Eynai d's palace; the iron wire bridge; Ferney, which remains in possession of France, about four miles from Geneva; it is gradually decaying, but the lower apartments are as Voltaire left them ; the glaciers of Chamouny, a day's journey from Geneva. The lake, with its picturesque scenery, has furnished a subject for several poets, such as Matthisson, and lord Byron (in Childe Harold, I). It is over 41 miles long, and its greatest width is about 8£ miles. It is deep, and well supplied with fish, and does not freeze entirely over, although it lies 1126 feet above the level of the sea. The situation of Geneva is beautiful beyond description. (For a more particular account of it, see the Topographical and Statistical Account of the City and Canton of Geneva, by Manget, Geneva, 1823.)