FOURTH

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FOURTH, in music; a distance comprising three diatonic intervals, or two tones and a half. Fox. This wellknown animal is a native of almost every quarter of the globe, and has been esteemed the most sagacious and crafty of all beasts of prey. The former quality he demonstrates in his mode of providing himself an asylum, and the latter in his schemes for catching his prey. The fox belongs to the genus cards of naturalists, and has been formed into a subgenus, on account of its longer and more bushy tail, more pointed muzzle, nocturnal pupils, less slanting superior incisive teeth, fetid odor, and habit of burrowing. All the species are equally wily and voracious, greedily devouring birds and small quadrupeds, disliked and betrayed by most of those anima s who have a dread of his attacks, and extremely difficult to be tamed, even when caught very young. The fox, like the wolf, is the constant object of persecution, from the ravages he commits, not only on domestic animals, but also on some fruits. He has been the destroyer of grapes from the earliest records. He devours honey, sucks eggs, carries off poultry, and, in fact, commits mischief in every possible form. The common fox of Europe (C. vulpes) exhibits a great degree of cunning in digging young rabbits out of their burrows. He does not enter the hole, as, in such case, he would be obliged to dig several feet along the ground under the surface; but he follows their scent above, till he comes to the end where they lie, and then, scratching up the earth, descends immediately upon, and devours them. The den of this fox is so contrived as to afford the best possible security to the inhabitant, being situated under hard ground, the roots of trees, &c, and furnished with proper outlets for the purposes of escape, if necessary. He is one of those animals that are made the objects of diversion in the chase. When he finds himself pursued, he usually makes for his hole, and, penetrating to the bottom, lies quiet till a terrier is sent in to him. If his den is under a rock or the roots of trees, which is often the case, he is safe, for the terrier is no match for him there, and he cannot be dug out. When, as is generally practised, the retreat to his den is cut off, his stratagems and shifts to escape are various. He always seeks the most woody parts of the country, and prefers such paths as are most embarrassed by thorns and briers. He runs in a direct line before the hounds, and at no great distance from them. When overtaken, he fights very obstinately. He possesses astonishing acuteness of smell. During winter he makes a continual yelping, but in summer he is usually silent. In Japan, the natives believe him to be animated by the devil; and their writings are full of strange accounts respecting him. There are several species of the fox found in this country.Arctic fox (C. lagopus). This is smaller than the common fox, with a sharp nose, and short, rounded ears, almost hid in its fur; its hair is long, soft, and somewhat woolly. Its legs are short, having the toes covered with fur, like those of the hare; hence its specific name. It inhabits the countries bordering on the Frozen ocean in both continents. In October and November, like the common fox, it is the most sleek, and has the best coat of hair, which, later in the sea* son, becomes too thick and ragged. As the winter commences, it grows perfectly white, changing color last on the ridge of the back and tip of the tail. In April and May, it begins to shed its coat. In June, it drops its cubs, from three to five in a litter. This fox preys upon various smah quadrupeds, such as hares, marmots, &c, as well as upon partridges and otlrer birds, the carcasses of fish left on shore; and, driven by necessity, it will eat indiscriminately whatever may promise to allay its hunger. We are informed by Mr. Crantz, that h exerts an extraordinary degree of cunning in taking fish. It goes into the water, and makes a splash with its feet in order to attract them, and, when they come up, immediately seizes them. It is taken with great facility in traps, and it is a singular circumstance, that these animals will prey on each other, when they find individuals killed, wounded, or caught, as readily as upon any other food. Their skins are not of any great value.Black fox (C. argentatus). This species is strikingly similar to the common fox, and is only distinguishable by its copious and beautiful fur, which is of a rich and shining black color, having a small quantity of white mixed with it in different proportions. It inhabits the northern parts of Asia and America; but a comparison of those of this country with the foreign will, in all probability, prove them to be distinct, as has been suggested by F. Cuvier.Red fox (C.fulvus). This species is found throughout North America, and has been considered as identical with the common fox of Europe, though there can be no doubt of their difference. The general color of this fox, in summer, is bright ferruginous on the head, back and sides. Beneath the chin it is white, whilst the throat and neck are of a dark gray. The under parts of the body towards the tail are very pale red. It is about 2 feet long and 18 inches high. The skins are much sought for, and are employed in various manufactures. When caught young, they may be domesticated to a certain degree, but are always unpleasant from the fetor of their urine. Crossed fox (C. decussatus). This differs very much from the common fox. The color of his fur is a sort of gray, resulting from the mixture of black and white hair. Lie has a black cross on his shoulders, from which he derives his name. The muzzle, lower parts of the body and the feet are black; the tail is terminated with white. It inhabits the northern parts of America, and may, perhaps, be only a variety of the black fox.Gray fox (C cinereoargcntatus) is common throughout the country, more particularly in the neighborhood of habitations. Its general color is gray, becoming gradually darker from the shoulders to the hips. It has a sharp head, marked by a blackishgray triangle, which gives it a peculiar physiognomy. The tail is thick }*nd bushy. Swift fox (C.velox, Say). This beautiful little animal, which was first accurately described by Mr. Say, inhabits the great plains which lie at the base of the Rocky mountains. It is much smaller than the other American species, and forms its habitation by burrowing. It is distinguished by its extraordinary speed, which appears to surpass that of any other animal. It can pass the fleetest antelope, and seems rather to fly than to touch the ground in its course. It is even stated, that such is its rapid motion, that the effect produced on the eye is that of a line swiftly drawn along the surface, the parts of the animal's body being wholly undistinguishable. Its body is slender, and the tail rather long, cylindrical and black. The hair is fine, dense and soft. It somewhat resembles the C. corsac, which inhabits the vast plains of Tartary. Fox, George, the founder of the society of Friends, or Quakers, wras born at Drayton, in Leicestershire, in 1624. His father, who was a weaver, educated him religiously. Being apprenticed to a grazier, be was much employed in the keeping of sheep; and it is thought that so solitary an employment confirmed that tendency to enthusiasm which he displayed from his infancy. At the age of 19, he persuaded himself that he had received a divine command to forsake every thing else, and devote himself solely to religion. He accordingly forsook his relations, equipped himself in a leathern doublet, and wandered from place to place, supporting himself as he could. Being discovered in the metropolis, his friends induced him to return; he, however, remained with them a very short time, resuming a life of itinerancy, in which he fasted much, walked abroad in retired places, studying the Bible, and sometimes sat in a hollow tree for a day together. In 1648, he began to propagate his opinions, and commenced public preacher at Manchester; whence he soon after made excursions through the neighboring counties, where he preached to the people in the marketplaces. About this time, he began to adopt the peculiar language and manners of Quakerism, and experienced some of the persecutions to which all active novelty, in the way of religious opinion, was in those days exposed. At Derby, the followers of Fox were first denominated Quakers, in consequence of their trembling mode of delivery, and calls on the magistracy to tremble before the Lord. In 1655, he was sent a prisoner to Cromwell, who, having ascertained the pacific tendency of his doctrines, had him set at liberty. He was, however, treated witn great severity by the country magistracy in consequence of his interruption of ministers during divine service, and ex the protector for his freedom. On the occasion of a fast appointed on account of the persecution of the Protestants abroad, he addressed a paper to the heads and governors of the nation, in which he forcibly described the inconsistency of similar severity at home. In 1666, he was liberated from prison by order of Charles II, and irnjnediately set about forming the people, Who had followed his doctrines, into a formal and united society. In 1669, he married the widow of judge Fell, in the same simple manner which still distinguishes the marriages of his followers, and soon after went to America, where he remained two years, which he employed in making proselytes. On his return, he was thrown into Worcester gaol, but was quickly released, and went to Holland. He soon after returned, and was cast in a suit for tithes, which he deemed it unlawful to pay; and, in 1684, again visited the continent, where he did not long remain ; and, his health becoming impaired by incessant toil, imprisonment and suffering, he lived more retired until his death, in 1690, in the 67th year of his age. Exclusive of a few separate pieces, the writings of Fox are collected into 3 vols, folio; the first of which contains his Journal, the second his Epistles, and the third his Doctrinal Pieces. He was undoubtedly a man of strong natural parts; and William Penn speaks in high terms of his meekness, humility and temperance. Fox, John; an English church historian, was born at Boston, in Lincolnshire, in 1517. At the age of 16, he was entered at Brazennose college, Oxford, and, in 1543, was elected a fellow of Magdalen college, in the same university. Applying himself to theology w7ith great assiduity, he secretly became a convert to the principles of the reformation. This tendency being at length suspected, a charge of heresy followed, and, by the judgment of his colleg \ he was, in 1545, expelled. In the reign of Edward VI, he was restored to his fellowship; but, in the reign of Mary, understanding that Gardiner was devising means to seize him, he went abroad, and gained a livelihood by correcting the press for an eminent printer at Basle, where he laid the first plan of his Acts and Monuments of the Church. On the accession of Elizabeth, he returned to his native country, and was received in the most friendly manner by his former pupil, the duke of Norfolk, who maintained him as long as he lived, and settled a pensionof Salisbury ; and he might have received much higher preferment if he would have subscribed to the articles enforced by the ecclesiastical commissioners. In 1575, a persecution took place of the German Anabaptists, when Fox sought an audience of Elizabeth, and endeavored to convince her of the cruelty and injustice of condemning them to the flames. He died, greatly esteemed and lamented, in 1587, in his 70th year. His principal work is the History of the Acts and Monuments of the Church, commonly called Fox's Booh of Martyrs, first printed in 1553, in 1 vol., folio; reprinted in 1632 and 1641, in 3 vols, folio. In 1684, it had reached the 9th edition. Fox, Charles James. This eminent statesman was the second son of Henry, first lord Holland, so long the rival and opponent of the earl of Chatham. Charles James was bom January 13, 1748, and early became a favorite with his father, who, perceiving indications of great capacity, mingled exceeding indulgence with the most careful attention to his education. He was sent to Eton, whence he removed to Hertford college, Oxford, and his classical acquirements were very considerable. His father procured him a seat for the borough of Midhurst, in 1768, before he was of legal age, and, in 1770, the same interest procured him the office of one of the lords of the admiralty, which situation he resigned the next year, and was appointed a commissioner of the treasury. Acting at this period under the influence of his father, his parliamentary conduct led to little anticipation of his future career. He spoke and voted against Wilkes, but warmly supported sir William Meredith's bill to give relief from subscription to the thirtynine articles, and, in several other respects, asserted his independence. After being a supporter of administration for six years, Mr. Fox was ejected, and was thrown into the ranks of opposition. The adoption of the disastrous measures which terminated in the independence of the American colonies, enabled him to take this part without opposing any of the policy which he had previously supported. During the whole of this eventful contest, he spoke and voted in direct opposition to the ministerial system, and, in conjunction with Burke, Barre, Dunning, and other eminent leaders, displayed the highest talents both as a statesman and orator. In 1780, he became a candidate for the representation of the city of Westminster, and succeeded, although opposed by the whole influence of the crown. On the final defeat of the weak and calamitous administration of lord North, and the accession of that of the marquis of Rockingham, Mr. Fox obtained the office of wsecretary of state for foreign affairs. But the death of the marquis of Rockingham suddenly divided the party; and, on the earl of Shelburne becoming first lord of the treasury, in preference to the duke of Portland, Mr. Fox retired in disgust; and, soon after, a union took place between his friends and those of lord North, which, under the name of the coalition, was odious to the great mass of the people. The temporary success of this party movement served only to render popular disgust the more general; and when, on occasion of the famous India bill, the dissatisfaction of the sovereign became apparent, the dismissal of the coalition excited general satisfaction. At the ensuing election, nearly seventy of his friends lost their seats, and he had himself to enter into a strong and expensive contest for the representation of Westminster. Still, although in the new parliament Mr. Pitt had a decided majority, Mr. Fox headed a very strong opposition, and political questions were for some years contested with a display of talent on both sides, which the house of commons had seldom previously exhibited. In 1788, Mr. Fox repaired to the continent, and was proceeding to Italy, when he was recalled by the king's illness, and the necessity of constituting a regency. The contest for the unrestricted right of the heirapparent, which he warmly espoused, was marked by a great display of oratorical and logical talent on the part of the opposition; but, both in and out of parliament, the majority on this occasion was with Mr. Pitt. In 1790 and 1791, Mr. Fox regained a share of popularity by his opposition to war with Spain and Russia, and also by his libel bill, regulating the rights of juries in criminal cases, and rendering them judges both of the law and the fact. On the breaking out of the French revolution, he was disposed to regard it as likely to prove extremely beneficial. The contrary views of Mr. Burke, and the extraordinary manner in which that warm politician on mat account publicly renounced his friendship, is one of the most striking incidents in parliamentary history. The policy of the war that followed belongs to history. Mr f ox firmly opposed the principle on which it commenced, and strenuously argued for peace on every occasion; and, at the treaty of Amiens, in 1801, gave Mr* Addington, who concluded it, his support. When hostilities were renewed, he also doubted of their necessity; but, on becoming secretary of state for foreign affairs, in conjunction with the Grenville party, he acquiesced in its propriety. His political career was now, however, drawing towards the close ; his health began rapidly to decline; symptoms of dropsy appeared ; and, in a few months after the death of Mr. Pitt, his great rival was laid in an almost contiguous grave. Mr. Fox died September 15, 1806, without pain, and almost without a struggle, in the 58th year of his age. The opinions formed of this eminent leader as a practical and theoretic cal statesman, it is unnecessary to say, have been as various as the shades of party difference in England. That he was a sincere friend to all the broad and generous principles, on the due developement of which rest the freedom and best interests of mankind, is not to be doubted, and that they were alloyed by great latitude on the subject of party and political expediency, is equally clear. As a powerful and purely argumentative orator he was of the very first class; although, as to eloquence and brilliancy, he, perhaps, yielded to Pitt, Burke and Sheridan ; nor was his voice and manner prepossessing, although highly forcible. Of his amiability in private life, allowing for a dissipated youth, all accounts agree. Friends and foes equally testify to his ingenuous and benign character. The result of this happy temperament was, that no man was ever more idolized by a wide and extensive connexiona fact rendered conspicuous by more than one striking circumstance. As an author, besides some Latin poetry, and a Greek dialogue, by which he highly distinguished himself at Eton, and a few numbers of a paper entitled The Englishman, he published nothing during his lifetime but A Letter to the Electors of Westminster, 1793, which was read with great avidity. To his nephew, lord Holland, the world is indebted for his posthumous publication, entitled The History of the early Part of the Reign of James II, with an introductory chapter, which was intended to form a commencement of the history of the revolution of 1688. It is written with unpretending simplicity.