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FERDINAND ; German emperors: 1. Ferdinand I, brother of Charles V, whom he succeeded as emperor of Germany, 1558, having been chosen king of the Romans, 1531, and king of Hungary and Bohemia, 1526. In 1559, he held a diet at Augsburg, in which the currency of the empire was regulated, and many religious grievances suffered by the Protestants were exposed. Ferdinand was of a mild character, and, at the second session of the council of Trent, in 1562, he obtained several religious privileges for his subjects. The aulic council (q. v.) was definitively organized during his reign. He ascended the thrpne too late to effect as much good in Germany as he would otherwise have done. 2. Ferdinand II succeeded his uncle Matthias, who died without children, and who had secured to him the succession in an assembly of the states, in 1617. He ascended the imperial throne when the thirty years' war (q. v.) was just on the point of breaking out, and the house of Austria was in a critical situation. He was of a dark and reserved character, had been educated by the Jesuits at Ingolstadt, and, in his religious views, was very unlace his ancestors, Ferdinand I, Maximilian, or even Rodolph and Matthias. His zeal was excited against every deviation from the decrees of the council of Trent, and he obstinately adhered to bigoted and narrow views of religion. The retreat of the Bohemian forces, who had appeared before Vienna, under the command of Thurn, gave him an opportunity of securing his election to the imperial throne, in spite of the opposition of the Union and the Bohemians (1619). The support of the league, and of the elector of Saxony, John George I, placed him firmly on the throne of Bohemia, where he relentlessly persecuted the Protestants, banishing their preachers,and compelling many thousand industrious people to remove to foreign countries. He recalled the Jesuits, and tore the charter of privileges, granted by Rodolph II, with his own hand. (See Calixtines.) He declared his rival, Fredel'ic V, under the ban of the empire, and in spite of the opposition of the elector of Saxony, transferred the Palatinate to the duke, of Bavaria, who supported his measures. His generals, Tilly and Wallenstein, defeated Christian IV, king of Denmark, Christian, duke of Brunswick, and count Mansfeld. The two dukes of Mecklenburg, who had taken part with Denmark, were put under the ban of the empire. Wallenstein was invested with the duchy of Mecklenburg. He also attempted to make himself master of the commerce of the Baltic; but this project failed, the siege of Stralsund being rendered ineffectual by the protection of the Hanse towns. He now published the edict of restitution (1629), restoring all the ecclesiastical foundations which had been abolished by the Protestants, contrary to the ecclesiastical reservation (see Religious Peace), to the Catholic bishops and prelates, declaring the Calvinists to be excluded from the religious peace, and requiring the Protestant subjects of Catholic princes to embrace the Catholic religion. This edict was carried into execution, by force of arms, at Augsburg, Ulm, Kauffburen and Ratisbon. But the dismission of Wallenstein, which was almost unanimously demanded by the diet, and the efforts of Richelieu, who put all his political machinery in motion, in order to secure to France a powerful influence in Europe, and to limit the almost overwhelming power of the house of Austria, and, finally, the power of Gustavus Adolphus, supported by France and assisted by the Protestants, when they found all hopes of reconciliation destroyed by the siege of Magdeburg,all contributed to prevent Ferdinand from carrying his plan into execution. The death of Gustavus Adolphus, the victory of his own son, the archduke Ferdinand, over Bernard, duke of Weimar, at Nordlingen, and the separate peace with Saxony (Prague, 1635), gave him the prospect of an ultimate triumph over the Protestants. But the treatment of the elector of Treves, who, having placed himself under the protection of France, and received French troops irio his fortresses, was carried off from juuxembourg by the Spanish troops, by the command of Ferdinand and Philip IV, and the murder of the French garrison, gave France a pretext for an immediate war with Spain and Austria. Sweden could now act with renewed vigor. Baner (q. v.) defeated the imperial and Saxon forces at Wittstock, 1636, and drove them out of Hesse; and Ferdinand died Feb. 15, 1637, without having accomplished his design of destroying Protestantism and political freedom in Germany.3. His son, Fer dinand III, the victor of Nordlingen, succeeded him. He was more disposed towards peace than his father. Baner, and Bernard, duke of Weimar, repeatedly defeated the imperial troops. Still, however, the diet, assembled at Ratisbon in 1640, did not agree to a peace. Although Ferdinand would not render himself subservient to the interests of Spain and the Jesuits, and though he showed much spirit in the diet, yet he was unable to accomplish his objects. At last, the preliminaries of Hamburg were concluded (1641), by the articles of which a general congress was assembled at Munster and Osnabriick, for the purpose of negotiating a peace. A long time elapsed before this congress commenced its session, and, in the mean time, as there was no truce, the war continued with various success. In 1648, when the Swedes (who, under Torstenson, had even threatened Vienna) were on the point of taking possession of the capital of Bohemia, under Wrangel, Ferdinand determined to accede to the peace. (See Westphalia, Peace of.) He soon after secured the election of his son, Ferdinand IV, as king of the Romans; but that prince died the next year. In the diet of 1653-54, some important changes were made in the administration of justice. Shortly before his death (1657), Ferdinand concluded a league with the Poles against the Swedes. FERDINAND V, king of Arragon, who received from the pope the title of the Catholic, on account of the expulsion of *the Moors from Spain, was the son of king John II, and was born in 1453. By his marriage with Isabella, queen of Castile, he laid the foundation for the union of the different Spanish kingdoms, which was finally completed 42 years later. " Ferdinand and Isabella lived together," says a historian, " not like a couple whose united possessions were under the control of the husband, but like two monarchs, closely and voluntarily united by a community of interests." Isabella allowed her husband no other share in the government of Castile than the privilege of affixing his signature to the decrees, and of uniting his arms with her own. With Ximenes (q. v.) they raised Spain to an eminence which she had never before attained. After a bloody war of ten years, they conquered Grenada (1491), the only kingdom of which the # Moors yet retained possession in Spain ; but the most brilliant event of their reign was the discovery of America, for which Isabella had furnished the ships, and which made them sovereigns of anew world. (See Columbus.) This politic prince laid the foundation of the Spanish ascendency in Europe by the acquisition of Naples (1505), by means of his general, Gonzalvo of Cordova, and by the conquest of Navarre (1512); but his policy was deceitful and despotic. These stains obscure the great qualities which made him the first monarch of his time. His efforts to aggrandize himself, and confirm his power, and his religious bigotry, led him into great errors. For the purpose of domineering over the consciences of his subjects, he instituted the court of the inquisition, in 1480, not perceiving that he thus gave the clergy a power which they would soon use against the monarch himself. Not less unjust and impolitic was the expulsion of the Jews (1492) and the banishment of the Moors (1501). After the death of his wife Isabella (1504), he married Germaine de Foix, and died (1516) of the dropsy, produced by an aphrodisiac, given him by his second wife. Charles I (V) succeeded him.