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EUROPE; the smallest of the great divisions .of our globe, but distinguished above" the rest by the character of its population, the superior cultivation of the soil, and the flourishing condition of arts, sciences, industry and commerce, the multitude of large and wellbuilt cities, and its power and influence over the other parts of the world. Of the origin of its name and its inhabitants, history furnishes no certain account. It is most probable, that the first inhabitants emigrated from Asia, the cradle of the human race. Greece was first peopled by the emigrants. In that countiy, about 1400 years before our era, grew up the Hellenes, who soon outstripped the civilization of Asia. The most flourishing period of that nation, commonly called the Greeks, was about 300 B. C. Equally distinguished in action and speculation, adorned by the arts and sciences, rich in the noblest productions of cultivated minds, it will be, as long as civilization endures, an object of admiration, and its remains the foundation of our knowledge and taste. But with the dissolution of Alexander's empire, which had been raised on the ruins of Grecian freedom, Greece sunk into insignificance. At the same time another nation was rising in Italy, the Romans, who appeared, indeed, at an earlier period* but made no figure in history till they had become masters of Italy, and had proved victorious in their struggle with the Carthaginians. From that period, their power began to extend over all Europe. They subdued the divided Greeks, and transplanted their arts and refinement to the Italian soil. By the progress of the Roman arms, Spain, Portugal, France, the coast of England, Belgium, Helvetia, the part of Germany between the Danube and the Alps, the Hungarian provinces (then called Pannonia, Ittyria and Dacia), became known, and received the .Roman manners, language and refinement. Agriculture was introduced, and flourishing cities rose among the wandering nomades. The Christian religion, which spread throughout the wide Roman empire, was also a powerful instrument in the civilization of most of the European nations. Germany alone resisted the overwhelming power of Rome, and thereby prevented the spreading of Roman civilization in the north of Europe, which still remained unknown in history. With the fall of the Roman empire, occasioned chiefly by its separation into the Eastern and Western empires, a great change in the political constitution of Europe was produced, by the universal emigration of the northern nations. These nations poured down upon the beautiful and cultivated countries of the Roman empire, now in the weakness of decline, and Roman art and science were obliged to give place to the barbarity, the deep ignorance and superstition of the middle ages. The Ostrogoths and Lombards settled in Italy, the Franks in France, the Visigoths in Spain, and the AngloSaxons in South Britain, reducing the inhabitants to subjection, or becoming incorporated with them. The empire of the Franks was enlarged, under Charlemagne, to such an extent, that the kingdoms of France, Germany, Italy, Burgundy, Lorraine and Navarre were afterwards formed out of it. About this time, the northern and eastern nations of Europe began to exert an influence in the affairs of the world. The Slavi, or Sclavonians, founded kingdoms in Bohemia, Poland, Russia, and the north of Germany; the Magyarians appeared in Hungary, and the Normans agitated all Europe. The establishment of a hierarchy was now undertaken by the popes, and finally carried to its completion by Gregory VII and Innocent III. (See Empire,) Their power was increased by the crusades. Nevertheless, this struggle between Asia and Europe had the effect of forming a middle class, of leading the peasant gradually to throw off the chains of bondage, and of introducing the arts and sciences through the Arabs and Greeks into Europe. The revival of letters, by the Greeks fleeing from Constantinople, gave an entirely new impulse to Europe. The establishment of universities, the invention of printing, and' the reformation, served to cherish and develope these seeds of improvement. The feudal contests, the struggle of privileges, led eventually to the acknowledgment and establishment of the rights of the individual. (See City, Corporation, and Estates.) Out oC the chaos of the middle ages, arose the the Italian powers, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Russia. By the capture of Constantinople (1453), the Turks, with their fanatical military despotism, became a European power. Austria, Holland, Prussia and Sardinia were also added to the number }f European states; and Russia, from the time of Peter I, was changed from an Asiatic into a European empire. The attempts of Charles V and Louis XIV to become masters of Europe failed ; but, in our own times, Napoleon conceived the project of forming, from the European states, a universal monarchy, and pursued it for 10 years. Since the formation of the states of Europe, the following have disappeared from the list of independent powers: Hungary, Poland, the German empire, Scotland, Bohemia, Venice, Genoa, and Milan. The following have been added : the states of the German confederacy, the Italian states, the republic of the Ionian islands, and that of Cracow. A natural consequence of the general diffusion of intellectual cultivation, and the decay of the feudal system, has been the gradual developement of the ideas of equal right and individual liberty ; bloody struggles have naturally ensued between the adherents of the new and old opinions, and Europe is still convulsed by them. ' (See Feudal System, Napoleon, &c.)Europe is washed on three sides by the sea, which is called by different names, and belongs either to the Northern Arctic or the Atlantic ocean. A narrow strait of the Mediterranean separates it from Africa. On the east, alone, it joins the main land, being there separated from Asia by an imaginary line. Europe is situated 'in the northern frozen and the northern temperate zones, between 10° and C3° east longitude, and 36° and 71° north latitude. Including the islands, 'which contain about 317,000 square miles, the whole extent of Europe amounts to about 3,250,000 square miles, of which Russia comprises nearly one half. The greatest length, from cape St. Vincent, in Portugal, to the northern extremity of the eastern boundary, at Waygatt'B straits, is about 3500 miles. The greatest breadth, from cape Matapan, in the Morea, to the North Cape, in Norway, is about 2500 miles. Europe is remarkably well watered, although its rivers have not so long a course, nor such large cataracts, as those in other parts of the globe, particularly in America, The nean; the Danube, the Dnieper and the Dniester, into the Black sea; the Don, into the sea of Azoph; the Wolga, into the Caspian; the Dwina, into the Arctic ocean; another Dwina, or Duna, the Vistula and the Oder, into the Baltic ; the Elbe, Weser and Rhine, into the North sea; the Seine, into the Englhh channel; the Loire and Garonne, the D uera and Tagus, the Guadiana and Guar alquiver, into the Atlantic. The Wolga and Danube are the longest. Of its nuntercus lakes, the largest, which, howev r, bear no comparison with the North American, are in the north of Europe; riz., in Russia, lakes Ladoga (the largest in Europe), Onega, and Tchudskoe, or Peipus; in Sweden, lakes Maler, Wener, and Wetter. On the borders of Germany and Switzerland is lake Constance; on the borders of Italy and Switzerland is the lake of Geneva (lake Leman); in Hungary are lakes Platten and Neusiedler. A great part of Europe is mountainous; the southern more so than the northern. The most elevated region is Switzerland, from which there is a descent, which terminates, on the side of the North sea and the Baltic, in low plains. The lowest and most level parts are Holland and northern Germany, Denmark, Russia and Prussia. The highest mountains are the Alps, in Switzerland and Italy, which spread from those countries in various directions, extend westwardly into France, and are connected by the Cevennes with the Pyrenees, which separate France from Spain. One chain of the Alps stretches south towards the Mediterranean ; then, taking an easterly course, runs through Italy, under the name of the Apennines. Several branches run eastwards from the Alps, through the south of Germany, as far as the Turkish provinces. Another chain, the Jura, runs to the north, and separates Switzerland from France. In the east of Europe are the Carpathian mountains, which, on one side, meet the Sudetic range, and on the other, the mountains of Turkey la Europe. The highest mountain in Europe is Mont Blanc, in Savoy, one of the Alps, which is said to be 15,7()b' feet above the level of the sea. Sever*] 1 of the European mountains are volcano $s; as /Etna, Vesuvius and Hecla. It is a fact worthy of notice, that none of the volcanaes of Europe are to be found in any of the great chains of mountains which have just been enumerated. The osly one on the comi nent is Vesuvius, and this is too much detached to be considered as properly forming one of the Apennines. iEtna, in the island of Sicily, rising to the height of 10 or 11,000 feet above the level of the sea, is the largest European volcano. The Lipari islands, anciently called the Molian, a few miles to the north of Sicily, bear evident marks of a volcanic origin; and, in several of them, subterranean fires are still in operation. The volcano of Stromboli is in almost incessant activity, and differs, in this respect, from any other with which we are acquainted. The Azores, in the Atlantic ocean, are doubtless indebted for their formation to the same circumstance as the Lipari islands ; and, indeed, new rocks have risen from .the sea in their vicinity, within a recent period. An eruption took place at St George, during the present century. Iceland, too, though lying under 65° of north latitude, presents the most abundant tokens of the presence of volcanic fire, and has often suffered under its devastations. Mount Hecla is the most noted, though not the only source of the eruptions on this island. To the possession of many inland seas, and, consequently, of a line of coast very extensive in proportion to its area, Europe is greatly indebted for the great advancement of its inhabitants in civilization; these circumstances being favorable to that intercourse without which nations never make great advances. The peninsulas are six: Scandinavia, Jutland, Crimea (Taurica Ckersonesus), Italy, Spain and Greece. The soil of Europe, though not equal in luxuriance to that of the tropics, is, almost throughout, fit jpr cultivation. The tracts in the northern zone are almost the only exception. With respect to climate, Europe may be divided into three parts,the warm region, where the lemontrees grow wild, wild beasts of difFeren their flesh or fur, whi dogs, abundance of v large quantities of fis and rivers, among wJ particular, affords sust the inhabitants; usef bees, silkworms, kerr Spanish flies. Oysters also abound. It pro grain, and sufficient fc beautiful garden plar fruits, including thos< mates, puch as figs, i lemoijs, oranges, oli1 dates; also flax, hem tobacco, the best kin< great variety of woo< house and ship buildii the willow best endu northern polar circle, all the varieties of in in great excellence a gold and silver, Hung; ilia are the richest; ii countries, Sweden, N Salt of all kinds, rock, is also abundant in Ei itants, estimated by ] millions, at least, are un in Russia and Swedei to 18 to a square mile ; where the population i France, Great Britain same extent supports persons. The inhabit eral different races, sp< guages. The stocks t pal languages belong, which is the mother Dutch, English, Swc the Latin, or Roman, by the learned, but Italian, French, Spanii Walachian ; the Sclai the inhabitants profess the Jewish, a part the Mohammedan religion. Among the Laplanders and Samoeides there are also some heathens, but their number is small. Agriculture has made great advances in Europe, and is daily improving. In this respect, those countries are particularly tJistinguished where the Teutonic languages are spoken, as, also, are France and a part of Italy. In no part of the world are manufactures carried to such perfection as in several of the European countries, especially in Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and Germany. The inhabitants work up not only native European, but also foreign products, and supply all the wants and luxuries of life. Commerce is not less active, and is promoted by wellconstructed roads and canals, by wellorganized posts, banks, insurance companies, commercial companies, and fairs. The commerce of Europe extends to all quarters of the world, and ¦every sea is filled with European ships. In this respect, Great Britain is most distinguished. Europe is the seat of art and science; to her belongs the honor of discovering the most important truths, of giving birth to the most useful inventions, the finest productions of genius, the improvement of all the sciences. In intellectual progress, the Teutonic races, and those who speak the languages derived from the Latin, have surpassed the Sclavonic nations. The Turks have remained strangers, in many respects, to the Jiterary and scientific improvement which has marked the other European nations. ;Eightyfive universities provide for the higher branches of education ; numerous gymnasia and academies for the preparatory studies, and a great number of lower schools, particularly in Germany, are employed in educating the common people. In many places there are academies of science, and societies of all kinds, for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. By its physical situation, Europe is divided into East and West Europe. West Europe comprises the Pyrenean peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the' country west of the Alps (France), the countries north of the Alps (Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands), the country south of tlie Alps (Italy), the islands of the North sea (Great Britain, Ireland and Iceland), and the countries on the Baltic (Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Prussia).ui iuc v^iupcumuu uiuuuiuiijs ^lviiasm aim Galicia), and the countries south of the Carpathian mountains (Hungary, in its more comprehensive sense, and Turkey). The following are the political states of Europe: the three empires of Austria, Russia and Turkey; 17 kingdoms, viz., Portugal, Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Sardinia, the Two Sicilies, Greece, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wiirtemberg and Poland; 1 ecclesiastical state, the papal dominions; 8 republics, viz., Switzerland, the Ionian islands, Cracow, San Marino, Hamburg, Lubeck, Bremen and Frankfort; 1 electorate, Hesse; 6 grandduchies, Baden, HesseDarmstadt, SaxeWeimar, Mecklenburg* Schwerin, MecklenburgStrelitz and Tuscany ; 12 duchies, viz., Oldenburg, Gotha, Meiningen, xVltenburg, Brunswick, Nassau, Dessau, Bernburg, Cothen, Modena, Parma and Lucca; 1 landgraviate, HesseHomburg; 1 grand principality, Finland, and 12 principalities, viz., HohenzollernHechingen, HohenzollernSigmaringen, SchwarzburgRudolstadt, SchwarzburgSondershausen, Waldeck, LippeDetmold, SchaumburgLippe, Lichtenstein, ReussGreiz, ReussSchleiz, ReussLobenstein and ReussEbersdorf. Inhabitants. The most important racef inhabiting Europe are classed by Hassel, in his statistical tables (1823), in the following proportions: 1. Roman nations^ 75,829,000-including the French, Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Walloons, Walachians ; 2. Teutonic, or German na tions, 60,451,800-including the Germans, Dutch and'English, Danes, Norwegians. Swedes ; 3. Sclavonian nations, 68,255,00G including the Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, Livonians, &c, Wendish, &c, Tschechen, Sclavonians, Croats, Rascians and Servians, Morlachians, Bosnians, &c.; 4. Caledonians, including the Highlanders and Irish, 8,200,000 ; 5. Turks, 2,350,000; 6. Greeks, 4,834,000 ; 7. Arnauts, 530,000; 8. Magyarians, 4,472,000-including the Bulgarians, 522,000; 9. Finns, 1,370,000, Esthonians, 480,000, Laplanders, 17,800 (the three las* belong to the Mongol race); 10. Cymric or Low Bretons, 1,661,000; 11. Basques, 620,000; 12. Maltese, 88,000. The tables of the same distinguished geographer, published in 1817, estimate the Jews at 1,179,500; the Gipsies at 313,000; tl* Armenians at 131,600. EUROPEAN STATES AREAIn English square miles. POPULATION. Catholics. Protestant*. | Greeks. Mohammedans. Jews. Total.1 AnhaltBernburg,2 " Dessau, .3 " Cothen, .4 Austria,.....5 Baden, .....6 Bavaria, ....7 Bentinck, ....8 Brunswick, . . .9 Bremen, .....10 British Empire, .11 Cracow,.....12 Deumark, ....13 Frankfort on M.*14 France,.....15 Greece,.....16 Hamburg, ....17 Hanover, ....18 J(esse(tassel,. .19 " Darmstadt,20 *' Homburg,21 Huh. Hechingen,t22 " Sigmaringen,23 Ionian Islands, .24 Lichtenstein, . .25 LippeDetmold, .26 Lucca,.....27 Lubeck,.....28 San Marino,. . .29 Meek. Schworiri,$30 " Strelitz, .31 Modena,.....32 Nassau,.....33 Netherlands, . .34 Oldenburg, . . .35 Parma,.....36 Portugal, ....37 Prussia, .....38 Reuss, elder line,39 " younger"40 Russia,.....41 Sardinia, . . .42 Saxony,....43 SaxeAltenburg,44 " Coburg, .45 " Meiningen,46 " Weimar,47 Schaumb. Lippe,§48 Sch. Rudolstadt,;;49 " Sondershauseri, 60 Sicilies (the Two), fir States of Church,52 Sweden,.....53 Switzerland, . .54 Spain,......55 Turkey,.....56 Tuscany, ....57 Waldeck, ....58 Wortemberg, . . total, 334 345 330 258,603 5,926 31,31725 1,49168 117,788 494 52,26891 213,838 150 14,735 4,428 3;92'2 166 129 386 998 51 436 413 143 22 4,746 765 2,092 1,753 25,367 2,459 2,203 36,510 107,159 145 447 1,414,436 28,912 575 496 1,036 884 1,416 206 404 358 41,284 17,210 291,163 14,761 179,074 203,566 8,381 459 7.615 1,200 360 25,650,000 730,808 2,880,383 2,500 1,500 6,085,300 100,812 2,000 6,000 31,099,518 3,060 200,000 105,000 120,000 2,931 15,000 39,600 35,200 5,800 1,600 145,000 400 7,000 95750 377,500 157,638 3,660,000 70,700 457,400 3,782,550 4,694,000 5,500,000 4,142,177 48,000 150 11,500 400 9,512 100 200 200 7,412,717 2,468,940 5,000 817,110 13,651,172 310,000 1,291,130 800 464,000 38,510 56,800 34,835 3,000,000 343,173 1,094,633 2,900 240,400 50,000 16,197,321 19,000 2,049,531 42,800 892,947 139,440 1,370,574 492,300 582,900 17,683 800 75,118 45,703 437,105 78,510 184,651 3,237,500 175,538 2,970,000 500 133,898 7,930,403 24,020 57,470 2,658,500 22,000 1,350,000 109,343 130,593 128,239 210,911 25,500 56,625 47,906 3,869,700 1,217,760 52,700 1,062,253 3,104,780,116,559,075149,847,495 33,326,500 5,878,000 142,308.398 150,000 12,890,000 13,040,500 390 1,270 415 480,000 16,930 57,574 1,300 15,000 7,288 6,000 5,200 60,000 7,500 12,000 5,400 16,000 1,050 400 5,500 400 3,102 833 1,500 5,717 80,000 970 154,00080 220 360,000 3,200 2,000 1,200 950 1,231 160 2,000 15,000 4,000 1,810 315,000 9,400 500 ___9,150 ,671,640 38,900 59,270 35,610 32,100,500 1,090.911 4,032,590 2,900 244,200 51,500 22,297,621 127,100 2,057,531 54,000 32,052,465 550,000 150,000 1,582,574 602,700 718,900 21,664 15.000 40,000 175,398 5,800 o 76,718 145,000 46,503 7,000 441,161 79,393 379,000 348,006 6,977,500 247,203 437,400 3,782,550 12,778,403 24,100 57,690 41,995.0<0 4,167,277 1,400 ,C<0 109,493 143,293 129,5**9 221,654 25,600 56,985 48,106 7,414,717 2,483,940 3,878,700 2,036,680 13,651,172 9,393,000 1,300,530 54,000 1.535.403 213,977,108* Frankfort on the Maine. {o HohenzoltemHechingen. r MecklenbifrgSchwerm. ft SchaumburgLippe. \l SchwarzburgRudolstadt. GOVERNMENT.* FINANCES. Revenue. DoUan. Debt. Dollart. LAND FORCES.In peace.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11n13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Absolute ; provincial estates. Absolute j estates,! Constitutional, . . Absolute,.............. Absolute j provincial estates, . . . Republic,.............. Constitutional, ........... Republic, und. protec. Rus. Prus. & Aus Absolute,.............. Republic, . . . ^.......... Constitutional, ........... Republic,............... Estates,................ Absolute,............... Constitutional,............ Absolute,............... Republic, under protec. of Britain, Constitutional,............ Absolute ; estates,......... Constitutional,............ Republic, .............. Republic, protected by the pope, . . Estates, with considerable power, . Absolute,............... Estates,............... Constitutional,............ Absolute,............... Absolute,..........".....? Absoluto j provincial estates, . . . Absolute o, estates,......... Absolute, Estates, , Constitutional, Estates, . . . Absolute, Elective monarchy 3 absolute, Constitutional, ........ Confederated republics, . . . Absolute j cortes,....... Despotism,.........,. . Absolute,......... . . Estates,......... . . . Constitutional,........ Total. 180,000 284.000 92,000 52.000,000 3,932,880 12,031,547 62.800 950,773 160,000 228,849,600 133,243 4,030,000 304,000 157,760,000 600,000 4,680,000 1,800,000 2,351,456 72,000 48,000 120,000 565,600 480,000 196,000 288,000 160,000 12,000 9W,000 200,000 600,000 724,000 12,000,000 600,000 600,000 8,740,800 30,477,600 56,000 160,000 52,000,000 8,740,800 4,400,000 240,000 360,000 300,000 719,734 86,000 130,000 120,000 12,593,484 4,800,000 7,000,000 25,509 26,520,000 11,200,000 160,000 3,342,318 658,347,899 240,000 200,000 640,000 200,000.000 6,392,424 44,402,257 60,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 13,490,896.768 10,000 40,000,000 3.200,000 480,000,000 5,200,000 12,000,000 780,000 5,589,450 180,000 200,000 280,000 600,000 1,200,000 3,800,000 200,000 400,000 2,000,000 178,078,670 2,000,000 24,000,000 114.840,440 2,000,000 480,000 200,000,000 24,000,000 12,800,000 329,640 1,200,000 1,000,000 2,400,000 120,000 170,992 160,000 84,000,000 230,443,062 36,000,000 480,000 10,942,766 5,341,721,211 370 529 324 271,404 11,566 53,898 2,432 385 90,519 38,819 475 281,000 2,580 1,050 12,940 9,859 8,421 200 145 370 1,60055 690 800 406 3,137 742 1,860 2,800 43,297 2,177 1,320 40,000 165,000 206 538 600,000 28,000 13,307 982 1,366 1,150 2,164 240 539 451 28,436 9,100 45,201 46,000 80,000 8,000 518 4,906In war* Peace.! War. Sao. Sail. 740 1,058 648 750,504 20,000 71,600 4,192 770 378,370 74,000 946 320,000 2,596 26,108 11,353 12,390 400 290 740 1,600 110 1,380 800 812 7,160 1,434 1,860 6,056 69,472 4,354 1,320 70r000 524,428 412 1,076 1,039,117 60,000 24,000 1,964 2,732' 2,300 4,020 480 1,078 902 60,000 9,100 138,569 33,578 173.550 200;000o 8,000 1,036 27,910 1,909,175|4,578,4303131 61097 329 1,050 120 350 5093 23*12 8126303480 1,368 150 ~2312 82# f, 372;"60 160 %64l* The word Constitutional is set against those states which hare representative governments in tho modem sense of the term. The words Absolute, estates, indicate that though the representation of tho estates axitUi, the government is, in fact, absolute j as in Prussia, where tho power of the ostales is limited to expressing their opinions on sabiects which the government lays before thnm. The word Estatt", simply, indicates, that the estates have actually some share in the government. When not otherwise stated, the government is monarchicalt Austria is composed of very different parts. (See Austria, and Constitution.)I Among those aro 216 xebecs. Among the best sources for the current statistics of Europe, we would mention the Genealogischer Historischer und Sta~ tisiischer Almanack, an annual, published at Weimar, and established by the celebrated geographer Hassel. This is a work of much merit in many respects. For English statistics, the Companion to (the British Almanac, published annually by the society for the diffusion of useful . knowledge, is of great value.