ENGLAND

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ENGLAND ; the southern and most considerable division of Great Britain; bounded N. by Scotland, S. by the English channel, which divides it from France, E. by the German ocean, and W. by Wales, the Atlantic ocean, and the Irish channel. It is of a triangular figure, and extends from 50° to 55° 4(y N. lat., and from 1° 5C E. to 6° W. Ion. From N. to S. it is 400 miles in length, and is in some places 300 miles broad. The superficial extent of the country has been variously estimated, from 28,000,000 to 46,000,000 of statute acres. The population of England and Wales appears to have been, from the most accurate computations, about 5,500,000 in the year 1700; in 1750, about 6,500,000 ; in 1770, about 7,500,000; in 1790, 8,675,000; in 1801,9,168,000; in 1811,10,488,000; and in 1825, it amounted to 12,422,700. The country is divided into 40 counties, namely, Bedford, Berks, Bucks, Cambridge, Chester, Cornwall, Cumberland, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, Essex, Gloucester, Hereford, Hertford, Huntingdon, Kent, Lancaster, Leicester, Lincoln, Middlesex, Monmouth, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, Nottingham, Oxford, Rutland, Salop, Somerset, Southampton, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, Westmoreland, Wilts, Worcester, York, East, North and West. The counties are subdivided into hundreds, wards, lathes,. wapentakes, rapes, timings, &c.; the whole containing 25 cities, 172 boroughs, and about 10,000 parishes. The aspect of the country is various and delightful. In some parts, verdant, plains extend as far as the eye can reach, watered by copious streams, and covered by innumerable cattle. In others, the pleasing vicissitudes of gentlyrising hills and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with wood, and interspersed with meadows, offer the most delightful landscapes of rural opulence and beauty. Some tracts abound with prospects of the more romantic kindlofty mountains, craggy rocks, deep, narrow dells,*and tumbling torrents; nor are there wanting, as a contrast tr so many agreeable scenes, the gloomy features of clack, barren moors nnd uncultivated heaths. The native animals of England are the fallow *leer, the dog, the fox, the wild cat, the marten, the foumart, badger, mole, hedgehog, &c The domestic animals are cattle, horses, goats, sheep and hogs. The wild boar was formerly a native of the country, as also the wolf and the bear, but as the country advanced in improvement, they gradually became extinct. Of the birds, the most remarkable are the eagle, falcons of various species, owls, ravens, carrion crows, rooks, swans, the cuckoo, the cormorant, the nightingale, the peacock, the swallow, the stork, the curlew, the snipe, the plover, the pheasant, the black cock, the ptarmigan (sometimes, but rarely, met with on the lofty mountains of Wales and Cumberland), the grouse, the partridge, the pigeon, the lark, the starling, the thrush, &c. The most considerable rivers are the Thames, Severn, Medwaj7, Trent, Ouse, Tyne, Tees, Wear, Mersey, Dee, Avon, Eden and Derwent. In aid of these, an extensive system of canal navigation has been established (see Canal), by which an easy access is opened into the interior, and the produce of the country transported by an easy and expeditious process, from the most remote parts to the sea. Several beautiful lakes occur in different parts of the country. The most remarkable of these are in the northwest counties, and particularly in Westmoreland and Cumberland. The soil of England is various, consisting generally of clay, loam, sand, chalk, gravel and peat. The principal productions of the country are wheat, barley, oats, rye, French wheat, beans and peas. The climate of England, from its northern position, is rather rigorous and ungeniai; and, from its being an island, it is liable to sudden and frequent changes, and to great variations of dryness and moisture. It is at all times uncertain; and its atmosphere, being inclined to cold and damp, is on this account not so favorable to the ripening as to the growth of vegetable productions ; and in the ilorthern counties, more especially, the harvest is liable to be seriously injured by rain. Owing to its insu o lar situation, however, it is liable to no great extremes either of heat or cold. The general range of the thermometer is from 86 degrees in summer to 16 and 10 in winter. The indigenous fruits are few, and of little value; but others have been introduced, or brought to perfection, by the skill and careful cultivation of the English gardeners. These are chiefly apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, nee tarines, apricots, figs, grapes, and other fruits. Hops are cultivated to a consider able extent in the southern counties. Timber grows abundantly in most parts of the country: the trees are principally oak, elm, ash, beach, alder and willow. The mines and quarries of England afford a constant supply of most valuable produce. Coal is found in great abundance in the northern, and in some of the midland and western counties. Iron abounds in Shropshire, Gloucestershire, Derbyshire, the north of Lancashire, and it is produced, though not in equal abundance, in other counties. Tin is confined to Cornwall and the adjoining parts of Devonshire, and black lead to a small district in Cumberland. Mines of copper are wrought in Cornwall, Devonshire, Derbyshire and Anglesey, and partially in Yorkshire and Staffordshire. In many parts of the kingdom, marbles and freestone, or calcareous sandstone, of various colors and textures, are abundant There are also mines of rocksalt, pits of fuller's earth, potter's clay, &c. The manufactures of England are of prodigious extent. That of wool is one of the most ancient in the country, and is supposed to have been introduced by the Romans. The annual value of the woollen manufactures is estimated at about 20 millions. The cotton manufacture is of more recent establishment than the woollen, and has been carried to great perfection by tvhe aid of every sort of powerful, complicated and ingenious machinery. The cotton wool imported amounts to about 125 millions of pounds; and the value of cotton manufactures exported, to £20,000,000. The hardware manufactures, of iron and steel, copper and brass, have been also brought to unrivalled perfection in England, and include the most ponderous productions of the casting furnace and rolling mill, as well as the most minute and trifling articles, such as pins, and all sorts of children's toys. The annual value of the iron and steel articles manufactured may be estimated at £10,000,000. The silk and linen manufactures are carried on in England, but not to any great extent. In Nottinghamshire is carried on the manufacture of stockings. English earthenware is finished with beauty and taste, and in great variety, principally, at the potteries of Staffordshire ; and glass is made in various parts, chiefly in Newcastle, Sunderland, Bristol, and, on a smaller scale, at some other places. Chinaware of a very superior quality is made in Derby and Worcester. In London, every sort of fine and elegant manufacture is carried an, such as cutlery, jewelry, articles of gold and silver, japan ware, cut glass, cabinet and upholstery work, and gentlemen's carriages, clocks, watches, &c. From the countries in the north of Europe', namely, Denmark, Russia, Sweden, Poland and Prussia, England imports iron, kelp, timber, flax, hemp, coarse linens, pitch, tar, tallow, corn, pearl and potashes, &c.; from Germany, corn, flax, hemp, linens, rags, skins, timber and wines ; from Holland, geneva, cheese, butter, rags, flax, hemp, madder, clover and other seeds, corn, bacon, &c.; from France, wines, brandy, lace, cambric, lawns, silks, trinkets, &c.; and from Spain and Portugal, and Italy, barilla, brimstone, oil, cochineal, fruits, wool, cork, dyewoods, wines, brandy, silk, drugs, gums, &c. The imports from Turkey consist principally of carpets, drugs, dyestuffs, fruits, silk, &c From North America are imported flour, provisions, masts, timber, cotton, wool, tobacco, rice, tar, pitch, pot and pearlashes, indigo, furs, &c. From South America, since the emigration of the Portuguese court to the Brazils, are imported cotton, wool, skins, cochineal, logwood, indigo, Brazil wood, sugar, drugs, &c. The articles principally imported from the West Indies are sugars, rum, coffee, pepper, ginger, indigo, drugs and cotton. From the East Indies, China and Persia, are imported teas, spices, raw silk, muslins, nankeens, sugtfr, indigo, cloves and other spices, opium, quicksilver, drugs, gums, rice, saltpetre, &c. The exports from Britain consist of all the various manufactures: they amount, in official value, to about £37,000,000 annually; the imports to about £25,000,000. In addition to her commerce and manufactures, England has extensive fisheries both at home and abroad. Salmon are caught in most of her rivers, and the seas around her coasts yield herrings, mackerel, pilchards, white fish, oysters, and other shellfish. The Newfoundland fishery at one time employed a considerable number of vessels; bul it has since fallen off. The whale fishery, both in the North and South seas, is pros* v ecuted to a considerable extent. The established religion of England is Episcopacy, The Episcopal establishment of England consists of the 2 archbishops of Canterbury and York, and of 24 bishops, who have the privilege of a seat in the house of peers. There is also the bishop of Soddr and Man, who is not possessed of this privilege. The constitution of England is a limited monarchy. The executive powers are vested in the king, who acts through the medium of responsible advisers. The legislative power resides in the king, lords and commons. (For the history, constitution, &c. of England, see Great Britain.) ENGLAND, CHURCH OF. The established religion in England is Episcopacy. The king is the supreme head; by this authority he convenes and prorogues the convocations of the clergy. The church is governed by 2 archbishops and 25 bishops. The archbishop of Canterbury is styled the primate of all England, and to him belongs the privilege of crowning the kings and queens of England. The Crovince of Canterbury comprehends 21 ishoprics. In the province of the archbishop of York, who is called the primate of England, there are 4 bishoprics. Archbishops and bishops are appointed by the king, by what is called a conge' d'elire, or leave to elect, which is sent to the dean and chapter naming the person to be chosen. The bishop of London, as presiding over the capital, has the precedence of all the others. The bishop of Durham has certain prerogatives, as presiding over a see that constitutes a county palatine ; the bishop of Winchester is third in dignity; the others take rank according to seniority of consecration. The archbishops and bishops (except the bishop of Sodor and Man) have seats in the house of lords, and are styled the spiritual lords. The archbishops have the title of grace, and most reverend father in God, by divine providence; bishops are addressed by the title of lord, and right reverend father in God, by divine permission. The former are said to be enthroned, the latter installed. To every cathedral belong several prebendaries and a dean, who form the dean and chapter, or council of the bishop. The next order of the clergy is that of archdeacons; their number is 60; their office is to reform abused, and to induct into benefices.____________________:i i_T____o____ __.:i_is merely convened as The doctrines of the c are contained in the 1 the form of worship isgy. The first steps tcof the English church tained at first many of Roman church, both in and rites. After the j clared Henry VIII theof the church, and the clergy had voted that t had no more jurisdictic any other foreign bish faith of the new churc consist in the Scriptu creeds, the Apostolic, tl Athanasian (see Greet ence, the use of images saints, &c, were still n Edward, the new liturg English, and took the pi the doctrines were also articles. With the rei^ religion was reestablish till that of Elizabeth 1 England was finally : change was made in 1of government, and so] monies were retained, ^ reformed considered as circumstance gave ris< dissensions. The cont] the ceremonial part c commenced with tho,' 1554, fled from the per Mary, and took refuge the accession of Elizab and renewed the conte had begun abroad. Th ritans, and, at one tinn distinguished members clergy. (See Puritans.)of James, the Puritans ] tween the throne and the parliament. After the death of Laud, the parliament abolished the Episcopal government, and condemned every thing in the ecclesiastical establishment that was contrary to the doctrine, worship and discipline of the church of Geneva. As soon as Charles II was restored to the throne, the ancient forms of ecclesiastical government and public worship were restored; and, in 1662y a public law, entitled the act of uniformity y was enacted, by which all who refused to observe the rites and subscribe the doctrines of the church of England, were entirely excluded from its dominion. In the reign of William III, and particularly in 1689, the divisions among the friends of Episcopacy gave rise to the two parties called the highcliurchmen, or nonjurors, and lowchurchmen. The former maintained the*Hoctrine of passive obedience, or nonresistance to the sovereign under any circumstance whatever; that the hereditary succession to the throne is of divine institution, and cannot be interrupted ; that the church is subject to the jurisdiction of God alone ; and, consequently, that certain bishops deposed by king William, remained, notwithstanding, true bishops; and that those who had been appointed in their places were rebels and schismatics, and all who held communion with them were guilty of rebellion and schism. The gradual progress of civil and religious liberty, during the last 150 years, has settled practically many such controversies. The great increase of the dissenters in recent times (they are estimated to be more numerous than the members of the established church) has led to new concessions in their favor; the repeal of the corporation and test acts (q. v.), and the Catholic emancipation (q. v.), as it is called, are among the important events of the late reign. We have said, that the doctrines of the church of England are contained in the thirtynine articles; we are not ignorant that the most eminent English divines have doubted whether they are Calvinistic or Lutheran, that some have denominated them articles of peace, and that not a few have written in direct opposition to them. But they are the established confession of the English church, and, as such, deserve a short analysis. The 5 first articles contain a profession of faith in the Trinity; the incarnation of Jesus Christ, his descent to hell, and his resurrection; the divinity of the Holy Ghost. The 3 following relate to the canon of the Scripture. Tho 8th article declares a belief in the Apostles', Nicene and Athanasian cree^N. The 9th and following articles contam the doctrine of original sin, of justification by faith alone, of predestination, &c. The 19th, 20th and 21st declare the church to be the assembly of the faithful; that it can decide nothing except by the Scriptures. The 22d rejects the doctrine of purgatory, indulgences, the adoration of images, and the invocation of saints. The 23d decides that only those lawfully called shall preach or administer the sacraments. The 24th requires the liturgy to be in English. The 25th and 26th declare the sacraments effectual signs of grace (though administered by evil men), by which God excites and confirms our faith. They are two; baptism and the Lord's supper. Baptism, according to the 27th article, is a sign of regeneration, the seal of our adoption, by which faith is confirmed and grace increased. In the Lord's supper, according to article 28th, the bread is the communion of the body of Christ, the wine the communion of his blood, but only through faith (art 29th); and the communion must be administered in both kinds (art. 30). The 28th article condemns the doctrine of transubstantiation, and the elevation and adoration of the host; the 31st rejects the sacrifice of the mass as blasphemous; the 32d permits the marriage of the clergy; the 33d maintains the efficacy of excommunication. The remaining articles relate to the supremacy of the king, the condemnation of Anabaptists (q. v.), &c.In the U. States, the membeis of the church of England, or Episcopalians, form a large and respectable denomination. When the revolutionary war began^there were only about eighty parochial clergymen of this* church to the northward and eastward of Maryland; and they derived the greater part of their subsistence from the English society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts. In Maryland and Virginia, the Episcopal church was much more numerous, and had legal establishments for its support. The inconvenience of depending on the mother church for ordination, and the want of an internal Episcopacy, was long severely felt by the American Episcopalians. But their petitions for an Episcopate of their .own were long resisted by their superiors in England; and their opponents m the F. States objected to the measure from an apprehension that bishops from England would bring with them an authority which w,ould interfere with the civil institutionsof this country, and be prejudicial to the portant are the mackere members of other communions. After The oysters of Cancal t the U. States had become independent of ENGLISH LANGUAGE ; Great Britain, a new difficulty arose on ken by the people of I the part of the English bishops: they some dialectical variatic could not consistently depart from their a part of Ireland, and in own stated forms of ordination, and these globe which now are, < contained political tests improper for within the British domi American citizens to subscribe. Doctor speak the English Ian Lowth, then bishop of London, obtained of the U. States of Anan act of parliament allowing him to dis inhabitants of England pense with these political requisitions, important in respect to Before this act was passed, doctor Seabu spreading and cultivatiry was consecrated at Aberdeen by the extensive commerce, w] nonjuring bishops of Scotland; and, not to none but that of E long after, doctor White of Philadelphia, means of contributing doctor Provost of New York, and doctor tion of their language o .Madison of Virginia, were consecrated by globe. To this also ^ Tthe English archbishops. In 1824, there efforts in religious mis were in the U. States 10 bishops, about been attended with a sir 350 clergymen, and upwards of 600 con these and other causes, \ gregations. (See bishop White's Memoirs reason,to believe that Iof the Protestant Episcopal Church in the the lapse of many yean United States, Philadelphia, 1820; also the native tongue of a lai article Church of England in'flees' Cyclo the inhabitants of the V .pcedia.) any other known lang