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EMIGRATION. Removal from one country to another, for the puipose of permanent residence. Every man born free, or who had obtained his freedom, formerly had the right of emigrating. But as capital and power were lost to a state by the removal of its inhabitants, it was considered, that emigration ought to be forbidden, and the people only allowed to remove from one place to another within the limits of the state. Experience, however, proved that such prohibitions were fruitless, and the only way to guard against emigrations was by the fullest protection of property, by granting freedom of conscience, and the undisturbed exercise of religion; and by not banishing subjects from their country on account of their religious opinions, as was once done (e. g., in France and Saltzburg); by allowing them, under the protection of judicious laws, with the assurance of freedom in trade and commerce, the undisturbed enjoyment of the fruits of their industry; by not exposing them to the oppression of magistrates; and by delivering them from the fear of unreasonable or arbitrary taxes. When we consider how much resolution is required to abandon forever the home to which man is bound by the strongest ties of recollection, language and habit, to seek ar. uncertain fortune in a land of strangers, there is no reason to believe, that large masses will ever emigrate without the most urgent motives. Wherever emigration is common, it is not an evil itself, but only the consequence and symptom of an evil arising from the dissatisfac* tion of the people with their condition. If things have come to such a state, that men think they cannot obey the laws of their country without violence to their consciences, they ought to be at liberty to seek in other countries religious and political freedom. Besides, in the abstract, emigration is a right inherent in man. Every person does as much as can be required of him, if he obeys the laws of that country in which he chooses to reside, and only very peculiar circumstances can justify the checking of emigration. The most cruel tyranny was exercised by Louis XIV, when he deprived the Protestants of their religious privileges, and endeavored to prevent their emigration. The end of government is the welfare of the citizens, and they are at liberty to retire from the state when their welfare is no longer provided for by the state. In America, the right of emigration is as indisputable as the right of eating and drinking. It is one of the fundamental privileges of the English nation, also, to leave the country without special permission, which is limited only in regard to those who stand in some particular relations to the state, such as magistrates or soldiers; and, in certain cases, it may be taken away by the writ ne exeat regno, under the great or privy seal. Acts of parliament have often been passed, by the English government, to prevent its citizens from engaging in foreign military service ; for instance, in that of the South American insurgents, in 1819; but these were not directed against emigration. The emigration of manufacturers of wool, silk, iron, &c, has been forbidden by separate laws (bv those of 1719, 5 Geo. I, cap. 27; 1740, 23 Geo. II, cap. 13, and 1782, 22 Geo. Ill, cap. 60). The only punishment, however, for emigrants of this class, declining to return on receiving a summons to that effect, is the loss of citizenship. Those who instigate them to quit the country are liable to fine and imprisonment. The French code also, at least since 1789, has permitted unlimited emigration; and the laws since made against emigrants were only owing to the hostile spirit of most of those who emigrated; for the emigrants were unwilling to give up their right of citizenship in France, and attacked the new government in the ranks of its foreign invaders. By the act of the German confederation, article 13, the right of emigration is allowed to all the members of the confederacy. Well founded information in regard to the dangers that threaten emigrants in foreign countries, measures for increasing the means of labor, thpTeiiioVal of the artificial restraints, by which the great mass of wealth is kept in a few hands, freedom of trade,these are the means by which a spirit of emigration may be checked, and the love of home revived. Prohibitions of emigration are unjust, as well as impolitic, and always prove, that a government which allows them has an incorrect idea of its rights. If a dense population is the cause of emigration, let the government establish colonies. The British government hare taken means for aiding the settlement of emigrants in Canada, the cape of Good Hope, and New Holland. Still more was done in Russia, for the support of those who had emigrated thither, after disease and want had carried off a multitude of those unhappy men in the unhealthy steppes of Odessa. Emigrants to the United States have often been deceived in their expectations, have fallen, on their arrival, into the hands of sharpers, or have wasted the little resources which they brought with them, for want of information respecting the best way to proceed. To remedy these inconveniences, by giving information and advice to newly arrived emigrants, a society in New York established the free emigrant's office, a very useful institution, and worthy to be imitated in all the large seaports of the United States. It might be well for this society to distribute handbills, in the language of the emigrants, among them before they land, containing a few rulea and directions. It might even be useful to transmit information of the real state of things in this country, and of the best course for emigrants to pursue, to those countries from which emigration is most common: this object might be easily effected by means of newspapers. The principal countries from which emigration at present takes place to the United States, are Great Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, Alsace, Wiirtemberg. From England and Ireland, a large emigration takes place, also, to Canada, New SouthN Wales, Van Diemen's Land, &c.; from Wiirtemberg and Prussia to Russia and Poland, which, however, has been less extensive of late; from the Eastern and Northern States of the U. S. to the Western States; of colored persons from the United States to Liberia in Africa, and to Hayti (very few, however, in number, particularly to the latter country.) A society has lately been formed at Washington for instructing people of color in the elements ' of science and the mechanical arts, to make them useful members of the colony in Africa. From official returns, ordered to be printed by the house of commons, we learn, that the whole number of passengers, which embarked from the year 18l2 to 1821, both years inclusive, for the United States, from Ireland, was 30,653; from England, 33,608; from Scotland, 4727; whole number, 68,988: for the British dominions in North America, from Ireland, 47,223; from England, 23,783, and from Scotland, 19,971; total, 90,972. Thus the whole number of emigrants from the United Kingdom for North America, from the year 1812 to the year 1821, both years included, was 159,960. But the number of emigrants from Ireland has since very much increased. In the beginning of July, 1830, it was calculated, that about 12,300 Irish emigrants had arrived at Quebec during the season ; and it was estimated, that, during the year 1830, there would be not less than 50,000 emigrants from Ireland to Canada and the United States. The general government of the United States has not as yet adopted any measures to check this accession to their population, though by no means always of the most desirable kind; but should it often happen (as has already taken place), that paupers, infirm and poor people are sent out, merely for the purpose of getting rid of them in Ireland or England, it would become necessary to take measures of prevention against such a breach of hospitality. In some of the states, laws have been made imposing some restraints upon the landing of emigrants. A late Quebec newspaper states, that the accession of population which the British North American provinces and the United States have received from Europe since 1816, cannot be less, on an average, than 35,000 a year, or 490,000. It may, ii)/]ua/1 {\i\\']\r lit* auhmata/1 at P\C\f\ fif\fi A)of the Americans from westward. It would they had no pleasure in labor, but that the lab< enjoyment. After par the wilderness, and i self with the comforts the enterprizing pione often moves still fartln of the forest, and his ed by the less restlei Europe. Among thes not unfrequent, who the prospect of becon Jand in fee simple, an save something which his own. He convert* fine productive farm, of the language of the prevents him from part* advantages, and confim paratively limited sphc therefore, remains far 1 can brethren in all that intellectual education, schools, instruction, &c. the case where the Ger numerous as not to be much with Americans," in Pennsylvania. (For gris, see the following i EMIGRES (emigrants), tory with many instanc of men being obliged t( try on account of relij. as did the Huguenots, f 17th century, or for s (See Emigration and ift pellation of Smigrh (th grants), however, is no> persons particularly, w the commencement oft tion. These persons, sc the new order of thing political persecution, tion. Several counts are said to have been employed as bootblacks. It would be unjust to call all those who left their country to its fate in the time of its greatest peril, weak and timid; for where anarchy rules, the innocent is not secure. The emigration, however, of the royal princes, particularly the count of Provence, afterwards Louis XVIII,can hardly be justified. Their presence was of great importance to the state, and their example contributed not a little to the extensive emigration which followed, and the injurious consequences which attended it. Many of the emigres, however, were persons of loose, idle and profligate habits, whose conduct brought a reproach upon the whole body. This, but more particularly the fear of provoking the vengeance of the French government, was the cause of their being refused a refuge in some countries, and of their being received under certain restrictions in others. At the head of the emigrants stood the royal princes of Conde, Provence and Artois, the first of whom collected a part of the fugitives to cooperate with the allied armies in Germany for the restoration of the monarchy. At Coblentz, a particular court of justice was established to settle causes relating to the French emigres. As a body, they are described by contemporary authors as haughty in their deportment towards foreigners, and acting as if they constituted the French nation, and as if the rest of Europe did nothing more than its duty in assisting them to recover their estates and feudal rights. But the invasion of the Netherlands by Dumouriez drove them from these provinces in midwinter, in a deplorable condition, while their number was daily increased by the system of violence and terror carried on in France; e. g. by the bloody tragedies of Lyons and Toulon, The corps of Conde was finally taken into the Russian service, and was disbanded in the RussianAustrian campaign of 1799. When Napoleon became emperor, it was one of his first acts of grace to grant permission to all but a few of the emigrants to return to their country. Many, however, who by this time had settled in foreign places, did not choose to avail themselves of the indulgence. The charte of Louis XVIII contains an express declaration, that the emigrants have no claim upon their former possessions; but this did not prevent them from bringing forward their demands for indemnification, which have often occasioned a good deal of excitement in the public. The chambers granted in 1825, VOL. iv. 42on the proposition of Villele, the income of a capital of 1000 millions of francs, as an indemnification for the estates of the emigrants, which had been sold. (See France.)