EGYPT

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EGYPT (Mizraim, KhamRahab; called by the Arabs, Mezr; by the Copts, Khemi; and by the Turks, El Kabit) ; formerly a mighty empire, the seat of a high civilization, the land of wonderful creations of human power, and an object of endless curiosity^to the philosophic inquirer; now a Turkish viceroyalty, scarcely a fifth part inhabited, governed by a pacha or viceroy, appointed or confirmed by the sultan. This pacha is, at present, Mohammed Ali, a man of great ability. Egypt lies in North Africa, between 22° and 32° N. lat., and 27° and 34° E. lon. It is bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean sea, on the E. by the Red sea and by Arabia, with which it is connected by the isthmus of Suez, on the S. by Nubia, and on the W. by Barca and the great desert. It contains about 200,000 square miles, of which only about 17,000 square miles, in the valley of the Nile (600 miles long, and from 12 to 25 broad), are susceptible of cultivation. The population is differently estimated at from 2,500,000 to 4,000,000. Geographers divide it into Upper EGYPT (said), Middle Egypt (Vostani), and Lower Egypt (Bahari), including the fertile Delta. These are again divided into 12 provinces, each of which is governed by a bey, and which, together, contain about 2500 cities and villages. Three chains of mountains run through the country. The Nile (the Blue river) flows through it in a northerly direction. Besides lake Mceris, celebrated in antiquity, at present called Birket Karun (Charon's lake), and almost dried up, there are others, especially the natron or salt lakes. The climate is in general hot, and is mod erate in Lower Egypt only. The great heat produces the rankest vegetation. The simoom (chamsin), a formidable south, wind, which blows at intervals during the first 50 days after the vernal equinox, the plague and ophthalmia are the peculiar torments of Egypt. It has but two seasonsspring and summer: the latter lasts from April to November. During this period, the sky is always clear, and the weather hot. In the spring, the nights are cool and refreshing. The greater part of the land is arid, and covered with burning sands; but wherever the waters of the Nile are conducted in canals beyond the natural limits of their overflow, the earth becomes fertile, and fruits thrive with great luxuriance. Com, rice, millet, pulse, kitchen vegetables, rnelons, sugar cane, sweet rush, papyrus (peculiar to the country), flax and hemp, onions, carthamus or saffron, indigo, aloe, jalap, coloquintida, saltwort (salsola soda), cardamom, cotton, palmgroves, sycamores, tamarinds, cassia, acacias, &c, cover the country. There is not a great variety of garden flowers, but roses are raised in large quantities, especially in the marshy Fayouin, and rosewater forms an impor tant article of export. The soil consists of iime, with numerous shells and petrifactions ; it contains marble, alabaster, porphyry, jasper, granite, common salt, natron, saltpetre, alum, &c. The woods and marshes, rivers and plains, furnish a great variety of animals, including horned cattle, buffaloes, asses, horses, camels, sheep with large, fat tails, dogs, cats, lions, tigers, hyaenas, jackals, wolves, foxes, gazelles, giraffes, storks, ibises (which devour the snakes in the mud of the Nile), hens (the eggs of which are hatched in ovens), crocodiles, riverhorses, ichneumons, &c. The people consist of Copts (embracing, at most, 30,000 families), Arabs (who are the most numerous, and are divided into Fellahs, or peasants, and Bedouins, the wandering tribes of the deserts), and Turks, the ruling people. The Mamelukes have been driven out of the country, and nearly exterminated. Besides these, there are Jews, Greeks, Armenians, &c. The Egyptian generally has a strong, active frame, tawny complexion, gay disposition, and a good heart, and is not devoid of capacity. He is tern perate and religious, but superstitious. The prevailing religion is that of Mohammed. The prevailing language is the Arabic. At Cairo, the capital, resides the patriarch of the Eastern Christians. The inhabitants devote themselves to agricul ture, the raising of bees and poultry, the preparation of rosewater and salammoniac, the manufacturing of leather, flax, hemp, silk and cotton, of carpets, glass, potters' ware, and carry on an important commerce. Constantinople is supplied with grain from EGYPT, which, when a Roman province, was called the granary of Rome. The coasting trade is considerable. Alexandria, Damietta and Suez are the principal harbors, and much inland traffic is carried on, chiefly with Syria, Arabia and Western Africa.Egypt was once the theatre of enterprise, civilization and science. An ancient astronomical observation authenticates the tradition, that, about 3362 B. C, the Babylonian Hermes (Thoth), the hero of mythological antiquity, went to Ethiopia (as, subsequently, Cecrops from Sais, on the Nile, went to Attica), and founded this state on the model of that to which he himself belonged. The Ethiopians and Babylonians were the first nations enlightened by Indian civilization. The organization of Ediiopia was probably soon followed by the migration of an Ethiopian colony to Upper EGYPT, then inhabited by Nomadic, pastoral tribes. Subsequently, the Egyptians became the third among the nations of antiquity, distinguished for a high degree of cultivation. The similarity of the inhabitants and their language increases almost to certainty the probability that Egypt received her first civilized inhabitants from Ethiopia. This agrees with the Mosaic account, that, after the flood, the descendants of Ham settled in Upper Egypt. Even the Israelites, under Joseph, belonged to the Nomades, living on the frontiers, till they migrated again, under the conduct of Moses. Although Egypt had Babylon and Ethiopia for models, society in this country made but slow advances towards perfection. The general division of the people into hereditary castes, and the influence of the priesthood, checked the spirit of the Egyptians. Before the time of the enterprising Sesostris, they had but little commerce, especially by sea, and, consequently, few of the collisions with foreign nations which spring from an active trade. This was another reason of the slow progress of Egypt in intellectual culture. The first important impulse was received when the Egyptians were subdued by foreign nations. Previously to tnis, however, there were astronomers in the country. The Egyptian solar year contained 12 months and five supplementary days, IJKC the republican calendar of the French. The form of the earth was known to Egyptian scholars; solar and lunar eclipses werecalculated; the moon they regarded as another earth ; the fixed stars as burning torches ; sundials and water clocks were not unknown among them: the immense ring of Osymandyas seems to have been used for this purpose, and they appear to have been acquainted with the quadrant. They must, therefore, have made considerable progress in arithmetic. The arithmetical figures (the same that we call Arabic) they wrote from right to left. The overflowing of the Nile rendered geometry necessary to them; and their acquaintance with mathematics is evident from the instruments for measuring the height of the Nile at Syene, Memphis, and other places on the river, from their use of the waterscrew, from their canals, and the sluices of lake Mceris, which presuppose a knowledge of mechanics, hydraulics and hydrostatics. The Egyptian music is the basis of the Hebrew, Greek and Roman. The first musical instrument the threestringed lyre (see Lyre)was invented among them by Hermes. But this discovery was soon secluded among the secrets of the priests, and further perfected under their mystic veil. In this circumstance, and in the serious, gloomy character of the nation, is to be found the reason why music was only used at funerals and the public worship of the gods. Besides the lyre above mentioned, they had a dichord, two kinds of flutes, the sistrum, the kettledrum, the trumpet and the triangular lyre. Musical notation seems not to have been known to them. Their short, simple songs were committed to memory. Their knowledge of natural history was confined to their native country and its productions. They penetrated farther in chemistry and mineralogy: their metallic encaustics, their artificial emerald, the inlaying of silver with a blue color, display science and skill. They probably made much progress in the art of healing. Every disease had its particular physician. Osiris, Isis and Hermes were the gods of health. The Pastophori (a class of priests) were the physicians. The king, as well as the lowest peasant, was subjected to the regimen prescribed by them. Their dietetics became celebrated in other countries. Care of the skin, a thorough cleanliness, preserved by frequent bathing, and the practice of circumcision, were their principal prescriptions. From their skill in embalming the dead, we may judge of the anatomical knowledge of the Egyptians. Their nat iral philosophy was mystical; they ascribed every thing to the immediate operation of the gods: on this depended their system of magic. In the arts, their proficiency was various. Their sculpture has an insufferable dryness, stiffness and uniformity ; their painting was limited to covering stones, wood, cloths, &c, with a single color, or, at the most, to illuminating their hieroglyphics, variegating them with colors laid on without taste. The celestial planispheres on the ceiling of the sepulchre of Osymandyas, and the figures on the ancient tombs of the kings of Thebes, exhibit the utmost stretch of the Egyptian pencil. Their architecture is more remarkable : its characteristic is solidity rather than beauty, as appears from their labyrinths, pyramids, obelisks, temples, mausoleums, &c. (See Architecture, History of.)* Robert Vaugondy, in his Essai sur VHistoire de la Gtographie, says of the geography of the Egyptians, that they made the first maps (in the reign of Sesostris). Gatterer endeavors to prove the existence of geographical delineations in the time of Joshua. Their acquaintance with navigation they owed to the great Sesostris; previously, they hardly dared trust themselves to rafts on the overflowing waters of the Nile ; they abhorred the sea; it was the Typhon which devoured the Nile, their national god (Osiris). Their first coasting trade seems to have been caused by a smuggling trade of the Phoenicians, and by Jnachus leading an Egyptian colony to Greece, in Phoenician vessels, 1836 B. C. It was confined, however, to the natives of the northern coasts. The inhabitants of the interior were repelled from the sea by superstition. On the other hand, the navigation of the Nile became more important after it was incorporated with the* Champollion, the famous explorer of Egyptian nnfintiities. holds the followino" lariP'iia./rft at public worship of thei tris the Great broke d( of religious prejudice was consecrated to C cooperation of the pri The success of navigi in the public prayers, now committed then: of the malicious Tj was thus established, various degrees of si according as the kin/ less flourishing. It pi the Ptolemies. Alex first emporium; the i erected; and the cai length, joined the Red terranean. When E{ man province, after tl tra, it lost its previoi tinction. The Egyp larly devoted to agr measures for promotin in contrivance and e^ principle they conducl seen from their vas which whole mountai and the earth was was entire rivers turned f for this purpose. G lead, tin and iron wer< als known to them. Egyptians was conflr to the sale of their ( foreigners who visited them. In the time they began to export f principal traffic by Ian means of caravans, and money, the chief i they were acquainted police watched over try, this traffic was n Their skill in weavinj plied them with an These, however, they selves. As the Greeks and Romans called all foreign nations barbarians, so the Egyptians gave this name to all the nations which did not speak their language ; but, in spite of their national pride, gratitude for benefits, whatever might be the country of the individual conferring them, was ever one of their national virtues. The government of the state was mostly in the hands of females. Every priest might have, at least, one wife : to the laity, the number was not limited by law.^ The husband had the charge of the domestic concerns; the wife, of buying and selling, and all affairs that were not of a domestic character. The Egyptian was distinguished for temperance ; he never drank wine; his only drink was beer, made of barley ; his bread was of spelt; in his kitchen, he used vegetables of all kinds, and increased his numerous poultry, by artificially hatching the eggs; beans and pork were interdicted, by his religion, as impure; and, on the other hand, he was forbidden to touch some other animals, as sacred. His dress was very simple. The respectable matron was distinguished from the maiden and the prostitute by a veil, which the latter were not allowed to wear. The children went naked till of considerable age. Funerals and times of sadness were the only occasions of parade and competition in expense. The sovereign, however, and those who immediately surrounded him, glittered in all the pomp of Oriental magnificence. The power of the Pharaohs (the general name of the earlier kings of Egypt) was unlimited. At their pleasure, they could throw the grand vizier from the summit of his power, and raise to their own side the lowest of their slaves, as the history of Joseph evinces. The spirit of industry inherent in the Egyptian was the support of public virtue, and the police took care that criminals should be constantly emnloved. was punished with c admmistered in a stric ner. Written laws w< Menes, Tnephactus, ] sis. All causes were preme court of justice, selves were obliged t writing, without the Perjury and murder were punished with chance of pardon. Ca accusers received the ing to the crime of M the innocent person, ished by the loss of tl by the loss of the har the army, or emigratic adultery, by flogging, power of mitigating a ments. But, notwiths ance of unlimited sovi the ruler was subject priests, who imposed private life of the mon; .contracted them as tl order required. The king's slaves were m his bill of fare reguli secrecy of the royal bei etrated by the priests they were his physi The education of the < son with the rest of tl The children wrere CJ to the trade of the fat by the priests, in vari Few were taught re! yet the Egyptians w" who could write, tha after the Babylonians They wrote, at first, 01 afterwards, a paper WJ which continued to years, and even aflei parchment, by the w] This art was taught entiai. iney maintained tins rank: as teachers of the people and patrons of science. From them all die offices of state were tilled; they were the physicians, judges, architects, astronomers, astrologers, &c. But they held their knowledge, which they regarded (with justice) as the talisman of their political importance and mighty influence, strictly within the limits of their order. The religion, mythology and philosophy of the Egyptians varied with the different periods of their political history. Their religion and philosophy were one thing before Moses, another from the time of Moses to that of Herodotus; and thus they continued to deviate from their original character till the times of the Ptolemies and the Romans. Their whole religion and mythology were founded on astronomy; it was natural that the beneficial influences of the celestial bodies should be followed by adoration. Osiris and Isis (the sun and moon) were the two principal deities, and the Nile was thought to be very nearly related to them. We frequently find Osiris and the Nile treated as one deity. The period of 360 days, computed from the regular inundation of the river at the summer solstice, constituted the religious year. The natural solar year consisted of 365 days and 6 hours. The planets, together with the signs of the zodiac, were revered as deities, and rulers of the days of the week and hours of the day. The ruler of the first hours of the day was the patron of the whole day, and communicated to it his name; the physical character and the agricultural relations of each month were likewise adored as divinities, under the 12 signs of the zodiac. Thus was the religious year constituted. The want, subsequently discovered, of five days and six hours, gave rise to seven more deities, and the solar year was introduced. These symbolical beings, however, were regarded as actually existent, the authors and governors of time and the world ; Osiris and Isis were considered as beings of unlimited power, exercising an immediate influence over the earth and its inhabitants. To each divinity was assigned a particular order of priests, into which females were never admitted. Pilgrimages and sacrifices were a part of the system of religion. The latter wore employed for the expiation of sins. The worshipper placed his hand on the head of the victim, loaded it with imprecations, and its last gasp was the seal of his pardon. Till the reign of Amasis, even human victims were offered. BeVOL. tv. 36 sides the heavenly bodies, some kinds of an imals, also, were worshipped. These were not regarded as mere symbols, but adored as actual gods, like the Apis and Mnevis; this worship arose from the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians. (See Hieroglyphics.) The most remarkable phenomenon in the philosophy of the Egyptians is the doctrine of the transmigration of souls (see Metempsychosis), which was the immediate offspring of the worship of the stars. Plato has honored the metempsychosis of the Egyptians by adopting it into his system, as a symbol of the moral purification of human nature. The Egyptians, however, did not make so accurate a distinction between the spiritual and corporeal as this philosopher; the idea of the soul, as a pure intelligence, was unknown to them; and it is a very remarkable fact, that the Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls, as delineated by Aristotle, although different from the Egyptian, is equally devoid of any moral sense. Political History of Egypt. If we go back beyond the period of tradition, to which belong the fabulous Pharaohs (kings), Menes (2000 years before Christ), Osymandyas, Moeris, Sesostris, Rhamp sinitus, &c., we find, on the extreme con fines of history, the Pharaoh of Joseph, and the migrations which took place in the storms of revolutions, under Cecrops, Moses and Danaus. In the history of foreign states, Shishak is named, 878 before the Christian era, as the Pharaoh of EGYPT, and the ally of Jeroboam; the Tnephactus and Bocchoris of Diodorus, and the Asychis of Herodotus, are famous as legislators. The 40 years' subjection of Egypt to the Ethiopians, the internal anarchy of 33 years, the dodecarchy (reign of twelve), which lasted 15 years, preceded the monarchy founded by Psammetichus, one of the dodecarchs. Jt lasted from 636 to 525 B. C, and exhibits, besides Psammetichus, the famous names of Necho, Psammis, Apries or Hophra, Amasis and Psammenitus. This period is a bright spot in the histofy of the civilization of Egypt. The kingdom next became subject to Cambyses, and be" longed to the Persian empire, till after ito conquest by Alexander, 332 B. C. After the division of the Macedonian empire, begins the splendid period of the Ptolemies (see Ptolemies, and the Alexandrian School). Ptolemy Lagus or Soter, Ptolemy Philadelphia (under whom the foundation of the future dominion of the Romans waa laid), Ptolemy Euergetes I, Ptolemy Philopater, Ptolemy Epiphaues, Ptolemy Phi* lometor, Euergetes II, Cleopatra Minor (with Ptolemy Soter or Lathyrus, and Ptolemy Alexander J), Ptolemy Alexander II, Berenice, Ptolemy Alexander III, Ptolemy Auletes, Cleopatra Tryphana and Berenice, and Cleopatra with Ptolemy Puer, under the guardianship of Ceesar and Antony, are the names of the rulers of this period, several of whom are famous in the history of science and art. The suicide of Cleopatra, after the victory of Octavius at Actium, transferred the kingdom into the power of the Romans, and it now became a Roman province. This took place 30 years B. C, and Egypt remained 670 years in the hands of the Romans. The Christian religion, during this period, gained footing in this country, and was accompanied by the same enthusiasm, sectarism and mental gloom, which, in the earlier history of EGYPT, had accompanied the pagan mysteries. Anchorites and monks had their origin here. After the division of the great Roman empire, in the time of Theodosius, into the Western and Eastern empires, Egypt became a province of the latter, and sunk deeper and deeper in barbarism and weakness. It was the prey of the Saracens, Amru, their general, under the caliph Omar, taking Alexandria, the capital, by assault. This happened A. D. 640, when Heraclius was the emperor of the East. As a province of the caliphs, it was under the government of the celebrated AbbasidesHarunalRaschid and AlMamonand that of the heroic sultan Saladin. The last dynasty was, however, overthrown by the Mamelukes (1250), and under these formidable despots the last shadow of former greatness and civilization disappeared. Selim, sultan of the Turks, eventually (1516 to 1517) conquered the last Mameluke sultan, Tumanbai, and Egypt became altogether a Turkish province, governed by a pacha. It has since been the theatre of continual internal wars of the Mameluke beys against the Turkish dominion, which has been several times, especially under Ali Bey (1766), nearly "extinguished in this country. From 1798 to 1801, Egypt was occupied by the French (see the latter part of the present article). This country has subsequently, more than ever, engaged the attention of the statesman and scholar. We behold a prince, who has divested himself of many prejudices of his nation, find has taken European models for imitation, in order to establish anew the kingdom of the Ptolemies. This prince, Mohammed vAli Pacha (see Mohammed Ali Pacha), is, indeed, merely a viceroy; but, excepting the usual tribute, accompanied with presents, and his participation in the war, by sea and land, against the Greeks, in which he was induced to engage (1823) by the gift of Yemen, Cyprus, Canaia and the Morea, he has evinced no particular signs of submission towards the Turkish sultan. In fact, he governs the province with unlimited sway. His policy is continually becoming more fully established, but rests on despotism and monopoly. The abilities of the tyrant are the sole support of the system. Mohammed Pacha is particularly attentive to the public security; he takes, therefore, ali Franks under his immediate protection, and permits no abuse of the Greeks. When the Morea was conquered by his arms (1825), he caused all the Christian population to be transplanted to the countries on the Nile. He is attempting to introduce a quarantine system, to guard against the plague, and also promotes vaccination. An agent of the pacha, by name Ismael Gibralter, travelled, some years ago, in Europe, to induce mechanics to remove to EGYPT, and contract a commercial treaty with Sweden. The pacha has done much for the commerce and industry, as well as for the civilization of Egypt. He is the greatest merchant of the country, and no others can deal with foreign countries without his consent. The income of the pacha is more than $30,000,000, arising frorn poll and land taxes, customs of the ports of Cairo, Suez, Damietta, Alexandria, &c.; branches of revenue farmed out, including various fisheries ; from the mint, from the sale of the cotton, indigo, silk, sugar, rice, saffron, wool, ivory, frankincense, &c, which he monopolizes, purchasing them at a low rate from his subjects, &c. The number of vessels, which arrived at Alexandria in the year 1829, was 909; in 1828, the arrivals were 891; in 1827, they were 605. Of the arrivals in 1829, 361 were Austrian vessels, 1 American from Smyrna, 4 Danish, 44 French, 200 English and Ionian, 8 Dutch, 32 Papal, 1 Russian, 135 Sardinian, 19 Sicilian, 5 Spanish, 13 Swedish, and 26 Tuscan. Most of the voyages were from the Archipelago, or from Turkish ports. Some years since, Ibrahim, the pacha's son, forced the Wahabites (q. v.) to withdraw to their deserts, and his second son, Ismael Pacha, undertook an expedition into Nubia, in order to extend the authority of his father there. Ismael penetrated (1820) from Syene to Dongola, on the left bank of die Nile. province. At the same time, Mohammed completed the new canal of Alexandria, called by him, in honor of the sultan, Mahmudie carved; a vast undertaking, commenced Jan. 8, 1819, under the superintendence of six European engineers, with about 100,000 laborers; and their number, though more than 7000 men died of contagious diseases, was gradually increased to 290,000, each of whom received about 17 cents, or 10rf. sterling, per diem. The canal was completed on the 13th September. It extends from below Saone, on the Nile, to Pompey's pillar, and is 47£ miles long, 90 feet Wxde, and 18 feet deep. This is the first essay towards the execution of his plan of restoring the ancient commerce of Alexandria with Arabia and the Indies. Within a short time, he has established a line of telegraphs, a printingpress at Boulac near Cairo,* a military school, and a higher institution for education, principally to form dragomans (i. e., interpreters) and other public officers. The teachers consist of French and Italian officers. In 1826, he sent several young Egyptians to France, to receive a European education. Under the government of Mohammed, all the European travellers, whom the love of discovery now draws in greater numbers than ever to those sepulchres and monuments of departed civilization, find protection and support. But it is impossible to remove all the obstacles that suspicion, the hatred of foreigners, and the avarice prevailing among the Bedouin sheiks, throw in the way of the European. Passing over the earlier travels of Brown, an Englishman, and of Hornemann and Burckhardt, Germans (the two first of whom were unable to discover any traces of the temple of Jupiter Amnion), we will mention some of the latest. Among these, the travels of the Italian Belzoni, in 1819, deserve especial notice. The Italian chevalier Frediani (see Frediani) has published a pompous description of the ruins of the temple of Jupiter Amnion, in his letters from Schiwah, dated March 30, 1820; but Gau, a Prussian architect from Cologne (see Gau), contradicts the accounts of Frediani; so also does Drovetti, late consulgeneral of France in Egypt. These ruins the French Cailliaud asserts he has examined and meas* Several works have already been issued from this press j among others, a LKzionario Haliano et Arabiano, Bolacco. delta stamp, reale, 1822 2 tomi. found them in the very state in which they had been left by the engineers of Ptolemy, with all their implements, from which we can, in some degree, deduce the mode of mining among the ancients. In 1820, Cailliaud accompanied the son of the viceroy on the abovementioned expedition to Dongola. The travels of Cailliaud to the Oasis of Thebes, and the deserts to the east and west of it, were published by Jomard. The travels of Henry Light (a British captain of artillery) to EGYPT, Nubia and the Holy Land, are not to be compared with those of Burckhardt, but they are not without interest, as far as respects the pacha of EGYPT, Jerusalem, and the Druses. The four months' journey of lieutenant FitzClarence (aid to the marquis of Hastings, governorgeneral of India), from Bombay through India and Egypt to London (1818), are more interesting. We ought to mention the travels of two Englishmen (Waddkigton and Hanbury), who accompanied the pacha on his expedition from Egypt to Nubia (1820). They pretend to have examined, minutely, Bongola and Darshegga, and to have discovered the ancient Saba, subsequently called Mcroe. In 1824, captain N. F. Gordon, of the English navy, undertook to travel up the Nile, to discover the sources of the BehrelAbiad. He only reached VillelMedinet (a day's journey from Sennaar), where he died. Several Germans, also, have, within a short time, undertaken scientific expeditions to the East and Egypt; e. g., Seetzen (q. v.), Sieber (q. v.), whose book of travels describes Crete, Cairo and Jerusalem; and Riippel, from Frankfort on the Maine. (See Africa.) With the same view, the Prussian, general Menu von Minutoli undertook such a course of travels in August, 1820. Ehrenberg, who accompanied him, has published, in Berlin, his discoveries in natural history. They were suppoited in the enterprise by the Prussian government. The general returned to Germany in September, 1821, and published an interesting work respecting his collections and discoveries. The travels in EGYPT, however, which have lately excited most interest, are those of Champollion (q. v.), who has already, by various publications, greatly increased our knowledge respecting this country, and from whose work, now publishing, wc have reason to expect much additional information. We also hope for interestmg results from the expedition which the grandduke of Tuscany sent to EGYPT, and which has recently returned, enriched with many treasures of art and science. (For a general account of what the late discoveries have taught of the ancient history of Egypt, and for a popular account of Egyptian antiquities, we must refer the reader to the marquis Spineto's Lectures on the Elements of Hieroglyphics and Egyptian Antiquities (London, 1829). For information respecting the Egyptian language, we refer to A compendious Grammar of the Egyptian Language, as contained in tlie Coptic and Sahidic Dialects, with Observations on the Bashmuric, together with Alphabets and Numerals in the Hieroglyphic and Enchorial diameters, by Henry Tattam; with an Appendix, consisting of the Rudiments of a Dictionary of the ancient Egyptian Language, in the Enchorial Character, by Thomas Young (London, 1830); also an Account of Egyptian Antiquities, by Doctor Th. Young (London, 1823) ; the Two Letters of Champollioji the Younger to the Duke Blacas D'Aulps (Paris, 1826), his works mentioned under the article Champollion, and his new work, which, according to the latest information, will soon he published, and give the results of his indefatigable researches, during his stay in Egypt. See the articles Hieroglyphics (in which the reader will find an account, also, of Egyptian mythology), Mummies, Pyramids, Nile, Esnch, Denderah, Rosetta Stone, &c.; also the note at the end of Constitution. Respecting the present state of the Egyptian institutions, which are founded, in part, on the ancient division into castes, L. Reynier, who served in Egypt under Bonaparte, has published an instructive statistical work, which does not, however, treat of the ancient kistory of the countryDe VEconomie publique et rurale des Egyptiens et des Carthaginois (Paris, 1823). For information concerning the modern history and administration of Egypt, see Felix Mengin's Histoire de VEgifpte sous le Gouvernement de. Mohammed Aly; Paris, 1823,2 vols., with engravings and maps.) Landing and Campaign of the French in Egypt. By the two campaigns of 1796 and 1797, general Bonaparte had compelled the continental powers of Europe to make peace with Francea result ardently desired by the French, to allow their countiy time to recover from the deep wounds which she had suffered during the convulsions of the revolution, and from the worthless administrations that had preceded it. The next object was to force England, also, to a peace, as she inflexibly opposed the general wish of Europe, and Bonaparte was appointed commander in chief of an army destined for the invasion of England. In February, 1798, he visited in person the coasts of the Channel, and all Europe was expecting the commencement of the expedition, when, in May of the same year, the general appeared as commander in chief at Toulon, where an expedition had been fitting out, of the destination of which the public knew nothinga circumstance highly remarkable, as so many persons, military and civil, were acquainted with it. It was the expedition to Egypt. It also appears, from a letter written by general Bonaparte to the minister Talleyrand, dated Passeriano, 27th Fructidor, year V (September 13,1797), that one of the main objects of this great undertaking was to put the French in possession of part of the East India trade, then entirely in the hands of England, by the conquest of Egypta plan by no means chimerical. It was intended to establish French col onies on the Nile, and thus to recompense the republic for the loss of St. Domingo, and of the sugar islands, and to open a channel for the French manufactures into Africa, Arabia and Syria, where they might be exchanged for commodities wanted in France. Napoleon's views were, in fact, similar to those which, it is said, have now led the French to undertake the conquest and colonization of Algiersan object which seems to be generally applauded. It seems, also, to have been intended to make Egypt a military position, from which a French army could march into India, raise the Mahrattas against the English, and injure the power of the latter there. On this point, we refer the reader to the count St. Leu's (Louis Bonaparte's) Rtponse a Sir Walter Scott, Paris, 1829, page 33. The directory probably encouraged the enterprise with the further object of getting rid of a general whose victories and rapidly increasing popularityat feared. It has, indeed, been said, that it was, at first, decidedly opposed to the plan; but this is very improbable. March 5, Bonaparte received the decree of the directory, relative to the expedition against Egypt.* He had full* Leibnitz endeavored to turn Louis XlV's attention to the conquest of Egypt, in orcler to deliver Germany and Holland from his attacks. Under Louis XV, this project was again discussed at the time when all the French possessions in America were in danger ; and it was again renewed, when the alliance of Joseph II and Catharine II threatened the partition of Prussia. power to conduct the business as he saw jk. The ministers in all the departments, were ordered to give him whatever assistance he should require; and he had full powers to act according to his discretion in Egypt, to return whenever he saw lit, and to appoint his successor. Napoleon now collected all the infonnation necessary for his own direction ; engaged some of the most distinguished savants and artists of France to accompany him, drew up questions and problems to be resolved in Egypt, and informed himself accurately respecting the commercial connexions which it was proposed to establish. In fact, he seems to have always viewed this expedition in the double light of a military and a scientific enterprise. The beginning of his proclamation, before landing in Egypt, is remarkable: " Bonaparte, member of the national institute of France, and general in chief of the army of Egypt." His brothei* Joseph (count de Survilliers) still possesses the papers of general Bonaparte relating to these preparations ; and we hope that such important and interesting documents will not be forever withheld from the public, as they must give a great insight into Napoleon's views. The number of these papers is very great. Bonaparte was to leave Paris in April, for the purpose of embarking; bit despatches from Rastadt, and from the French ambassador at Vienna, Bernadotte, made a new rupture with Austria probable. Bonaparte, however, left Paris May 3, and went on board of the Orient the 19th. The fleet set sail the same day, commanded by admiral Brueys.* Bonaparte's proclamation issued before sailing, and several others, either prove how much he himself was animated by the military fume of ancient Rome, or that he thought it the strongest stimulus to the French soldiers. Reports had been carefully spread to divprt the attention of the English to oth French fleet was not parte had an assurance ry, that the minister should go to Constantin his office, for the purp with the Porte, and p interfering in favor oj Talleyrand, however, r, omission, and the defeat ed fatal to the expedit savants, artists, physick chanics and laborers c accompanied the army the troops was that Itvalor had effected the Formio. The princi] Berthier (who was a\ Egypt, because in love ness Visconti), Desaix, Kleber, Dumas, Caffar Marmont, Belliard, Dav roc, Louis Bonaparte, nois, and others. June appeared before Malta, ed of baron von Horn pes ter, permission to proc fresh water from the is afforded a pretext for tl island, which had beer ed. The next morn had landed on all poinl notwithstanding a brisl masters of the island, \ dered at midnight, witl The victors left a garri and, on the 19th, saile July 1, the minarets of seen, and Bonaparte is board the fleet, in whic army to endure with culties before themf to r of Mohammed, and th Egyptians, not to plun Roman legiorfs in profc Nelson had been here fore in search of the 1 Garrisons were left in Alexandria (where Kleber was made governor), Rosetta and Aboukir, and the army, now 30,000 strong, marched in 5 divisions towards Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Not far from it, near the pyramids of Gizeh, a decisive battle was fought. Murad Bey had entrenched himself there, with about 20,000 Mameluke infantiy, several thousand Mameluke cavalry, and 40 pieces of cannon. The welldirected fire of the French, and the resolution with which they used their bayonets, frustrated all the attacks of the Mamelukes, who fled to the contiguous deserts, as soon as the camp and village of Embabey were taken by storm. All the cannon and 400 camels fell into the hands of the French; 3000 of the enemy lay dead on the field; the French lost few men in comparison. This happened on the 23d, and Bonaparte entered Cairo on the 24th ; for Ibrahim Bey, who was to cover it, after the unfortunate issue of the battle of the pyramids, was driven by Desaixover the deserts to Upper Egypt. Napoleon established a government here, consisting of seven members, summoned the sheiks, mollas and sheriffs, who promised to acknowledge the French republic, and, on his side, pledged himself to respect the Mohammedan religion, and the property of the inhabitants. July 25, general Bonaparte left Cairo to pursue the Mamelukes, and, after many combats with them, returned to the capital, leaving Regnier as commandant of the province of Charquich. On his return to Cairo, an aid of Kleber brought him the news of the defeat of the French fleet at Aboukir (q. v.) by Nelson. The defeat was in part owing to the negligence of admiral Brueys and viceadmiral Villeneuve, who allowed themselves to be surprised, when the whole fleet was taking in water, and not ready for battle, and who have always been said to have acted against the express orders of general Bonaparte, who had directed them to enter the harbor of Alexandria, or to sail for Corfu, before he left the shore to penetrate into the country. Bourienne, however, in his Mhnaires (Paris, 1829), asserts that Bonaparte never gave such orders.* General Bonaparte saw his communication with France threatened, and himself exposed to the greatest of all enemies, want. Exasperated by the transformation of so important a dependency as Egypt into a French* Bonaparte wrote an affectionate letter to the widow of admiral Brueys, who had been killed in the battle of Aboukir, grave her a pension after he became consul, and educated her sons. province, the Porte declared war against France, September 2, 1798, and menaced an attack from the side of Asia. The inhabitants of Cairo rebelled. Many of the French, especially the savants, artists and mechanics, were murdered: hut, after a bloody conflict in the city, September 23 and 25, the insurgents, who had fled to the principal mosque, were compelled to surrender unconditionally. After the restoration of quiet, Bonaparte, having organized a system of government for Egypt, on French principles, marched, February 27, 1799, with about 18,000 men, from Cairo to Syria, took the fort of ElArish, in the desert, then Jaffa, and, having conquered the inhabitants of Naplous, at Zeta> procured there a supply of provisions, which he greatly needed, in order to bo able to undertake the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, and was again victorious at Jafet. In the mean while, the English, who had appeared before St. Jean d'Acre under sir Sidney Smith, had succeeded in reinforcing the Turkish garrison of this place with several hundred infantry and artillery, and introducing ammunition. This enabled the Turks to repel several assaults, and, notwithstanding the most violent fire from the French batteries, to sustain the attack so long, that Bonaparte was obliged to raise the siege. During this siege, general Bonaparte marched, with 25,000 men, towards the plain of Fiuli, where 40,000 of the enemy had assembled. On the 16th and 17th of April, they were beaten in the" memorable battle of mount Tabor, near the Jordan. It was on the retreat from St. Jean d'Acre, that the Turkish prisoners were said to have been put to death at Jaffa, and the French soldiers* sick of the plague in the hospitals, poisoned. (For some remarks on this subject, see the article Jaffa.) A third of the army had become the victims of war and the plague. After a fatiguing march of 26 days, the troops arrived at Cairo. A Turkish fleet soon after landed 18,000 men at Aboukir, who took the fort there. Bonaparte quickly led his best troops thither, stationed himself near the fountain between Alexandria and Aboukir, and offered battle to the Turks, July 25. MustaphaPacha, with all his retinue and artillery, was taken ; 2000 Turks perished in the waves or in battle, and the remainder of the army, which'had thrown itself into the fort of Aboukir, was compelled to surrender unconditionally Aug. 2. By this victory, general Bonaparte's power in Egypt was again confirmed. At this period, the French had experienced consid erable reverses in Europe. The battle of the Trebia had been lost, the French had evacuated the Genoese territory, Massena, in Switzerland, was in great danger. General. Bonaparte saw the danger of his country, and the loss of his conquests in Italy, and resolved to return, having from the beginning permission to do so whenever he chose. But how could he have known the state of things in Europe ? It has been often asserted, that he obtained his information from English papers, which the French officers had received from the English, when engaged in the exchange of prisoners. But would the general have undertaken so important a step merely on the authority of the English papers, which were known to contain many misrepresentations? The fact is, that his brother Joseph sent a Greek of Cephalonia, named Bombachi, to induce him to return. The order which gave the command to Kleber was dated August 22, 1799, and contained wise directions respecting the army and country. The instructions contain two keys of ciphers, one to be used in communications to the directory, and the other in those made to himself. The conclusion, also, shows, that it did not escape him how necessary it might become, in some future time, to have the army personally attached to him. By the time his departure was known to the army, Bonaparte's frigate had weighed anchor. August 23, he left Aboukir in the Muiron, a Venetian vessel, commanded by rearadmiral Gantheaume. The situation of the troops under Kleber's command became more critical every day. General Verdier repelled a new disembarkation of the Turks, in November, 1799; but, for an army that could not be recruited, the smallest loss was serious. The advices from Europe were not encouraging; and, at this juncture, Kleber, having been informed that the grand vizier was marching from Syria to Egypt, with a large army, concluded, January 24, 1800, the treaty of ElArish, with the vizier and sir Sidney Smith. By this treaty it was provided, that a truce should be granted to the French for three months, till the ratification of the treaty, when they should evacuate Egypt. But the letter of Kleber to the directory, in which he set forth the miserable state of the army, and urged the ratification of the treaty, fell into the hands of the English admiral Keith, and was sent to England. It was now demanded that the whole French army should be made prisoners of war. Kleber immediately resumed his arms, and defeated the vizier at Heliopolis, March 18, exacted a tax for the payment of his soldiers, formed new regiments of the Copts and Greeks, gave security to the coasts, and founded magazines. In the midst of his untiring activity, he was murdered in Cairo by a Turk, June 14, and the command devolved on Abdallah Menou. Meantime the English government had resolved to wrest Egypt from the French. March 1, the English fleet arrived before Alexandria, and, on the 13th, the disembarkation was accomplished at Aboukir. The French, about 4000 men strong, gave battle on the next day, but were forced to retire, ^boukir surrendered on the 18th, and the English entrenched themselves there. On the 21st, Menou commenced an attack, with 10,000 men, was beaten, and threw himself into Alexandria. But the English general Abercrombie was mortally wounded, and died on the 28th; Hutchinson succeeded him in the command. On the 28th, reinforcements were brought by a Turkish fleet, and the vizier was now approaching from Syria. On the 19th of April, Rosetta surrendered to the combined forces of the English and Turks. A French corps of 4000 men was defeated at Ramanieh, by 8000 English and 6000 Turks. 5000 French were obliged to retreat, at Elmenayer, May 16, by the vizier, who was pressing forward to Cairo, with 20,000 men ; and the whole French army was now blocked up in Cairo and Alexandria. June 20, the siege of Cairo was formally commenced. There were but 7000 men to defend the city against 40,000. It capitulated, June 27, to the English and Turks, on condition that general Belliard and his troops should evacuate the city and country, should be transported to France at the expense of England, and that the native Egyptians should be .permitted to accompany him. August 17, thev embarked at Rosetta, and arrived at Toulon in September, 1801, about 13,000 in number, of whom hardly 4000 were armed. General Menou still remained in Alexandria. Admiral Gantheaume had sailed, before Belliard's arrival, with sev eral ships of the line, and from 3 to 4000 troops, from France, and arrived before Alexandria, but was compelled to nasten back to Toulon, with a loss of 4 corvettes. On the other hand, the English had received 5000 fresh troops from England, 'and now attacked Alexandria. They were already masters of castle Marabout, when Menou requested a truce ; to whichne was impelled by a want of provisions, and a new reinforcement which had joined the British, consisting of 6000 men under general Baird, from the East Indies. Menou capitulated September 2. Alexandria, with all the artillery and ammunition, 6 French ships of war, and many merchantmen, together with all the Arabian manuscripts, all the maps of Egypt, and other collections made for the French republic, were given up. The French army was transported, with its arms and baggage, to a French harbor, which they reached at the end of November. The garrison of Alexandria had comprised above 8000 soldiers, and 1307 marines. Three years and sjbc months had elapsed since the first embarkation at Toulon. Four weeks after the loss of Egypt, the preliminaries of peace were signed at London, October 1, 1801.*This expedition to the valley of the Nile, as far as Philae, on the frontiers of Nubiathe island which served as the extreme frontier post of the Roman empire in the south (a German, named Waldeck, however, pretends to have discovered a pillar, erected by Vespasian's warriors, at the foot of the Mountains of the Moon)was attended with important consequences for the higher interests of humanity; because science and art, in this expedition, went hand in hand with war. Those who say that Napoleon was not a friend to the arts and sciences will find it difficult to name any expedition, in which such ample provision was made for their advancement. These campaigns revealed to scientific Europe treasures which had been too long concealed by tyranny and barbarism. The ancient Denderah, Thebes, Latopolis and Edfu were disclosed, with their temples, palaces, ruins, obelisks and catacombs, to the view of the learned men who accompanied the expedition to Egypt. Secrets which neither Herodotus, Strabo nor Diodorus had been able entirely to penetrate, and* In R. R. Madden's Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Turkey and Palestine, in the years 1824, 25, 26 and 27, London, 1829, reprinted in Philadelphia, it is staled, that the French were much regretted by the Egyptians, and extolled as benefactors ; that, " for the short period they remained, they left manifold traces of amelioration;" and that, if they could have established their ower, Egypt would now be comparatively civized. This reminds us of the regret whicli most intelligent Spaniards now express at the failure of the French to establish their power in Spain; and we have heard Hessians lament the loss of many institutions 'established in the kingdom of Westphalia, though nobody can deny that Jerome's government was defective hi a high oetr"*ee. which had remained closely hidden from the view of all modern travellers, were now unfolded. The so long misunderstood Egyptian architecture was now displayed in all its grandeur; and .the veil was raised, which had formerly covered a great portion of the history, the manners, the science and geography of this country. In one and the same spirit, this people inscribed on the walls of its palaces, temples and sepulchres, the images of its gods and kings, the forms of its celestial observations, of its sacred usages and domestic life. These monuments of stone are the oldest traces of the human mind, showing to us the customs of nations in the ages reputed fabulous. The study of antiquities and legislation, as well as the history of Egypt, teaches anew the great truth, that all progress in the arts and sciences has an intimate connexion with the spirit of the political constitution and government of a country, and the necessity of a careful observance of justice and right. We now know, that, of all civilized nations, the Egyptians were the first to observe the course of the stars; since Europe has become acquainted, by means of the French, with the sculpture and architecture in which the Egyptians imbodied in stone their astronomical knowledge. Thus the zodiac of Denderah (see Denderah), now in Paris, and other monuments, show the progress which this people had made in astronomy. Previously, no one suspected the existence of the store of papyrus manuscripts, which were found in the catacombs of Thebes. The rich decorations of these catacombs, including paintings almost uninjured by time, give us a glimpse of the habits and domestic life of the generation by whom they were built; and the discovery of the famous stone of Rosetta has done much towards affording the longdesired clue to the hieroglyphics. (See Spohn.) The monuments of Egypt witnessed the rise and fall of Tyre, Carthage, Athens and Rome, and yet exist. When Plato lived, they were venerable for their antiquity, and will command the admiration of future generations, when, perhaps, every trace of our cities shall have vanished. In the Egyptian nation, every thing that concerned religion and government partook of the character of eternity, in a climate where all animal and vegetable life rises speedily to perfection, and as speedily decays. The permanence of the institutions of the country was certainly influenced by the sight of the public monuments, on which time had tried its cor roding power in vain. While beholding these stupendous works, we reflect with awe on the generations that have passed away since they arose, and the ages that must elapse before the pyramids shall bow their heads to the dust. Every *hing that zeal in the cause of science, combined with the most extensive knowledge, has been able to collect, in a land rich as Egypt is in monuments of every Kind, and hi the rarest curiosities, is comprised in a work, compiled at the cost of the French government, by the committee for Egyptian antiquities. This work corresponds, in the grandeur of its proportions, to the edifices whjch it describes. The Description de VEgypte, ou Recueil des Observations et des Recherches pendant V Exp6dition de V Amite Francaise, 25 vols., with more than 900 engravings and 3000 sketches (the last number appeared in 1826), contains all the transactions of the institute of Cairo. The first of the three great divisions contains the antiquities, the second the modern condition, and the third the natural history of Egypt. In compliance with the wishes of Napoleon, only a few copies were printed. Of these, a small number were sent to foreign courts. None of the essays were received till after a previous examination by a committee consisting of the savants and artists who had accompanied the army under Bonaparte to Egypt. Among these were Berthollet, Costar, Degenettes, Fourier, Girard, Monge, Conte and Laurent. The place of the two last, who died during the progress of the work, was supplied by Jomard and Jallois, to whom were afterwards added Delille and Devilliers. Louis XVIII and Charles X caused the publication of this valuable work to be continued, and, in 1821, Panckoucke, a bookseller in Paris, was permitted to undertake a new edition, and make use of the valuable copperplates of the former edition. Jacotin's splendid map of Egypt, constructed by the French engineers on the spot, is annexed to the Atlas of Egypt. The discoveries of Champollion (q. v.), and the prevalent zeal tor investigating the " country of wonders," may be said to have had their origin in the French expedition to Egypt. The chapter on this expedition, in sir Walter Scott's Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, is very deficient and incorrect. The account of thi3 expedition and of the motives which prompted it, given in the third and eighth chapters of the second volume of Buchholz's Geschichte Napoleon Bonaparte's (History of N. Bonaparte), Berlin, 1829,3 vols., is better. See also the memoirs of the duke of Rovigo (Savary). There has been published, quite recently, the first livraison of UHistoire scienfifique et mUilaire de VExpe'dition Frangaise en Egypte (Paris, 1830), under the direction of X. B. Saintine, with an atlas, preceded by a history of Egypt from the earliest times, and with an account of the administration of Ali Pacha, and likewise Campagne d*Egypte, suite de VHistoire de France, par Anquetil, 3d vol. by F. Fayot, Paris, 1830.