EDINBURGH

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EDINBURGH ; the metropolis of Scotland, about a mile tand a half from the frith of Forth, situated in the northern part of the county of Edinburgh. The town stands on high and uneven ground, being built on three eminences. The central ridge, on which the city was originally built, is terminated abruptly on the west by a precipitous rock, on which the castle is placed, while to the east it gradually inclines to the plain, from which rise Ar thur's seat, Salisbury crags, and the Cal ton hill. Both sides of the central ridge occupied by the principal street of the old town, extending from the castle to Holyrood house, are covered with buildings closely crowded together, and descending from the main street, chiefly in narrow lanes, with little regard eithej to health or cleanliness. That part of the town built on the southern eminence is. much more spacious and pleasant in its appearance than the centre of the city, and contains several elegant squares. Of these, the principal is George's square. Here are also the Meadows, a tract of ground intersected bv walks, shaded on t>oth sides by rows of trees. The two ridges on which the old town is built are connected by a bridge, which crosses the low street called the Cowgate, in the ravine between them, at right angles ; on each side of which bridge houses are ranged, and a spacious and nearly level street is formed, notwithstanding the inequalities of the ground. The new town is built on the lower and northernmost of the ridges, parallel with the old town, with which it is connected by a bridge, and by a mound of earth called the earthen mound. Its streets and squares have been constructed with great elegance and regularity. St. Andrew's and Charlotte squares are remarkable for their beauty. An extension of the city is also making on the inclined plain on the north, and towards the west, where some handsome streets have lately been built; also the octagon of Moray place, the finest in the city. Edinburgh is connected with Leith by a paved road. A magnificent entrance from the east has also been formed along the south side of the Calton hill; and on the summit of the hill a national monument, after the model of the Parthenon at Athens, has been begun. Other improvements are at present going on with a view of remedying the disadvantages occasioned by the inequalities of the ground on which Edinburgh is built. The scenery around Edinburgh, owing to the abrupt and craggy heights of the Calton hill and Arthur's seat* which suddenly rises 800 feet from the surrounding plain, and presents the rocky heights of Salisbury crags towards the city, is uncommonly striking; and every thing has been done to display these natural advantages. Around the Calton hill several walks have lately been made at different elevations, from which the surrounding town and country are seen to great advantage ; a walk has also been made on the still higher elevation of Salisbury crags, from which the view is grand and imposing.Of the public works and buildings in Edinburgh, the castle is the most remarkable. It is situated at the western extremity of the old town, on a rugged rock, which rises on three sides from a level plain to the height of 150 to 200 feet. At the opposite or eastern extremity of the old town stands the palace Mid abbey of Holyrood, for several centuries the residence of the monarchs of Scotland. The abbey, of which only the walls remain, was founded in the year 1128, by David I; and in the buryingplace within are interred several of his successors. The palace is a large quadrangular edifice of hewn stone, with a court within, sur* rounded by piazzas. The palace contains a gallery 150 feet long, decorated with imaginary portraits of the kings of Scotland, from the time of Fergus I. As it now stands, it is not of high antiquity. Its northwest towers were built by James V, but the remaining part of it was added during the reign of Charles II. The appearance of the Parliament square, in the centre of the city, has been entirely changed, in consequence of two fires, which occurred in 1824, and burnt down the south and east sides of the square. On the site of the former houses an elegant structure is now in progress for the accommodation of the courts, to be connected with the former buildings, partly oid and partly new, in which the supreme courts at present hold their sittings. The original portion of those buildings was finished in the year 1640, and was intended for the reception of the Scottish parliament. For the reception of the advocates' library, the richest collection in Scotland, consisting of more than 70,000 printed volumes, and a smaller one belonging to the writers to the signet, apartments attached to the northwest corner of the parliament house have lately been finished. Nearly opposite to the Parliament square stands the royal exchange, which was founded in the year 1753, and was formerly employed as a customhouse. The registeroffice, in which the public records of Scotland are deposited, was founded in the year 1774, and is distinguished for lightness, elegance, and classical simplicity of design. Of the churches, the metropolitan church, dedicated to saint Giles, is the most ancient. It is built in the figure of a cross, and forms one side of the Parliament square. It was erected into a collegiate church in 1466, but is scid to have been founded nearly 600 years before. From the centre rises a square tower, surmounted by slender arches, supporting a spire 161 feet in height, the whole exhibiting the resemblance of an imperial crown. The other churches are, Trinity college church, the Old and New Grayfriurs, the Tron, the Canongate, St. Cuthbert's, Lady Tester's, St. Andrew's, St. George's, St. Mary's, and St. Vincent's, with five chapels of ease. Besides these places of worship, there are four for the Burghers, three for the Antiburghers, four for the Relief, four for the Baptists, two for the Independents, a Gaelic chapel, and one each for the Methodists, Cameronians, Bereans, Glassites, Unitarians, Quakers, and Roman Catholics, and six for the Episcopalians. The university of Edinburgh has long since attained general celebrity. It was founded in the year 1582, when there was only one professor. All the different branches of literature, science and philosophy are now taught in this seminary. The total number of students is about 2000. To the university is attached a library of more than 50,000 volumes. The highschool, the principal grammarschool of the city, was established in 1578. Of literary associations, the principal is the royal society, constituted in 1782 ; the royal society of antiquaries, and the Wernerian society ; and the astronomical institution. The Highland society was established for advancing the interests of agriculture, manufactures and arts, in the Highlands of Scotland. It distributes annually about £700 in premiums for inventions and improvements. There are, besides, the faculty of advocates, and the royal colleges of physicians and surgeons. The principal charitable institution is Heriot's hospital, which was endowed by George Heriot, jeweller to James VI, for educating and maintaining the sons of burgesses and freemen: it was erected in 1650, at the expense of £30,000, after a Gothic design of Inigo Jones: it consists of a large quadrangle, with a court in the interior; and it is crowned with columns, turrets and spires. There are, also, numerous other hospitals, three charity workhouses, an asylum for the industrious blind, a Magdalene asylum, a house of industry, and a society for the suppression of begging ; and four dispensaries, two for affording advice and medicines to the poor, and two for curing diseases in the eye and ear. On the summit of the Calton hill is Nelson's monument, a circular column, 108 feet in height. There are 13 banking companies, of which the bank of Scotland, the royal bank, and the British linen company, are incorporated by royal charter. The manufactures of Edinburgh are principally adapted for the consumption of its inhabitants, consisting of household furniture; travelling carriages, executed in a style of superior elegance ; of engraving in all its branches, musical instruments, &c.: there are also manufactures of glass and marble, in which equal taste and skill are displayed; and between 300 and 400 weavers are employed in the working of linen, silks, sarsnets, and fine shawls. There are also brass and iron manufactures and distilleries of spirits in the neighborhood; and Edinburgh has been long noted for its excellent ale. The trades of bookselling and printing are carried on to a great extent; and various periodical and other works are published here, which have deservedly attained extensive celebrity. Among these may be mentioned the Edinburgh Review (see the next article) and Blackwood's Magazine. There are two newspapers published three times a week, three twice a week, and four once a week. The places of public amusement are the theatre, the pantheon, and the assemblyrooms. A gaslight company has been established. Edinburgh is a royal burgh, and its council sends one member to parliament. The origin of Edinburgh is lost in remote antiquity. About the year 854, according to the accounts of the earlier historians, Edinburgh was a town of some note. In 1215, a parliament was assembled here for the first time. In 1437, the kings of Scotland usually resided in it, and held regular parliaments; and about the year 1456, it was considered the metropolis of Scotland. Population of the city and suburbs, including Leith, 138,235 ; 42 miles E. Glasgow, and 39(3 N. N. W. London ; Ion. 3° 12' W., lat. 55° 5& N. A History of the University of Edinburgh, 2 vols. 8vo., was published, in 1830, by Bower, Edinburgh and London.