DOCTOR

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DOCTOR. The title of doctor originated at the same time with the establishment of the universities. The dignity connected with it first received public sanction at the law university in Bologna, between 1128 and 1137, where the celebrated Irnerius (Werner) began to give instructions in law, in 1128, and was confirmed by the emperor as professor of law. He is said to have prevailed on the emperor Lothaire II, whose chancellor he was, to introduce the dignity of doctor. From the faculty of law, this title passed to that of theology. The faculty in Paris first conferred the degree of doctor of divinity on Peter Lombard, who, in 1159, became bishop of Paris. William Gordemo, of the college at Asti, in 1329, was the first person who was promoted to the dignity of doctor artium et medicincB. The doctorate of philosophy was established last, because the faculty of philosophy was formed the latest. The title of magister was more common among the members of this faculty. The degree of doctor is either conferred publicly, with certain ceremonies, or by diploma. On the continent of Europe, the order of rank is thisdoctor of theology, of law, of medicine, and of philosophy; but in England and the U. States of America, the doctor of laws ranks first, and the doctor of. divinity next. Doctor of medicine is a professional title.The degree of doctor of music is conferred at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (England). The great Haydn and Romberg received this title from the university of Oxford.