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DAVID, king of Israel, the youngest son of Jesse,' an inhabitant of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, distinguished himself by his prudence, courage and exploits, particularly by his combat with Goliath, the gigantic Philistine; so that Samuel, the high priest, anointed and consecrated him as king, during the life of Saul. At home, be tended his father's flocks, and was instructed in the knowledge of that period, ' and in music. Saul, who regarded him as his enemy, persecuted him; and thus arose a civil war, which continued till the death of Saui David then ascended the throne of Judah, but the remaining tribes had chosen Saul's son Ishbosheth for their king, after whose death David came into possession of the whole kingdom, which he governed o from 1055 till 1015 years B. C. His first expedition was against the Jebusites, who dwelt in the centre of Palestine. He conquered the citadel Zion, and made Jerusalem his residence, and the citadel the abode of the Most High. He then reduced the Philistines, Amalekites, Edornites, Moabites, Ammonites, and especially the Syrians. His kingdom now extended from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean, and from Phoenicia to the Arabian gulf, and contained more titan 5,000,000 inhabitants. He promoted navigation and commerce, and endeavored to refine his people by the cultivation of the arts, especially that of architecture. He built at Jerusalem a palace for himself, and made the worship of God more splendid, by the appointment of sacred poets and singers. The magnificent temple which he had projected was completed by his son and successor. He himself carried lyric po etry to the highest perfection, which it had ever reached among the Israelites, by his Psalms, (q. v.) He also improved the military, judicial and financial systems. The ardor of his temperament led him, however, to the commission of several cruelties, for which his repentance was not able to atone; and jealousy among his sons by different mothers, at length gave rise to rebellion in his own family. His son Absalom sought to dethrone him, and made war upon him with this design, but unsuccessfully. He left the flourishing kingdom of Israel to his son Solomon. The crimes of David the Scriptures do not extenuate, but they represent him as having endeavored to atone for them by repentance. His advice to his son, on his deathbed, seems to leave a dark stain upon his memory, though commentators have endeavored to put a favorable construction upon it.