CONGRESS

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CONGRESS, in international politics ; a meeting of the rulers or representatives of several states, with a view of adjusting disputes between different governments. The history of Europe may, in a certain respect, be divided into three periods. In the first, it was split up into a great number of small divisions, which were in a state of perpetual contest. In the second, these were consolidated into larger masses, which continued the former conflicts on a larger scale. The third period is the present, in which nations have begun to understand their interest more clearly, and seem to hold the difference of language and the natural divisions of mountains and rivers trifles, in comparison with the great interests of liberty and humanity. Europe is now divided into two great parties, who carry on a war of principles: the one may be called the party of legitimacy, feudalism, despotism, &c.; the other that of liberty and equal laws. Thus the opposing masses in Europe have become continually fewer and more comprehensive, and the nature of the contest more intellectual. Mr. Canning's remarks on this point, in his speech on the occasion of sending troops to Lisbon to assist the liberal party, do him honor. CONGRESses began in the second period, and they bear the character of the times in which they have been held. Of late years, they have become much increased in dignity and importance, having been employed, since the commencement of the third period, which we may date from the congress at Vienna or the congress at AixlaChapelle (q. v.), to adjust political interests on a much larger scale than they were originally. (See the last paragraph of this article.) A congress is a simple means of determining, in a diplomatic way, the conflicting claims of belligerent powers, or of states whose interests interfere with each other, and thus of preparing or concluding peace, or preventing a rupture, and of mediating between the different interests of different nations. At the same time, it is very common for a congress to assume illegal power in respect to particular governments or nations, because a congress affords governments of the same way of thinking so much opportunity of concentrating their forces. The plenipotentiaries of the dissentient, or of the mediating powers, assemble at an appointed place, commonly on neutral ground, and, partly by notes, partly by verbal communication, carry on their negotiations. It is necessary to distinguish the preliminary congress, in which the preliminaries are settled (such as the consent and the representation of the different powers, the place and time of the meeting, the extent of the neutral ground, the security of ambassadors and public messengers, the ceremonial, and the method of transacting business), from the principal congress, which is to bring the affair in question to a decision. These preliminaries are commonly settled in the diplomatic way, by the mediating powers, and then the principal congress assembles. The plenipotentiaries, when they meet, after mutual greetings, appoint, in a preliminary conference, the uay on which the congress is to be opened, and determine the manner in which business is to be transacted, the forms of negotiation, the order of precedence among the different powers (in Europe, the alphabetical order has been followed since 18] 5; see Ceremonial), and the time of session. The congress opens by the exchange and perusal of creden tials among the plenipotentiaries, which, in case the negotiating parties have referred to the arbitration of a mediator, are given to him. The envoys of the contending powers then carry on their negotiations directly with each other, or by the intervention of a mediator, either in a common hall, or in their own residences by turns, or, if there is a mediator, in his residence. These negotiations are continued either by writing or by verbal communication, until the commissioners can agree upon a treaty, or until one of the powers dissolves the congress by recalling its minister.The history of the congresses is a history of European politics. It appears that Henry IV and Sully, having conceived the project of forming a union of the European states, the members of which, being equal in power, were to decide their quarrels by appeal to a senate, first thought this manner of negotiating advisable. Before the thirty years' war, no formal congresses had been held in Europe. Those at Roschild in 1568, at Stettin in 1570, and that convoked at the request of the czar John IV, by the pope, at KiwerovaHorka, in 1581, and succeeding years; that at Stolbova in 1617, at Viasma in 1634, at Stumdorf in 1635, and at Bromsebro in 1645, which were terminated by the treaties of peace, named from the places at which they were held, regarded merely the political relations of the northern states. The history of the European congresses for peace begins, therefore, with those at Miinster and Osnabriick. The history of congresses may be conveniently divided into three periods: 1. from the foundation of the new European system by the double congress, which was followed by the peace of Westphalia, until the peace of Utrecht (from 1648 to 1713); 2. from the establishment of the influence of the naval and colonial power of the British by the peace of Utrecht, to the congress of Vienna (from 1713 to 1815); 3. from the (so called) restoration of the balance of power in Europe, and the establishing of the principles of legitimacy, and stability of the existing governments, by the congress of Vienna and the holy alliance, to the present day. In every congress since 1648, some of the most powerful governments have taken the lead of the rest, and have determined, in a certain measure, the course of negotiation, by laying down general principles. Bignon has weighed against each other the interests of the people and of the cabinets, in his work Les Cabinets et les Peitplcs depuis 1815, jusqu a la Fin de 1822. We will now speak of the more important congresses, according to the order of the three epochs which we have laid down. A. From 1648 to 1713. 1. The congress at Miinster and Osnabriick. It is remarkable that the pope (during the thirty years' war the only sovereign, among the princes of Europe, except the king of Spain, who refused to acknowledge the peace of Westphalia) made the first propositions of peace, in 1636, at Cologne, by his nuncio Ginetti. The emperor and Spain did indeed send ambassadors to Cologne, who were prepared to negotiate with France and Sweden, under the mediation of the pope; but, on account of this very mediation, France refused to send commissioners to this congress, but, on the contrary, joined with Sweden in a common negotiation for peace, at Hamburg. The emperor, finally, in a preliminary treaty at Hamburg, in 1641, resolved to negotiate with both powers at Miinster and Osnabriick. On account of the dispute between France and Sweden on the subject of rank, and to avoid collision between the Protestant envoys and the nuncio, those two cities were chosen, which France had offered, being only six leagues distant from each other, and it was decided that the two meetings should form but one congress. This great European council of peace was first opened in December, 1644. At Miinster, every thing was carried on by the mediators, the nuncio of the pope, and the envoy of the republic of Venice; at Osnabriick, the negotiations were direct, and the Latin language was used. (See Westphalia, Peace of.) 2. The congress of the Pyrenees. France and Spain continued, until 1659, the war which the peace of Westphalia had ended in Germany. After a preliminary treaty concluded at Paris, May 7, the isle of Pheasants, in the Bidassoa, on the frontiers of the two states, was chosen for a place of meeting; and cardinal Mazarin and the Spanish minister, don Luis de Haro, from Aug. 13 to Nov. 25,1659, had 25 conferences under a tent, in which the former used the Italian and the latter the Spanish language. The peace of the Pyrenees, concluded Nov. 7, secured to France her political superiority; Spain ratified the peace of Miinster, and yielded Roussillon, Conflans, and some places in the Netherlands, to France, which restored the banished prince of Conde to his honors and estates. Lorraine was also restored to her duke. 3. The congress at Breda, by the mediation of Sweden, ended the war between Great Britain on the one side, and the Netherlands, France and Denmark on the other, by the peace of Breda, July 31, 1667, which principally related to their colonies in the West Indies, and the toll upon the Sound. 4. The congress at AixlaChapelle, under the mediation of the pope, ended the war between France and Spain (occasioned by the claim of Louis XIV to a part of the Spanish Netherlands), by the peace of AixlaChapelle, May 2, 1668, according to the terms of which France retained the places which it had conquered in the Spanish Netherlands, but restored FrancheComte to Spain. 5. In the war between Louis XIV and the Netherlands, from 1672 to 1678, a congress was first opened at Cologne, in 1673, but was dissolved in the following year, because the imperial ambassador had arbitrarily seized the elector of Cologne, and sent him from that city to Vienna. The British ambassadors (among whom was the famous sir William Temple) and the papal envoy then carried on, as mediators, the negotiations for peace between France, Spain, the Netherlands, the German emperor, Sweden, Denmark, Brandenburg, and some small states, at the congress of Nimeguen, from 1676 to the conclusion of the peace of Nimeguen, in 1678, which consisted of several separate treaties of peace; between France and the Netherlands; between France and Spain ; between France, Sweden and the German empire, in 1679, of which the peace with Brandenburg, at St. GermainenLaye, and that with Denmark at Fontainebleau and Lund, together with that at Nimeguen, between Sweden and Holland, were the immediate consequences. Thus French diplomacy, by dividing the allies, obtained the victory at this congress, and secured, for a long time, the political superiority of Louis XIV. 6. The taking of Strasburg, which happened during the peace in 1681, and the reunion system of Louis, caused the great alliance of the Hague (of which William III was the soul) against the pretensions and usurpations of France. Sweden and Holland first united; then the emperor, Spain, and some German circles joined the league, to support the peace of Westphalia and of Nimeguen; and as the emperor was already engaged in a war against the Turks, recourse was had to negotiation rather than to arms. This was the object of the famous congress of Frankfort, in 1681, which was broken off by the French, in December, 1682* but was afterwards continued at Ratisbon, and ended by a truce of 20 years with France, in 1684. But in vain did the European powers seek, by alliances with each other, and particularly by the great league of Augsburg (association), in 1686, effected by the stadtholder of Holland, William III, to put limits to the ambition of Louis, for, in September, 1688, the French armies invaded the countries on the Rhine. This, and the expulsion of the house of Stuart frgm the throne of England by William III, in November, 1688, was the cause of a war of nine years. 7. Designs on the Spanish succession induced Louis, though victorious, to attempt to divide the allies by separate treaties, and, not succeeding in this, he sought the mediation of Sweden; by means of which a congress was convened at Ryswick, a castle near the Hague, in May, 1697. The negotiations were carried on (round a circular table, in the hall of conference, which prevented all disputes about precedency) on the principles of the peace of Westphalia and that of Nimeguen. But the French, by separate treaties with the allies, obtained the direction of the negotiation, and their skilful diplomacy obliged the German empire to accept the conditions determined upon by France with Spain, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. The peace of Ryswick was signed by the naval powers Sept. 20, and by the emptor Oct. 30, 1697. To this period belong certain other congresses, in which the political relations of the northern powers towards Poland and the Porte were settled. 8. The most famous is that which took place at Oliva, a monastery near Dantzic, in May, 1660, where France mediated a peace between Sweden and Poland, and to which the German emperor, the elector of Brandenburg, the duke of Courland, and other inferior princes, sent ministers. The plenipotentiaries of the Dutch republic, of Denmark and of Spain were not admitted. The peace of Oliva, May 3, 1660, confirmed the political superiority of Sweden in the North, secured to it the possession of Livonia, and established the sovereignty of Prussia. At the same time, England, Holland and France mediated the peace of Copenhagen, concluded May 27, 1660, between Sweden and Denmark. The negotiations at Oliva were finally completed by the peace between Sweden and Russia, at Cardis, July 1,1661. 9. Particular congresses were convened to settle certain disputes between Poland and Russia; at Radzyn in 1670, at Moscow in 1678, at Radzyn and Andrussov in 1684, which resulted in the definitive peace at Moscow, in 1686v by which the power of Poland, which the treaty of Oliva had already shaken, received a second blow. The boundaries between Russia and Poland remained, until 1772, such as they had been fixed by this peace. 10. The congress at Altona, in 1687, where the German emperor and the electors of Saxony and Brandenburg mediated in the disputes between Denmark and the house of HolsteinGottorp, terminated, after Great Britain and the statesgeneral had also been called in as mediators, in the peace of Altona, in 1689, by which the duke of Holstein regained his territories with full sovereignty. 11. To this period belongs also, the conferences at Carlowitz in 1698, where a Turkish sultan first leamt to employ the forms of European diplomacy, accepting the mediation of Great Britain and Holland. In this congress, his first dragoman, Mavrocordato, exhibited a specimen of the diplomatic talents of the Greek nation, settling all questions of rank by a round table. In 1699, he concluded with the German emperor, Poland, Venice and Russia, at Carlowitz, the treaties of peace, or truces, by which bounds were first set to the power of the Porte. Venice was obliged to give up Candia and the islands of the Archipelago. It retained, however, the Morea, the Ionian islands, and some places in Albania.B. From 1713 to 1814. 1. The war of the Spanish succession was ended by the congress at Utrecht, to which France, England, the statesgeneral, Savoy, the emperor, Portugal, Prussia, the pope, Venice, Genoa, the electorates of Mentz, Cologne, Treves, the Palatinate, Saxony, and Bavaria, together with Hanover and Lorraine, sent their plenipotentiaries in January, 1712, after France and Great Britain, in the preliminaries settled Oct. 8, 1711, had drawn the outlines of the peace, and had thus already decided, to a certain degree, the new relations which were to exist between the states. At Utrecht, also, French diplomacy succeeded in breaking the union of the powers interested, by a regulation that each of the allies should give in his demands separately. The dissensions between them increased when they saw that the negotiations of Great Britain were, for the most part, carried on in secret, and immediately with the court of Versailles. The result was eight separate treaties of peace, which France, Spain, England, Holland, Savoy and Portugal made with each other, between 1713 and 1715, leaving Austria and the empire to themselves. (See Utrecht, Peace of.) Since that time the British, from their naval and cominer cial power, have taken the lead among the principal states, and the interest of England has determined the fate of the European system of a balance of power, as it is called. 2. The congress at 6aden, in June, 1714, was a mere act of form to change the peace concluded at Rastadt by Eugene and Villars, in the name of the emperor and of France, and which rested upon the peace of Utrecht, into a peace of the empire (drawn up in Latin). 3. The congress at Antwerp was also a consequence of the peace of Utrecht. England there mediated between the emperor of Germany and the statesgeneral, and concluded the barrier treaty of Nov. 15,1715. 4. The congress at Cambray, in 1722, was held to settle the disputes between the emperor, Spain, Savoy and Parma, with regard to the execution of the peace of Utrecht and the conditions of the quadruple alliance, England and France being mediators. But Philip V of Spain, offended by the rejection of his daughter, who had been betrothed to Louis XV (in April, 1725), recalled his minister from Cambray, and concluded a peace with Austria at Vienna, April 20,1725, in which he became guarantee for the pragmatic sanction. The defensive alliance, soon after concluded between Austria and Spain, was followed by a counteralliance between England, France, the United Provinces, Denmark, Sweden, HesseCassel and Wolfenbiittel, formed at Herrnhausen. On the other hand, Russia, Prussia, and some German states, joined the alliance of Vienna. A general war appeared to be approaching, when Austria, by the temporary suspension of the company of Ostend, and Spain, by the treaty with England at the Pardo, opened the way for a reconciliation. 5. The congress at Soissons, in June, 1728, was convened to effect a similar settlement between Austria, France, England and Spain ; but the French minister, cardinal Fleury, succeeded in dividing Spain and Austria, and France, Spain and England formed a treaty of amity and mutual defence, at Seville, in 1729 (to which Holland acceded), in order to give law to Austria. The congress at Soissons was thus dissolved, and injured Austria took up arms. But the guarantee of the pragmatic sanction, which England and Holland undertook, induced the emperor Charles VI, in 1731, to accept the conditions of the treaty of Seville. 6. The congress at AixlaChapelle, in April, 1748, in which France, Austria, England, Spain, Sardinia, Holland, Modena and Genoa took part, ter minated the war of the Austrian succession by the peace of AixlaChapelle, Oct, 18, 1748. 7. The seven years' war between England and France was ended without a congress; but Austria, Saxony and Prussia concluded a peace at the congress of Hubertsburg, Feb. 15, 1763, the session having lasted from Dec. 1762. 8. The congress at Teschen, in March, 1779, decided the dispute with regard to the Bavarian succession, by the mediation of France and Russia between the contending powers, Austria and Prussia. The elector palatine, the elector of Saxony, and the duke of DeuxPonts, sent their ministers, but not the elector of Bavaria, whose hereditary succession was the subject of negotiation. (See Teschen, Peace of.) 9. Russia and Austria offered their mediation to France and England in the war of the American revolution. Vienna was proposed for the place of meeting; but France refused the mediation; and when the Russian and Austrian ministers wished to take part, as mediators, in the congress opened at Paris, in October, 1782, by the ministers of France, Spain, England, Holland and the U. States, the preliminaries of peace were settled without their knowledge, Nov. 30, 1782, and Jan. 20, 1783, also the definitive treaty of Versailles and of Paris, Sept. 3, 1783, and tjjat with Holland, May 20, 1784. 10. The disputes of Joseph II with the republic of Holland, relating to the opening of the Scheldt, and other subjects, in 1784, induced France to offer its mediation; and a congress was opened at Versailles, Dec. 8 of the same year, by the French minister count Ver^ gennes, and the imperial and Dutch ministers. It ended with the treaty of Fontainebleau, Nov. 8, 1785, by which the barrier treaty of 1715, and the treaty of Vienna, in 1731, were annulled, the boundaries of Flanders restored as they were in 1664, several strips of land yielded up to the emperor, and, as a compensation for his claims, a sum of 10,000,000 florins, of which France contributed 4,500,000, to prevent the congress from being dissolved. On the other hand, the Scheldt remained closed, and the emperor gave up the rest of his claims. 11. When Leopold II was on the point of suppressing, by force of arms, the insurrection of the Netherlands, in consequence of the convention of Reichenbach, a congress was opened, in September, 1790, at the Hague, by the ambassadors of Austria, Prussia, Holland and England, to which the deputies of the Belgian provinces were also admitted. These powers concluded, Dec 1 of this year, the convention of the Hague, by which, however, the emperor was willing only to confirm to the Belgic provinces the old constitution, as it was at the time of the death of Maria Theresa. New disputes and commotions thence arose. Finally, Francis II, in March, 1793, restored the old constitution, as it had been under Charles VI, and swore, at Brussels, in April, 1794, to the joyeuse entree; but it was too late, for Belgia was soon after conquered by the French. 12. In the history of the wars of the French revolution, the fruitless congress at Rastadt deserves mention. It was opened by the deputation of the empire, under the presidency of the directorial subdelegates of Mentz, baron Von Albini, in presence of the imperial plenipotentiary count Metternich, Dec. 9,1797, and dissolved by him, April 7, 1799, by an imperial decree. The ancient dignity of the German empire was manifested on this occasion merely by a vain formality, with which the insulting haughtiness of the French ministers formed a striking contrast. The deputation gave their notes in German, the French ambassadors in French. With regard to the object of the' meeting, the deputation resembled a person blindfolded, and crippled, hand and foot; for the secret articles of the peace of CampoFormio, and the conditions of the secret convention of Rastadt, Dec. 1,1797, remained unknown to it. Thence arose disputes and mistrust, especially between Austria and Prussia;, and while the deputation was groping in the dark, it stumbled over every obstacle, and laid itself open continually to its adversaries, so that the subdelegate of Baden, among other reasons by which he attempted to exculpate himself for having given up the whole left bank of the Rhine, mentioned the anger of the French ministers when they heard that only a part of it was to be given to them. The French diplomatists at Rastadt neglected the ancient forms of courtesy; the German frequently acted with pusillanimity and timidity. The whole terminated by a bloody crime, April 28, 1799, probably occasioned by the arbitrary measures of a man of a violent character, who wished for personal vengeance, and the blind rage of the subordinate officer whom he had charged to execute it. (See Rastadt.) The conditions of the cession of the left bank of the Rhine, and the compensation made to the princes who were thus injured, by secularizing the ecclesiastical possessions, having been already accepted by the deputation at Rastadt, were, without a convocation of the empire, afterwards presented as articles of peace, in the peace of Luneville in 1801. 13. The congress at Amiens, where Joseph Bonaparte and the marquis of Cornwallis negotiated for a definitive peace between France and England, from December, 1801, to March 27, 1802, Malta being the most difficult matter of dispute, and the Spanish and Dutch ministers taking part in the negotiations only where the interests of their respective powers came in question, was terminated by the treaty of Amiens, concluded by the four plenipotentiaries, March 27,1802, to which the Porte acceded, May 13, 1802, but which was dissolved by a declaration of war, on the part of England, March 18, 1803. 14. Napoleon commonly negotiated his treaties with arms in his hands; he therefore needed no mediator. But when he was preparing to conquer Spain, and wished to secure his rear towards Germany and Poland, and therefore to form a closer alliance wi^h Russia, and make again an attempt to induce England to join in the general peace, the first European congress of monarchs was called together at Erfurt, in October, 1808. Napoleon arrived there September 27, and, a few hours afterwards, the emperor Alexander. They found there, already assembled, the kings of Saxony, Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, Jerome, then king of Westphalia, the grandduke Constantine, prince William of Prussia, the dukes of SaxeWeimar, SaxeGotha and HolsteinOldenburg, with several other princes, together with the ministers of state of these courts, and the ministers from Prussia, Denmark, Wiirtzburg, the prince primate, Baden, and several others. The baron Von Vincent appeared in the name of the emperoi of Austria, with a letter, in which he declared his friendly dispositions towards France. The negotiations related to a diminution of the contributions imposed by France on Prussia, and the admission of the duke of Oldenburg into the confederation of the Rhine; but the principal subject of discussion was the peace with England, the relations between France and Austria, and the affairs of Turkey The British government, by a circular letter of Oct. 12, declared its readiness to take into consideration the offers of peace made by the emperors of France and Austria, if Sweden and Spain were represented in the congress by their plenipotentiaries ; but, as Napoleon would not grant this right to the Spanish nation, the negotiations were broken off* in December. The assembly at Erfurt immediately separated, Oct. 14, after Napoleon thought he had secured peace with Austria, and had had several private interviews with the emperor Alexander, the purport of which is not precisely known. (See Scholl'S Traites de Paix, vol. 9, p. 194. Bignon's History of French Diplomacy, recently published, and which has not as yet reached us, probably contains much information on this, as well as many other points.) To this period belong, also, 15thly, the two fruitless Congresses at Brunswick, in the course of the northern war. The first was dissolved in February, 1713, and the second in March, 1714. 16. The congress opened by the Holstein minister Gortz, baron Von Schlitz, in the name of Charles XII, with the plenipotentiaries of the czar, upon the island of Aland, in 1718. But the peace there negotiated, upon conditions tolerably favorable to Sweden, was rendered invalid by the death of Charles XII, and the party spirit of the Swedish nobility, to which Gortz fell a victim. The Swedish government broke off the negotiations with Russia upon the island of Aland, and, by the mediation of France, concluded, at the congress of Stockholm, separate treaties of peace with Hanover, Nov. 20,1719, and, in 1720, with Prussia, Denmark, and, provisionally, with Poland. Finally, Sweden, by the mediation of France, was obliged to conclude peace, Sept. 10, 1721, at Nystadt (where the congress had assembled in May, 1721), upon terms, dictated by the czar, which established the preponderance of Russia in the North. This was followed by the conclusion of the definitive treaty of peace with Saxony and Poland, in 1729 and 1732. 17. The war which broke out in 1741, between Sweden and Russia, was ended by the definitive treaty of peace concluded at Abo, Aug. 17, 1743, at the congress held there by Russian and Swedish ministers, after Sweden had chosen, as the successor to the throne, the bishop of Liibeck, Adolphus Frederic, duke of HolsteinGottorp, instead of the cwwnprince of Denmark. This was followed by the treaty of St. Petersburg, between Russia and Sweden, in 1745. While the mediation of foreign powers was refused by Russia, especially under the reign of Catharine II, in its treaties with Sweden, Poland and the Porte, it was employed in the disputes between Austria and the Porte. 18. The congress of Passarowitz, by the mediation of Great Britain and Holland, put an end to the war which had broken out in 1714 and 1716, between the Porte and Austria and Venice, by the peace of Passarowitz, July 21, 1718, by which the Morea was left in possession of the Porte, as a conquered province, without any mention of it being made in the treaty. 19. The Porte, in a war with Russia, in 1736, desired the mediation of Austria, Holland and Great Britain; but Russia, refused the mediation of the naval powers, so that the congress at Niemiroff, in Poland, in June, 1737, consisted only of ministers from the Porte, Russia and Austria. But when Austria declared war against the Porte, France acted as mediator. The negotiations were broken off in October, but they were renewed and carried on, partly in Constantinople, partly in the camp of the grand vizier, by the French ambassador, M. De Villeneuve, who had received secret instnictions, on this subject, from the emperor Charles VI, and the empress Anna, of which, however, their ministers, count Von Sinzendorf and count Ostermann, who, on their side, were negotiating for a private peace with the Porte, knew nothing. Finally the Austrian general count Neipperg concluded a preliminary treaty, Sept. 1, 1739, in a very hasty manner, with the guarantee of France, by which Belgrade, though in a good state of defence, was surrendered to the Turks. Villeneuve now concluded with Austria and with Russia, Sept. 18, 1739, the definitive treaty of Belgrade, which was extremely advantageous for the Porte, and signed it as plenipotentiary of the Russian empress, without the knowledge of fieldmarshal Munich, who had likewise received full power to make peace with the Porte. 20. In the war of Russia with the Porte, from 1768 to 1774, a congress was held by the Russian and Turkish ministers, in August, 1772, at Focsani, in Moldavia, where appeared, also, an Austrian and a Prussian minister; but Catharine would not recognise them as mediators, and they only learnt in secret, from the Turkish ambassador, the course of the negotiations. This congress, however, soon after separated. A second congress, also, assembled in October, 1772, at Bucharest, to which these two ministers were likewise refused admittance, was dissolved, without having effected any thing, in March, 1773, probably through the influence of the French in the divan. Finally, the grand vizier, cut off from Adrianople, saw himself obliged, withouv further negotiation, to accept peace upor. the conditions of the Russian general count Rumanzoff; and he signed it in tin tent of the latter, at Kutschuk Kainardgi July 21,1774. 21. In the war between Russia and Austria and the Porte, in 1787 and the following years, Catharine likewise refused all mediation ; but Austria was obliged to accept it, and a congress met in June, 1790, at Reichenbach, where count Herzberg, in the name of Prussia, negotiated with Austria, and in which Poland, Great Britain and the statesgeneral took part. To avoid a war with Prussia, Austria resolved to accept the *dtimatum of the Prussian cabinet. Thus die convention of Reichenbach was made, July 27, according to which Austria concluded the peace of Sistova with the Porte, August 4,1791, in which place a congress had assembled in January of the same year, consisting of Austrian and Turkish ministers, together with those of the mediating powersGreat Britain, Prussia and Holland. Negotiations were afterwards carried on at St. Petersburg, by the mediating powers, for a peace between Russia and the Porte. The preliminaries, however, were settled immediately by the grand vizier and prince Repnin, at Galacz, Aug. 11, 1791, and the peace of Jassy was concluded Jan. 9, 1792. 22. In the war of Russia with the Porte, from 1806 to 1812, after Alexander's return from Erfurt, a congress was held at Jassy, in August, 1809, by Russian and Turkish ministers; but the demands of Russia induced the Porte to break off all negotiations. The Porte, at last, however, determined to ask for peace; and a congress assembled at Bucharest, in December, 1811, where, by the mediation of Great Britain and Sweden, although the French emperor, in his treaties with Austria and Prussia, in March, 1812, Had stipulated for the integrity of the possessions of the Porte, peace was made, May 28, 1812, at the very moment when the armies of Napoleon were preparing to invade Russia. We ought also to mention in this period the only congress held by a European and an American powerthe congress at Ghent. After the war between England and the U. States, commencing in 1812, both powers sent ministers to Ghent. The English commissioners arrived in that city, in August, 1814; the American commissioners were already assembled there. This congress lasted until December, 1814, on the 24th of which month peace vas concluded (see Ghent, Peace of), after the mediation, proposed by Russia, early in 1813, and accepted by the U. States, who had sent ministers to St. Petersburg for the purpose of treating with Great Britain, had been declined by the cabinet of St. VOL. in. 37 James. (See Lyman's Diplomacy of th& U. States, 2d ed. vol. ii. p. 50 et seq.)C. Congresses from the year 1814. Since this year, as we have stated at the beginning of this article, congresses have been held by governments to take measures in opposition to the wishes of the nations, and the demands of the spirit of the age. Never, therefore, have monarchs agreed so well, and acted so much in concert, as in this period, because they have felt it necessary to make common cause against liberty; and never were so many congresses held in the same space of time, because constant instances of insubordination have required continual consultation, and the uneasy state of the monarchs at home has made them fond of assembling in congresses. In this period, a most pernicious and unprecedented principle has been established, that every monarch has a right to interfere in the internal affairs of foreign nations; so that Alexander of Russia treated the concerns of Spain as if they were his own, feeling that every despot was interested in preventing the progress of liberal principles. This principle naturally gave rise to the droit d'intervention armie. (See Intervention, armed.) This obnoxious principle was promulgated at the congress of Laybach.* During the war of the allies against Napoleon, congresses were held at Prague, in 1813, and at Ohatillon (q. v.), in February and March, 1814. In the subsequent peace, it was agreed that a general congress at Vienna should complete the different stipulations then entered into. 1. Congress at Vienna (see Vienna, Congress at). 2. Congress at Paris. The principles and stipulations of the congress at Vienna were con firmed in the conferences of the Austrian, British, Prussian and Russian ministers with the French minister, the duke De Richelieu, at Paris, the consequence of which was the conclusion of the treaty of Nov. 20,1815, after the protocol of Nov. 3,* The frequency and abuse of congresses have been satirized by the keen and spirited Beranger, in his poem La Mart du Roi Christophe, ou Note presentee par la Noblesse d7 Haiti aux Trois Grands Allies, Decembre,'18'20, of which we cannot refrain from quoting the first verse : Christophe est mort, et du royaume La noblesse a recours a vons. FranQois, Alexandre, Guillaume, Prenez aussi pitie de nous. Ce n'est point pays limitrophe, Mais le mat fait tant de progres ' Vite, un congres ! Deux, trois congres. Quatre congres! Cinq congres ! dix congres ! Princes, vengez ce ban Christophe, Roi digne de tons vos regrets. issued by the same plenipotentiaries, had settled the territories of several German princes, with reference to the cessions made by France, and to the system of defence of the German confederation, and after the way in which the resolutions of the congress of Vienna were to be ratified, and the accession of other powers to it was to take place, had been agreed upon. Besides this chief treaty, several other measures were determined upon at this congress; for instance, the convention of Aug. 2,1815, relating to the guard to be kept over Napoleon; the definitive treaty of Nov. 5, 1815, which placed the Ionian islands, as a confederacy, under the exclusive protection of Great Britain; the treaty of neutrality of Switzerland, Nov. 20,1815, which was also signed by France; the treaty of alliance between the four powers of the same date, by which they pledged themselves to assist each other in maintaining the new political system, for which reason they were to occupy France, for some years, with an army of 150,000 men. After the conclusion of the congress at Paris, 12 more particular treaties between different powers were concluded in 1816, 1817 and 1818, concerning partly the new settlement of the territorial relations, partly the payments which France was obliged to make, the restoration of Parma to the Spanish infanta, duchess of Lucca, and die abolition of the slavetrade. 3. For the completion of the work of the monarch*, it was still necessary to provide for a full reconciliation with France, by the withdrawal of the army, composed of English, Austrian, Russian, Prussian, and ether German troops. It was determined upon at the congress of AixlaChapelle (q. v.), in October and November, 1818, chiefly by the mediation of Wellington, after France had completed the payment of certain sums, to which she had obliged herself. The most important consequence of this congress was the accession of the French sovereign to the alliance of the four great powers. The five powers then published, at AixlaChapelle, the famous declaration of Nov. 15, 1820, which, in the "pirit of the holy alliance (q. v.), pronounced the principles that were to regulate, in future, the politics of Europe, the aim of which was to be a lasting peace. The work of Stourd;'a (a Russian civil officer; see Stourdza), Memoire sur VEtat actuel de VAUemagne, published during the congress o\ AixlaChapelle, excited the suspicions of the monarchs against the liberal spirit in Germany, which they had themselves inflamed by different kindsof promises and excitements of the national feeling, when they wished to avail themselves of its aid for the purpose of subduing Napoleon, but which they now dreaded in the same degree, as they were unwilling to fulfil their promises, and the just demands of the nations and the age. Unfortunately, the rash acts of two German youths (one of them, the celebrated Sand, killed Kotzebue; the other, Lohning, attempted to kill a president of the government of Nassau) afforded the German governments the occasion which they desired for the enforcement of illiberal measures. These were determined upon at the congress of Carlsbad (q. v.), which was assembled, partly for this purpose, partly for supplying some deficiences in the acts of the congress of Vienna, relative to the internal organization of Germany. 5. Soon after this congress, another, composed of ministers, assembled at Vienna, Nov. 25, 1819, where Mettemich presided. The doings of this congress had reference entirely to the organization of the German confederation, and the suppression of the liberal spirit in Germany. Their final act was signed May 15,1820. The three following congresses, at Troppau, Laybach and Verona, concerned the affairs of Europe in general. 6. The congress at Troppau (q. v.) lasted from October to December, 1820. The congress was held on account of the revolutions in Spain and Portugal, and was transferred to Laybach, when the revolution of Naples broke out. 7. The right of interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, agreed upon at Troppau, was, in 1821, diplomatically admitted into the international code of the European continental powers at the congress of Laybach. The consequences of the congress at Laybach, from whence the allied powers issued a proclamation against Naples, were the occupation of Naples, Sicily and Piedmont, by Austrian armies; the abolition of the Spanish constitution in these countries, and the restoration of the old order of things. (See Naples, Sicily and Piedmont, Revolutions of.) If Austria had not succeeded, a Russian army of 80,000 men, which had already begun to march towards Hungary, would have entered Italy. After the Austrians had acquired their object in Naples and Piedmont, the two emperors concluded the congress of Laybach by a proclamation, signed by the ministers of Austria, Prussia and Russia, May 12, 1821, in which they declared that the justice and disinterestedness, which had guided the councils of the monarchs, wrould alwaysbe the rule of their politics. This congress is also famous for a speech of the emperor of Austria to the professors of a public seminary at Laybach, in which he directed them to be careful not to teach their pupils too much; he did not want learned or scientific men, but obedient subjects. 8. The two emperors had determined, at Laybach, to hold a new congress, in 1822, at Florence. Verona was afterwards substituted for Florence, and a congress held there from Oct. to Dec, 1822, on account of Spain and Portugal, and the political state of Italy and Greece. The war of France against Spain, in 1823, was a consequence of this congress, which was remarkable for the spirit displayed by the duke of Wellingtonthe same which prevailed in the English ministry from the appointment of Canning to the secretariship of foreign affairs (Sept. 16, 1822). The duke, the English minister at Verona, opposed the undertaking any measure against the Spaniards, as long as they left their king unmolested, and did not labor to extend their constitution beyond their borders. As respected Turkey and Greece also, England wished for no interference of the other powers, but to leave them to themselves.In America, only one international congress has been held, and that of little importance. It was called the congress of Panama. The project of a general union of the new Spanish American republics was early conceived by different leaders of the revolution. The first attempt to carry this plan into execution was made by Bolivar, in 1823. As president of the republic of Colombia, he invited the governments of Mexico, Peru, Chile and Buenos Ayres, to send delegates to the isthmus of Panama, or wherever they should think proper, to constitute a congress with full powers to treat of matters of general interest to the republics. Mexico and Peru immediately acceded to the proposal, but Buenos Ayres and Chile showed no inclination to take part in the congress. In Dec, 1824, Bolivar sent a circular to each of the governments, recapitulating what had already been done, and proposing that the meeting should take place. Accordingly, in June, 1826, the delegates from Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Guatemala assembled at Panama ; Chile and Buenos Ayres still holding back, it is said, in consequence of suspicions of an ambitious scheme of Bolivar to incorporate the four S. American republics into an empire, of which he was to occupy the throne. The declaration of the U. States of N. America, in 1825, that they would permit no ulterior colonization in any part of the continent by European powers; that they should consider any attempt on the part of those powers to extend the system of national interference to any portion of this hemisphere dangerous to their peace and safety ; and that any interposition, by any European power, for the purpose of controlling, in any manner, the governments of America which had established their independence, would be considered as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the U. States, led the South American states to invite this republic to join in the general confederation. Ministers to the congress' were, hi fact, appointed; but, before their arrival, the congress had adjourned (after concluding a treaty of friendship and perpetual confederation) to the succeeding February. The place appointed for the new session, which has never taken place, was the village of Tacubaya, near Mexico. The three great points held out by the originators of this plan were, the independence, peace and security of the Spanish American republics. The congress was intended to form a permanent council, to serve as a bond of union against common dangers, to interpret the treaties between the states, and mediate in all disputes ; it was further an object, particularly with the U. States, to settle, through this body, disputed principles of international law, to abolish usages of war inconsistent with the spirit of the age, and to imbody the principles of American republicanism in an imposing form, in opposition to the doctrines of the European alliance of kings. CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The national legislature of the U. States of America is designated, in the constitution of the general government, by this title. It consists of a senate and a house of representatives, each constituting a distinct and independent branch. The house of representatives is composed of members chosen eveiy second year, by the people of the several states; and the voters or electors are required to have the same qualifications as are requisite for choosing the members of the most numerous branch of the state legislature of the state in which they vote. The representatives are apportioned among the several states according to their respective population; and, in estimating the population, threefifths of the slaves are added to the whole number of free persons. A census of the population is taken once in every ten years, and an apportionment is then made of the representatives for each state. The representa tives are then elected in each state, either in districts, or by a general ticket, as the state legislature directs. There cannot be more than 1 representative for eveiy 30,000 persons. The present apportionment is 1 representative for every 40,000 persons. Each state, however small may be its population, is entitled to at least 1 representative. No person can be a representative who shall not have attained the age of 25 years, and have been 7 years a citizen of the U. States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. No other qualifications are required. When vacancies happen in the representation of any state, by death, resignation, or otherwise, new writs of election are issued by the executive thereof to fill the vacancy. The house of representatives chooses its own speaker and other officers, and possesses the sole power of impeachment. Each representative has a single vote. The senate of the United States is composed of 2 senators from each state ; and, there being 24 states, the senate now consists of 48 members. The senators of each state are chosen by the legislature of the state for six years, and each senator has one vote. They are divided into three classes, so that one third thereof is, or may be, changed by a new election every second year. When vacancies happen, they are supplied by the state legislature, if in session ; if not, the state executive makes a temporary appointment until the legislature meets. No person can be a senator who is not 30 years of age, and has not been 9 years a citizen of the U. States, and is not, when electedT an inhabitant of the state for which he is chosen. The vicepresident is, ex officio, president of the senate; but he has no vote unless they be equally divided. The senate chooses all its other officers, and a president, pro tempore, in the absence of the vicepresident, or when he exercises the office of president of the U. States. The senate has the sole power of trying all impeachments ; and, when sitting for this purpose, the senators take an oath or affirmation. If the president of the U. States should be impeached, the chiefjustice is to preside. A conviction on impeachment cannot be without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present. The judgment extends only to a removal from office and future disqualification for office. But the party is, nevertheless, liable to punishment on indictment, by the common trial and course of law.The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, are ap* pointed by the state legislatures; but the congress may, by law, fix and alter the time and manner of holding such elections. Each of the two houses, viz., the senate and representatives, is the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members. Each house determines the rules of its own proceedings, and has power to punish its members for disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, to expel a member. A majority of each house constitutes a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and has power to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner as it may provide. Each house is required to keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, to publish the same, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy. In point of fact, they are published eveiy day or two, during the session, and collected in volumes at the end thereof. The yeas and nays of the members of each house, on any question, are required, at the desire of one fifth of those present, to be entered on the journal. The congress is required to assemble at least once eveiy year; and such meeting is on the first Monday of December annually, unless a different day is provided by law. The president of the U. States has authority to convene extra sessions. Neither house, during the session of congress, can, without the consent of the other, adjourn more than 3 days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. In case of disagreement between the two houses, as to the time of adjournment, the president of the U. States may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. The senators and representatives are entitled to receive a compensation, provided by law, for their services, from the treasury of the U. States. They are also privileged from arrests, except in cases of treason, felony, or breaches of the peace, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. This does not mean merely their daily attendance; but also, in going from or returning to their respective homes, in the several states. They have liberty of speech, and are not liable to be questioned, in any Gther place; for any speech or debate in either house. No senator or representative can be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the U. States, which is created,, or its emoluments increased, during the time for which he is elected; and no person, holding an office under the U. States, can be a member of either house during his continuance in office. It has been already stated, that each house determines the rules of its own proceedings; and, in point of fact, each house now has a large collection of rules, which are printed for the use of the members, and for the public at large. In a general sense, the rules and practice of the British house of commons form the basis of their proceedings, modified from time to time, as each house deems fit. The rules are too numerous to admit of any useful summary in this place. There are, however, certain constitutional provisions, as to the proceedings of the two houses, which deserve to be mentioned. All bills for raising revenue must originate in the house of representatives ; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. Every bill which has passed the senate and house of representatives, before it can become a law, must be presented to the president of the U. States. If he approve, he signs it; if not, he returns it to the house in which it originated, with his objections, and these objections are entered at large on their journals, and they then proceed to reconsider. If, upon reconsideration, two thirds of such house agree to pass the bill, it is sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it is also to be reconsidered; and, if approved by two thirds of that house also, it becomes a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses are determined by yeas and nays, and the names entered on tite journals. No instance has, as yet, occurred, in which any bill, returned by the president with objections, has ever become a law by a vote of two thirds of each house. If any bill is not returned by the president within 10 days (Sundays excepted) after it is presented to him, it becomes a law, in the same way as if he had signed it, unless congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of both houses is necessary, must, in like manner, be presented to the president, and similar proceedings are to be had thereon. The legislative powers belonging to congress will now be stated, in the words of the constitution itself, since different modes of interpretation of the same language have, at different times, been insisted on by different parties in the U. States. Congress, then, by the constitution, has power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the 37* debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the IL States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the U. States:to borrow money on the credit of the U. States: to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes:to establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy throughout the U. States:to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coins, and to fix the standard of weights and measures:to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the U. States:to establish postoffices and postroads:to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:to constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court:to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations:to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land or water:to raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years:to provide and maintain a navy:to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces:to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions: to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the U. States, reserving to the states, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by congress:to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district, not exceeding 10 miles square, as may by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of the government of the U. States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;and "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into effect the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the TJ. States, or in any department or office thereof."Congress has also power to organize the supreme court, and to ordain and establish, from time to time, inferior courts. In some cases, the original jurisdiction of the supreme court is expressly given in the constitution; but its appellate jurisdiction is under the regulation of congress. Congress has, in other cases, an unlimited authority, as to the jurisdiction which shall be vested in other inferior courts, to which the judicial power given by the constitution extends. Congress has also power to declare the punishment of treason ; but no attainder works any corruption of blood, or forfe:"ture, except for the liffe of the person attainted. The crime of treason is expressly defined, by the constitution, to consist in levying war against the U. States, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. Congress has also power to prescribe, by general laws, the manner in which the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of the states shall be proved, and the effect thereof, the constitution declaring that full faith and credit shall be given in each state to them. Congress has also power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the U. States; and also to admit new states into the union; and also to propose, by a majority of two thirds of both houses, amendments to the constitution; or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, to call a convention for proposing amendments. But such amendments, to be binding, must be ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode may be proposed by congress. But no state, without its consent, can be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate. There are also certain restrictions upon the powers of congress; the most material of which are, that the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety require it. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration before taken. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and accountof all receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the U. States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state. These restrictions are found in the original constitution. Certain other restrictions and rights are secured by amendments made soon after the constitution was adopted. Among the most material are these:Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for a redress of grievances. The right also is secured to the people to bear arms, to be free from having soldiers quartered upon them in time of peace, or in war in any other manner than prescribed by law:to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, and to be liable to search and seizure only upon warrants upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation; to answer for capital or otherwise infamous crimes only upon a presentment or indictment of a grand jury:to be exempted from being twice put in jeopardy of life or limb for the same offence; not to be compelled, in any criminal case, to be witness against themselves; nor to be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor to have private property taken for public use, without just compensation. In criminal prosecutions, too, the accused enjoys the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state or district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy exceeds $20, the right of a trial by jury is preserved. And no fact tried by a jury is to be otherwise reexamined in any court of the U. States, than according to the rules of the common law. Excessive bail is not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights is not tobe construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. And the powers not delegated to the U. States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. (For other provisions of the constitution, see the titles Constitution of the United States, Courts of the United States, President of the United States, &c. &c.*)