COLLEGE

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COLLEGE (Latin, collegium); in its primary sense, a collection or assembly. In a general sense, a collection or society of men invested with certain powers and rights, performing certain duties, or engaged in some common employment or pursuit Among the Romans, three were required to make a college (tres faciunt collegium).In a particular sense, COLLEGE signifies an assembly for a political or ecclesiastical purpose. There were several such at Rome, e. g., collegium pontificum, augurum, septemvirorum, &c. In modern times, we have the college of electors, or their deputies, at the diet of Ratisbon; so, also, the college of princes or their deputies, the college of cities or deputies of the imperial cities, the college of cardinals, or sacred college. In Russia, this denomination is given to councils of state, courts or assemblies intrusted with the administration of the government, and called imperial colleges.In Great Britain and the U. States, a society of physicians is called a college. So, also, there are colleges of surgeons, a college of philosophy, a college of heralds, &c. Colleges of these kinds are usually incorporated or established by the supreme power of the state. This name is also given to a society of, persons engaged in the pursuits of literature, including the officers and students. The English literary colleges are academical establishments, endowed with revenues, whose fellows,^ students and tutors live together under a head, in particular buildings, in a monastic way. The buildings form quadrangles connected with gardens and grounds. The more ancient establishments, formerly monasteries, derive their origin from the 13th and 14th centuries. The college of Christchurch (Oxford) was founded in the time of Henry VIII, by cardinal Wolsey. The colleges are distinguished for their old Gothic architecture, and for collections in different branches of science and of art. They are also admired for their fine paintings on 27* glass. The president of such a college (master, warden, rector) forms, with the other members of the government, the teachers and students, a corporation independent of the other colleges, as well as of the university. Graduates, maintained by the endowments of particular founders, are called fellows (in Latin, socii). There are other classes also supported in part by the funds of the colleges, and called postmasters and scholars, exhibitioners or stipendiaries and servitors (young men who wait on the others at table, and have board and instruction gratis during four years). Many colleges have also chaplains, choristers, clerks or sextons, and a great number of servants. The president and the officers administer the college according to the statutes of the foundation. The visitor, who is a bishop or lord, named by the founder, decides in contested cases. The undergraduates are subjected to a severe discipline. They are obliged to go every day to the chapel, and are not allowed to sleep out of the college. Whoever wishes for a degree, must be presented to the university, as a candidate, by a dean. The fellows at the universities keep their fellowships for life, unless they marry or inherit estates which afford a greater revenue. They are successively promoted, so that their income amounts to from £30 to £150, and more, annually. From them the parishes are supplied, in which case they commonly lose their fellowships. Oxford has 19 colleges, and 6 halls, or mere boardingplaces, which have no funds, and consequently no fellows, where every student lives at his own expense. (The diningrooms of the colleges are also called halls.) In Cambridge, there are 12 colleges and 4 halls, which are all provided with funds. Most of the colleges in Oxford and Cambridge have, besides their dependent members, that is, those who are supported from the college funds, independent ones, who live at their own expense, but are subjected to most of the college laws: they are called, according to their rank and the sum they pay for board, noblemen, fellowcommoners and commoners. The school at Eton has also a college, consisting of a provost, 7 fellows and 70 boys, who are called collegers. The fellows of Eton have a right to marry, and to hold a living besides their fellowship. They are also considered as dignitaries of the church. They and the provost are the directors of the whole, manage the property of the college, fill the livings and fellowships connected with the institution, and choose the teachers. Of the collegers in Eton, the best scholar in the highest class is admitted into the first vacant place of King's college at Cambridge as a scholar, and then becomes, in three years, a fellow, i. e., is provided for during life. (See Ackermann's History of the Colleges of Winchester, Eton, fVestminster, &c, London, 1817, and his History of Westminster Abbey, and of the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, with copperplates.) Classical literature is the chief object of instruction; hence the general knowledge which, in England, men of the highest rank and of the greatest wealth possess of Grecian and Roman literature, exhibited in the frequent quotations from the classics, in parliament, which, in any other country, would appear somewhat pedantic. The lectures on scientific subjects are meager, compared with those of the continental universities, and afford scarcely the necessary hints for private study. The colleges are less institutions for education than learned republics with an orderly gradation of classes, of which one influences the other, and which are intimately connected with the spirit of the nation. (See Universities.) The English universities exercise no small influence upon the ecclesiastical and political establishments of that country, and have certainly contributed much to the national disposition for adhering steadily, and sometimes obstinately, to ancient establishments, customs and views. The old universities, therefore, have been thought, by a large number of enlightened and liberal men, not to answer the demands of the age. To meet these demands, they have established the London university, (q. v.) This again, on the same principle on which the Protestant reformation led to many salutary reforms among the Catholics, induced another party (the churchmen) to establish in the English metropolis the King's college, (q. v.)In France, there are royal colleges in all large towns, corresponding to wliat are called, in Germany, gymnasia. In the small towns, the colleges are called colleges communaux. These are private establishments, aided by the commune, and subject to the surveillance of the public authorities. In Paris, there are five royal (,ollegescollege royal de Louisle Grand, cpl. roy. de Henry IV, col roy. de St. Louis, col. roy. de Bourbon, col. roy. de Charlemagne. Besides these, there is the colUge royal de France, which deserves the name of a university. It was instituted in 1529, by Francis I, at the solicitation of Budseus.(q. v.) Louis XVIII established in this college a chair of TartarMantchou ana Chinese languages, and one of the Sanscrit. 21 professors, among whom there are always some of the most distinguished men, lecture in this college, publicly and gratuitously. Their lectures embrace, besides the branches of science generally taught in universities, the Turkish, Persian, Arabic, Chaldaic, Syriac, Chinese, Sanscrit and TartarMantchou languages. American Colleges. The course of instruction in all the American colleges is completed in four years. Certain qualifications are demanded of candidates for admission, which vary, according to the regulations of the different colleges. These embrace, for admission to the principal colleges, a good knowledge of English grammar, arithmetic, some acquaintance with geography, an ability to read the easier Latin authors, and some progress in the study of Greek. The rules of each college name the authors which the candidate shall have read, and hi these he is required to undergo a satis^ factory examination, to entitle him to admission. The greatest number of pupils are admitted at about the age of 14 years. The course of instruction varies, in many respects, in the different colleges, but in its principal features, it is the same in alL This course embraces a further study of the Latin and Greek languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, rhetoric, and practice in English composition, moral and intellectual philosophy, and some treatise of natural law and the law of nations. In some colleges, provision is made for the study of Hebrew and of several modern languages; but these are not among the required studies. Some of the colleges have additional departments for instruction in medicine, theology or law Harvard university embraces all three o( these departments, in which students are prepared for entering on these several professions. The number of professors and teachers in the several colleges varies according to the number of pupils and the funds of the college. In Harvard college, there are in the academical departments eight professors and six tutors and other teachers ; in the theological school, two professors, in addition to the professors in the other departments, who assist in the instructions of this school; in the law school, two professors, and in the medical school, four. In Yale college, there are five professors and six tutors, besides the professors of the theological and medical schools. In most of the colleges, the offi eers of instruction are a president, from two to four permanent professors, and from, two to four tutorsthe tutors being generally young men who devote two or three years to this service before entering on the practice of the professions to which they are destined. From the following list, it will be seen how many colleges in the U. States were founded during the last ten years; and for others charters have already been granted by the legislatures, as for the Randolph Macon college, at Boydton, in Virginia. The cause of this increase is undoubtedly laudable, as it is the same which prompts every man in the U. States to acquire knowledge; but it ought not to be forgotten, that colleges differ entirely from common schools. The latter may be multiplied, and there can hardly be too many of them; but for colleges, the only way to make them truly great is to concentrate in, a few, great stores of talent and erudition. In the universities of Europe, donation has been added to donation, until many of them have attained great magnificence. Table containing the proper Title of each College ; the Place where it is situated; the Time when founded ; the Number of Academic Instructors ; the Number of Graduates in 1828 5 the Number of Undergrad* nates in 1828U9.J the Number of Volumes in the College Librariesy and in the Social Libraries belonging to the Students. TX7Y%A*I No. of ac Gradu Under Volumes Volumes Name. Place. wnen founded. ademic ates in graduates in College ingtud'ts. Libraries. Inst'rs. 1828. 1828-9. Libraries. Waterville, Waterville, Maine. 1820 5 12 1700 500 Bowdoin, Brunswick, Maine. 1794 ? 20 107 8000 4500 Dartmouth, Hanover, N. H. 1769 1 8 41 128 3500 8000 Middlebury, Vermont University, Middlebury, Vt. 1800 I ^ 18 81 1646 2322 Burlington, Vt. 1791 5 4 33 1500 1000 Williams, Williamstown, Mass. 1793 7 18 92 2100 1660 Amherst, Amherst, Mass. 1821 9 40 211 2300 3140 Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 1638 15 52 254 30000 4600 Brown University, Providence, R. I. 1764 ! 6 25 98 6000 5750 Washington, I Hartford, Conn. 1826 9 15 74 5000 1200 Yale, New Haven, Conn. 1700 16 82 324 8500 6500 Columbia, New York city. 1754 8 Union, Schenectady N. Y. Clinton, N. Y. 1794 9 69 223 5000 8000 Hamilton, 1812 14 Geneva, Geneva, N. Y. 1825 5 3 20 390 580 Rutgers, New Brunswick, N. J. 1770 6 20 63 o Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J. Philadelphia, Penn. 1746 26 43 8000 4000 University of Pennsylvania, 1755 5 11 50 Jefferson, Canonsburg, Penn. 1802 4 28 99 600 1700 Dickinson, Carlisle, Penn. 1783 6 22 62 2000 5000 Washington, Washington, Penn. 1806 3 8 31 400 525 Western University, Pittsburg, Penn. 1820 4 9 41 400 525 Madison, Alleghany, St. Maryrs, Columbia, Meadville, Penn. 1815 2 12 7000 Baltimore, Md. 1805 13 10000 Washington, D. C. 1821 6 60 3000 100O University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 1814 8 131 8000 Hampden Sidney, Prince Edward Co.Va. William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va. 1691 7 3 103 3400 600 Washington, University of North Carolina, Lexington, Va. Chapel Hill, N. C. 1812 17 23 700 1500 1791 9 13 54 University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 1802 * Charleston, Charleston, S. C. 1785 8 6 42 1000 Univ. Geo., or Franklin Coll. Athens, Geo. 1785 6 28 105 2000 1820 University of Nashville, Nashville, Tenn. 1806 7 16 54 East Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 2 3 21 340 200 Augusta, Augusta, Ky. Greenville, Tenn. Athens, Ohio. 1822 82 1500 400 Greenville College, 1794 22 3500 University of Ohio, 1802 4 10 60 1842 ?08 Miami University,* Transylvania University, Oxford, Ohio. 1824 3 9 45 Lexington, Ky. 50 Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio. 1828 30 Bloomington College, Bloomington, Ind. 1828 217 642 2928 129318 65730 For more particulars, see the places where the colleges are established.* The catalogue of the officers and students in the various departments of Transylvania University, for toe /ear 1630, exhibits a total of 362.JVaf. Gazette.