CHINA. The Chinese empire, including the tributary states, and those under its protection, consists of about 5,250,000 square miles, with 242,000,000 inhabitants. China Proper, " the centre of the world," contains 1,298,000 square miles (lat. 18° 37'_41° 35' N.), with 146,280,000 inhabitants, of whom 2,000,000 live on the water. Among the inhabitants are 31,000 sailors, 822,000 footsoldiers, 410,000 horse, 7552 military and 9611 civil officers. Subject to China are Mantchou (726,800 square miles), Mongolia (1,935,910 square miles), and Tourfan (578,275 square miles). Under her protection are Thibet, Bootan, Corea, LooChoo, containing together 726,202 square miles. The Portuguese navigators who followed Vasco da Gama were the first from whom the Europeans obtained tolerably correct ideas of the situation, extent and character of this country. Since that time, our knowledge of China has been derived from several ambassadors, who saw the court and the roads, from merchants who had inhabited the suburbs of one seaport (Canton), and from numerous missionaries, who relate what they have seen, but generally with little discrimination. Much information is to be hoped from the Canton Register, a paper which is published twice a month in Canton.* The emperors of the Mantchou dynasty, erroneously called Tartars, have extended their conquests over the greatest part of the country formerly called Independent Tartary, the inhabitants of which are, however, not Tartars, but mostly Calmucks and Mongols. The Russians advanced, at the same time, into Siberia. Russia and China have thus come into contact, on a line extending from lake Palcati to the mouth of the river Amour. This extensive frontier is principally formed by the Altaian, Sayanian and Daourian mountains. In Daouria, however, the Russians have extended their possessions beyond the lastnamed mountains to the banks of the river Amour. Lake Palcati, the Alak mountains, and the Beloor mountains, divide the Chinese empire, on the west, from the Kirguises, Usbecks, and other independent Tartar tribes. While the Chinese dominions extend to the confines of Asiatic Russia on the north and northwest, on the west and southwest they extend over the immense regions of Thibet, and almost reach the English territories in Bengal. On this side, China is divided from India by the small countries of Sirinagur, Nepaul, and others, and by the Garrow mountains. Farther to the east, the Burman empire bounds on the Chinese province of Yunnan. In the south, the empire of Anam and the provinces of Laos and Tonquin touch its borders. The Eastern ocean, with the gulf of Corea, washes the coasts of China for an extent of 3600 miles, from the Tonquinese frontier to the mouth of the river Amour. To the south are the Chinese and Yellow seas, and the gulf of Tonquin. The channel of Formosa separates the island of that name from the continent. The Blue and Yellow seas flow,* A museum, to be called The British Museum in CHINA, it is stated in the Canton Register, is about to be established among the British residents An that city. Perhaps this institution, also, will contribute to enlarge our knowledge of China. the former between China and the islands of LooChoo and Japan, the latter between China and Corea. The sea of Japan extends from Corea to the river Amour: at the extreme point, it goes under the name of the channel of Tartary, China Proper is bounded on the east by the Eastern ocean ; on the north, by the immense wall of Mongolia and Manchooria, which has been built more than 2000 years, and is 1500 miles in length, 30 feet high, and 15 feet thick on the top. To the west, political limits are prescribed to the wanderings of the Calmucks or Eleuthes of HohoNor and of the Sifans. To the south, the boundaries of the Chinese empire and China Proper are the same. China Proper contains 1572 towns, the principal of which are Pekin, Canton, and Nankin (q. v.); 1193 fortresses, 2796 temples, 2606 convents, 32 imperial palaces, &c. It is divided into 15 provinces. Two chains of mountains extend through the country ; the one in the southeast, the other in the northwest. The former extends between the provinces Quangsi, Quangtong, and FoKien, on the south, and the provinces HooQuang and Kiangsi on the north. Its original course is from west to east, but, after reaching the limits of FoKien, it turns to the northeast. The principal chain is difficult of access, particularly in the provinces of KoeitCheou and Quangsi, owing to the savage tribes by which it is inhabited. Travellers have only examined the little mountain Meiling, which rises 3000 feet above lake Poyang. The heights to the northwest are rather a succession of terraces than regular chains of mountains. The province of Shansi is full of mountains, which appear to belong to a chain extending from the banks of the river Amour, traversing the whole of Mongolia. They are almost entirely composed of perpendicular rocks. The province of ShanTong consists, principally, of a mountainous peninsula. These mountains contain coal mines, and form a group entirely detached from the other Chinese chains. The largest plains are in the province KiangNan, between the two great rivers Hoangho and YangtseKiang or KiangKu. The former, oi die Yellow river, rises from two lakes in the country of the Calmucks of HohoNor; the latter, or the Blue river, rises some o where in the north of Thibet, near the desert of Cobi. Both descend rapidly from the tablelands of central Asia, and each encounters a chain of mountains which forces it to describe a long circuit. the Hoangho to the north, the YangtseKiang to the south,after which they again approach, and terminate their courses within a distance of 180 miles of each other. Besides these, there are the Fuenho, the Hoeiho, and the Hoayho, which empty into the Blue river; the YalonKiang, which is about 600 miles long, the Tchoo or YangKiang, the LaKiang, and the YuenKiang, which flow into the Yellow river. The Yuen and Yon flow into the Blue river through two lakes. The HoanKiang in the south, and the Payho in the north, are unconnected with the two great rivers. The former falls into the gulf of Canton, and the latter into the gulf of Pekin. These, and innumerable other rivers, united by numerous canals, are of incalculable advantage to agriculture and inland navigation. The principal canal is the Imperial canal, 1400 miles long, which forms a water communication between Pekin and Canton, with an interruption of only one day's journey. China also abounds in lakes, particularly the province of Houquang (which signifies the country of lakes). The Poyanghoo, according to Staunton the largest lake in CHINA, is, according to Du Halde, only 95 miles in circumference.In a country of such vast extent, the climate must necessarily be very various. In the south, near the tropic, the heat is excessive, but it is moderated by the influence of the periodical winds. The northern and western parts are much colder than the countries of Europe situated in the same latitude, owing to the elevation of the land to the nature of the soil, which is filled with saltpetre, and to the snow, which, during the greatest part of the year, covers the central mountains of Asia.Agriculture, in CHINA, is in a very flourishing condition. The principal production is rice. In the northwestern provinces, which are too cold and too dry for its production, its place is supplied by wheat and other grain. Yams, potatoes, turnips, beans, and a species of white cabbage (petsai), are likewise produced. Arable land is cultivated without interruption, the practice of fallowing being unknown. Even the steepest hills are brought into cultivation, and artificially watered. The manner in which the dwellings of the peasantry are situated, not being collected into villages, but scattered through the country, contributes greatly to the flourishing state of agriculture. There are no fences, nor gates, nor any sort of precaution against wild beasts or thieves. The women raise silkworms and spin cotton; they also manufacture woollen stuffs, and are the only weavers in the country. The honors conferred on agriculture by the Chinese government are generally known. Every year, on the 15th day of the first moon, the emperor repairs, in great state, to a certain field, accompanied by the princes and the principal officers, prostrates himself, and touches the ground nine times with his head, in honor of Tien, the God of heaven; he pronounces a prayer prepared by the court of ceremonies, invoking the blessing of the Great Being on his labor and that of his people. Then, as the highpriest of the empire, he sacrifices a bullock to heaven, as the fountain of all good. Whilst the victim is offered on the altar, a plough, drawn by a pair of oxen, highly ornamented, is brought to the emperor, who throws aside his imperial robes, lays hold of the handle of the plough, and opens several furrows over the whole field. The principal mandarins follow his example. The festival closes with the distribution of money and cloth amongst the peasantry. In the same manner the emperor again comes to sow the seed. In the provinces, the viceroys perform the same ceremony on the same day. In the cultivation of trees the Chinese have made comparatively little progress. They have many fruittrees, but Jiave done little for their improvement. Grafting is not common. Currants, raspberries, and, according to some, olives, do not grow in China. But nature has conferred on this country other treasures, such as the teaplant, from which the Chinese derive immense profits, the camphortree, the aloe, the sugarcane, the bamboo, indigo, cotton, rhubarb, the varnishtree, soaptree, tallowtree, lime, waxtree, and the litchi. The Chinese have all the domestic animals of Europe and America, amongst which the hog is the most numerous. The camel is the usual beast of burden. The wild animals are the elephant, the rhinoceros, the tiger, the muskox, several kinds of apc<*, the deer, the wild boar, the fox, &c. Poultry abounds in China, particularly ducks. Several sorts of birds are distinguished for the richness of their plumage, such as the gold and silver pheasants, and the peacock with spurs. Great quantities of fish are found in the waters. The goldfish are there, as with us, kept as an ornament. Amongst the insects of China, the silkworm, which is found in all parts of the country, and appears to be indigenous, is the principal. Of the mineral productions our information is very imperfect Silver mines are abundant, but they are little worked. The gold is, for the most part, obtained from the sands of the rivers in the provinces of Setchuen and Yunnan; but gold and silver are not coined. Tutenague is a metallic substance peculiar to China, which is used for the manufacture of vessels and utensils, and which some suppose to be pure zinc, and others an artificial composition. China produces a peculiar kind of copper; also arsenic, much quicksilver (in Yunnan), but little lead and tin. Of valuable stones, it affords the lapis lazuli, the rockcrystal, the loadstone, and various kinds of marble. Of clays, the porcelain clay is the only kind we need mention. Salt is a profitable monopoly of the government.The features and the shape of the skull of the Chinese prove their descent from the Mongols; but a residence of many centuries in a milder climate has softened their characteristic marks. A Chinese woman is proud of her beauty in proportion to the smallness of her eyes, the protuberance of her lips, the lankness and blackness of her hair, and the smallness of her feet. The last completes the Chinese idea of beauty, and is obtained by pressure and hindering the growth. By the men, corpulence, as the sign of an easy life, is regarded with respect. Lean people are considered void of talent. The higher classes allow the nails of their fingers to grow, some on one hand, some on both, and dye their hair and beards black. The Chinese possess the usual virtues and vices of a slavish, industrious and commercial people.The government is an absolute monarchy, but the mandarins and tribunals are permitted to make respectful remonstrances to the emperor. The emperor calls himself holy son of heaven, sole guardian of the earth, and father of his people. He is obliged to occupy himself constantly with the affairs of state. He has three wives, of whom only one bears the title and rank of empress. He resides, generally, in Pekin; in summer, at Tchehol. Offerings are made to his image and to his throne; his person is worshipped; his subjects prostrate themselves in his presence. The emperor never appears in public without 2000 lictors, bearing chains, axes, and other instruments characteristic of Eastern despotism. The revenue is estimated at $150,000,000, and consists, chiefly, in the productions of the soil. It is raised by a landtax, by duties on imports and exports, and on articles of internal comVOL. in. 13 merce, and by a polltax on every person between the ages of 20 and 60. The Chinese army is very numerous, consisting of about 900,000 men, but does not appear capable of resisting the irregular Asiatic troops, much less European soldiers.The Chinese nobility. is of two kinds, the dignity of the one being personal, that of the other official. Of the former there are five degrees, the three first of which are conferred only on relations of the emperor, and are generally translated by the term pHnce. These princes are bound to live within the precincts of the imperial palace. The personal nobility has precedence over the mandarins, or official nobility. The rank of the mandarins is indicated by the color of the buttons on their caps. There are likewise titular mandarins. There are, in all, from 13,000 to 14,000 civil mandarins, called governors, and 18,000 military mandarins. The former are divided into nine, the latter into five classes. The highest body of officers in the empire is the council of the ministerial mandarins. These transact business with the emperor. Subordinate central authorities are, 1. Ldpu (guard of civil officers), which proposes pardons to the emperor; 2. Hopu (ministry of finance); 3. Lipu (court of ceremonial); 4. Pingpu (council of war); 5. Hongpu (ministry of justice, including Kongpu, or that of architecture). In every province, a mandarin is governor, with a council to watch over his actions and execute his commands. There are courts of justice in the different towns. The ceremonial dress of the mandarins is of embroidered satin, with a covering of blue crape. Badges, indicating the civil or military rank of the wearer, are embroidered in front and on the back. The right to wear a peacock's feather on the back of the cap is equivalent to a European order, and is conferred as a particular mark of favor. The pretended wisdom of the Chinese laws may be characterized in a few words:they are good police regulations, accompanied with good lessons on morality. They give to the emperor, as well as to the mandarins, unlimited power over the nation, which considers blind obedience to superiors its first duty. Innumerable ceremonies perpetually remind it of the distinctions of rank. (See the Chinese Ceremonial, in verse, Macao, 1824.) In intellectual improvement, this nation has long been stationary. This is partly owing to the love of antiquity common throughout Asia, partly to the want of intellectual commu nication with other nations. This is principally prevented by the difficulty of their written language, which is not, like ours, formed of letters and syllables, but of characters. (See Chinese Language and Literature, at the conclusion of this article.) Mechanical skill has been carried to great perfection among them ; their industry in the manufacture of stuffs, porcelain, lackered ware, &c. is astonishing, and can only be compared with their own labors in digging canals, in the formation of gardens, levelling mountains, and other similar works. Many of our most useful inventions are to be found among them. They printed books, before the art was invented in Europe, with characters carved on wooden tablets, which is their present practice. They also used the magnet before its use was known to us; but they have remained far behind us in the art of navigation, on account of their ignorance of shipbuilding. A short time ago, a translation of a Chinese treatise on navigation, by one of their naval officers, was published, which showed an utter ignorance of this art. The monuments of China have, perhaps, been, on the whole, too much praised. Yet we must acknowledge our wonder at their great roads, their immense singlearched bridges, their pyramidal towers, but, above all, at their great wall, called, in Chinese, VanliTching (the wall of 10,000 Li), which traverses high mountains, deep valleys, and, by means of arches, wide rivers, extending from the province of ShenSi to Wanghay or the Yellow sea, a distance of 1500 miles. In some places, to protect exposed passages, it is double and treble. The foundation and corners are of granite, but the principal part is of blue bricks, cemented with pure white mortar. At distances of about 200 paces are distributed square towers, or strong bulwarks.The national character is the result of their attachment to established customs. The manner of living is prescribed to each rank by invariable rules. The Chinese abstain almost entirely from spirituous liquors: the use of tea is general. Their principal article of food is rice. Polygamy is permitted to the nobles and mandarins. The emperor maintains a numerous harem. Women are kept in a sort of slavery. The peasant yokes his wife and ass together to the plough. The Chinese pay a kind of religious worship to their ancestors, and perform certain ceremonies around their tombs. Respect toward parents is a duty inculcated by their religion and laws. The primitive religion of China appearsto have been a branch of Shamanism, the foundation of which is the worship of the stars and other remarkable objects of nature. This ancient religion has been supplanted by the doctrines of more modern sects. Among these, the principal are the sect of Congfutse (Confucius) and of LaoKiun or Taotse. The bulk of the nation has embraced the religion of Fo (see Confucius, and Fo), which was brought from India. The religion of the emperors of the TartarMantchoo dynasty is that of the DalaiLama. (See Lama.) For the propagation of Christianity in China, see Missions. The discoveiy of a conspiracy against the emperor, in 1823, gave rise to a general persecution of the Christians, which, however, terminated in 1824. According to the accounts of the French mission in China, the number of Christians in that country in September, 1824, amounted to 46,287 ; there were 27 schools for Christian boys, and 45 for Christian girls. In the year 1829, two Chinese Christians were brought to Paris; they spoke Latin, as most Christians of that country do. The foreign commerce of China does not correspond with the extent and richness of the empire. In 1806, the exports amounted to 45,000,000 pounds of tea, 13,000,000 of which were sold to the Americans, and 31,000,000 to the P>ritish; 16,000,000 pounds of sugar, 21,000 pieces of nankeen, 3,000,000 pounds of tutenague, besides copper, borax, alum, quicksilver, porcelain, lackered ware, cinnamon, rhubarb, musk, and other drugs. These were exported in 116 ships, of which 80 were English, 33 American and 3 Danish. These brought to China rice (36,000,000 pounds), cotton, and various kinds of cloths, glass, fox, otter and beaver skins, sandal wood, areca nuts, &c. The trade with Europe and North America is confined to 12 privileged merchants, called Hong merchants or Hannists, whose profits are immense. (See Hong.)The ancient history of China is enveloped in darkness and fable. According to tradition, China was governed, for many millions of years, by the gods, TienHoanChi, and the fabulous families of kings, TiHoanChi, KiehuTohuKi. Amongst the latter was Fohi, the lawgiver of the Chinese, and Uti, under whose family commences, with the reign of the celebrated Yau, the work called the Shuking, from which the Chinese derive their early history. But the historical character of this book cannot bear criticism. The royal families of this obscure period are the Kia (till 1767 B. C), Shang (till 1122), Chew (till 258). W uwang is invariably considered the founder of this last dynasty, but the accounts of its establishment differ. According to one account, the natives of the interior dethroned Chewsin, the last of the preceding dynasty. According to others, Wuwang came, with an army of foreigners, from the west, and introduced civilization amongst the natives. After the establishment of this family, there is a long chasm in the historical records. This the Chinese writers fill with fables. Under this dynasty is the Chewkew, or period of fighting kings, who ruled over many little neighboring states, and were continually at war with each other (from 770 till 320 B. C). At length, a Chinese hero, Chihoangti, of the princely house of Ting, made his appearance, in the age of Hannibal, and with him commenced the house of Tsin (from 256 till 207 B. C). He extirpated all the petty princes of the branch of Chew, and united the whole of China (247). He built the great wall as a protection against the Tartars. The empire was again dismembered, after his death, under his son Ulshi, but was reunited, ten years later, by Lieupang. He adopted the new name of Hang, and founded the dynasty of Hang, which reigned till A. D. 220, and was divided into the western and eastern Hang (Sihang, from B. C. 217 to A. D. 24, and Tonghang, from A. D. 24 till 220). The princes of this dynasty extended their conquests considerably to the west, and took part in the affairs of Central Asia. The religion of Taotse prevailed during their ascendency; and in the same period Judaism was introduced into China. In the course of time, the princes degenerated, and, under Hienti, China was divided into three kingdoms (220), which were again united by Wuti (280). He was the founder of the family of Tsin (265-420). The sovereigns of this family were bad rulers. The last, Kongti, was dethroned by Wuti, founder of the Song dynasty (420-479). A short time before this, a separate kingdom was formed in the southern provinces (386), called Uiai, or the five families. The Songs were likewise sovereigns of little worth. Whilst the whole aspect of Europe was changed by the general emigration of nations, two empires were formed in China, with the extinction of the dynasty of Tsinone in the north (386), and the other in the south (420); the latter of which was likewise called Utai, or the empire of the five families. In the latter reigned successively the family Song (till 479), Tsin (till 502), Lang (till 537), Tchin (till 589), Soui (till 619). The northern empire (386 till 587) was founded by the Goli Tartars, who conquered the northern part of China, and was governed by four dynasties,two native and two foreign, viz. the Goei, of the race of Topa, and the HewChew, of the race of Sienpi. a. The dynasty of Goei reigned from 386 till 556 in three branches (YuenGoei till 534, TongGoei till 550, and SiGoei or the western Goei, till 550) ; b. the dynasty of PeTsi (the northern Tsi), from 550 till 577 ; c. the dynasty of HewChew (the last Chew), from 557 till 581; d. the dynasty of HewLang (the last Lang), from 554 till 587. YangKien dethroned HewChew (581), conquered the empire of HewLang (587), of the Tsin (589), and founded the dynasty of Soui. The second emperor of this dynasty, Yangti, was dethroned by Liien (617), who founded the family of Tang, which maintained itself 300 years, and resided at Siaganfu, in Shen*si. During the reign of the first emperors of this line, particularly under Liien's learned son Taitsong I (626), China grew very powerful. But his successors gave themselves up to pleasure, and were entirely governed by their eunuchs. Internal distractions were the consequences. The last emperor, Tchaosiuenti, was dethroned by Shuwen, who founded the dynasty of HehuLang (907). This, as well as the succeeding dynasties of HehuTang (923), HehuTsin (936), HehuHan(946), HehuTchew (957), was of short duration. These are called HehuUtai, or the five last families. After this, China was torn by internal commotions, and almost every province had a separate rider, when, in 990, the people elected the able ShaoQuangYu emperor. He was the founder of the dynasty Sing, or Song, which reigned till 1279. His immediate successors resembled him, yet the country suffered considerably by the devastations of the Tartars. Under Yintsong (1012), the Chinese were forced to pay tribute to the Tartar Leaotsang. Wheytsong overthrew the empire of Leaotsang (11,01); but the Tartars possessed themselves of the whole of the north of China (Pecheli), 1125. Kaotsong II was their tributary, and reigned over the southern provinces only. Under the emperor Ningtsong, the Chinese formed an alliance with GenghisKhan, and the Niucheng submitted to this great conqueror (1180). But the Mongols themselves turned their arms against China, and KublaiKhan subjected them, after the death of the last emperor, Tiping (1260). Under the Tang dynasty, arts and sciences flourished in China; several of the emperors themselves were learned men. The Chinese authors call the Mongolian dynasty of emperors Yuen (from 1279 till 1368), and KublaiKhan is by them called Shitsu. This was the first time that the whole of China was subjected by foreign princes. But the conquerors conformed themselves entirely to the Chinese customs, and left the laws, manners and religion of the country unchanged. Most of the emperors of this line were able princes. But after the death of TimurKhan, or TsingTsang (Tamerlane), 1307, and still more after that of YesonTimurKhan, or Taiting (1318), divisions in the imperial family frequently occasioned internal wars, which weakened the strength of the Mongols. The Chinese Chu took up arms against the voluptuous TokamurKhan, or Shunti, and the Mongolian grandees became divided among themselves. TokamurKhan fled into Mongolia (1368), where he died (1379). His son Bisurdar fixed his residence in the ancient Mongolian capital Karakorum, and was the founder of the empire of the Kalkas, or northern Yuen. This state did not remain long united; but, after the death of TokozTimur (1460), each horde, under its own khan, became independent ; in consequence of which, they were, with few exceptions, constantly kept in subjection to China after this period. Chu, afterwards called Taitsoo IF, a private individual, but worthy of the throne, delivered his country from the foreign yoke, and founded the dynasty of Ming (1368 till 1644), which gave the empire 16 sovereigns, most of whom were men of merit. On the frontiers of the empire, the remains of the Niudshee Tartars, now called Mantchoos, still existed. The emperor Shintsong II gave them lands in the province of Leaotong ; and, when an attempt was made, soon after, to expel them, they resisted successfully, under their prince Taitsu, and obtained possession of Leaotong ; upon which their chief assumed the title of emperor. He continued the war during the reigns of the Chinese emperors Quantsong and Hitsong, until his death. His son Tatsong succeeded him, and Hoaitsong, a good but weak prince, was tne successor of Hitsong on the throne of China. On the death of Tatsong, the Tartars did not appoint any one to succeed him, and discontinued the war. But in China, Litching excited an insurrection, during which HongPuan put an end to his life (1644). Litching's opponents called in the Mantchoos to their assistance. They got possession of Pekin, and of the whole empire, over which they still reign. Under Shunchi, a child of six years old, the conquest of China was completed (1646- 47), and the present dynasty of Tatim, or Tsim, or Tsing, was founded. He ^as succeeded, in 1662, by his son Kanghi, who subdued the khan of the Mongols, took Formosa, and made several other additions to his empire. During the reign of this prince, the Christian religion was tolerated, but his son Yongching prohibited it in 1724. The son of the latter, KienLung, continued the persecution against the Christians (1746-73). He conquered Cashgar, Yarkand, the greatest part of Songaria, the northeastern part of Thibet and Lassa, the empires of Miaotse and SiaoKintshuen, and extended his territories to Hindostan and Bucharia. He peopled the Calmuck country, which the expulsion of the Songarians had rendered almost a desert, with the fugitive Torgots and Songarians from Russia. In 1768, he was totally defeated by the Birmese of Ava ; nevertheless, the Chinese took possession of a town in Ava in 1770, and returned to their country with the loss of half of their army. They were more successful against the Miaotse (mountaineers). Towards the end of his reign, his minister, favorite and soninlaw, HoTchington, abused his influence over him. KienLung was succeeded, in 1799, by his 15th son, KiaKing. His reign was frequently disturbed by internal commotions ; for in China there exist secret combinations of malcontents of all classes. In their nightly meetings, they curse the emperor, celebrate Priapian mysteries, and prepare everything for the arrival of a new Fo, who is to restore the golden age. The Catholics, whom he favored, have lost most of their privileges by their inconsiderate zeal, and at Pekin, the preaching of the Christian religion has been strictly prohibited. KiaKing was succeeded, in 1820, by his second son, TaraKwang, whom the Russians call Daoguan. The embassy of lord Macartney (q. v.) was not more successful in attempting to change the policy maintained by the court of China for more than 1000 years, than the Russian embassy of count Golowkin, or the more recent one of lord Amherst, the British ambassador, in 1816. The envoys were unable to form political or commercial treaties with this " celestial empire of the world," which treats all monarchs as its vassals. (See Staunton's Miscellaneous Notices relating to China, &c. (London, 1822.) A history of China, translated from the Chinese of ChooFooTsze, by P. P. Thorns, many years resident at Macao, in China, was lately announced for publication. It is stated to commence with the reign of Fuhhe, according to Chinese chronology, B. C. 3000, and to reach the reign of" Minte, A. D. 300, including a period of 3300 years. Chinese Language, Writing and Literature. The Chinese language belongs to that class of idioms which are called monosyllabic. (See Languages.) Every word of it consists only of one syllable. They may, however, be combined together .as in the English words welcome, welfare; but every syllable is significant, and therefore is of itself a word. If the Chinese language were written, like our own, with an alphabet, it would be found to possess comparatively but few sounds. It wants the consonants b, d, r, v, and z. Every syllable ends with a vowel sound. The Chinese cannot articulate two consonants successively, without interposing a skeva, or English u short. Thus they pronounce the Latin word Christus in this manner, Kulissutoosuh. The number of syllables of which the Chinese language is composed is very small. According to Remusat, it does not exceed 252; but Montucci thinks there are 460. It is not, therefore, accurately known. But this number is quadrupled by four different tones or accents (some say five), of which an idea cannot be given by words. By means of these accents, the Chinese speak in a kind of cantilena, or recitative, which is not, however, much observed when they speak fast, in their ordinary conversation. It requires a nice ear to distinguish those varieties of tone. This language, consisting of monosyllables, is destitute of grammatical forms. The nouns and verbs cannot be inflected, and therefore the differences of tenses, moods, cases, and the like, are either left to be understood by means of tfte context, or expressed by the manner in which the words are placed in relation to each other, as in French, sagefemme and femmesage. With all these deficiencies, if they can so be called, the Chinese understand each other perfectly well, and are never at a loss to express their ideas. Their extensive and varied literature is a proof of it; but this is generally ascribed to their writing, which, it is said, expresses more than their spoken language. But we do not concur with those who hold this opin13* ion. We think that the spoken language is fully adequate to the expression of every idea, and that the written characters add nothing to its force. The enthusiasm with which some writers speak of the wonderful effects of the Chinese writings upon the minds of those who read them, has often reminded us of the ocular harpsichord of father Castel. The Chinese characters, like all others, represent the sounds, that is to say, the syllabic sounds or words of the spoken language; and through those sounds the ideas are communicated to the mind.The writing of the Chinese, indeed, if we consider only the number of their characters, and compare it with that of their words, would seem to possess a very great superiority. There are not less than 80,000 Chinese characters; but of these only 10,000 are in common use, and the knowledge of them is sufficient to enable one to understand almost every Chinese book. It was once thought that it required a man's wThole life to learn to read and write Chinese ; but M. Remusat, the celebrated professor of that language in the royal college at Paris, has demonstrated by facts, that the Chinese may be learned in as short a time as any other idiom. The great number of these characters proceeds, in the first place, from the considerable quantity of homophonous words which exist in the Chinese. These are represented by different characters, as with us by different modes of spelling, of which the French words cent, cens, sang, sans, sens, sent, each having a different meaning, but all pronounced alike, are a striking example. Neither are homophonous words wanting in English, as bow and bough, great and grate, and many others. The Chinese characters, also, by being combined together, as it were, into one, express two or more words at the same time, and this, in a great degree, accounts for there being so many of them. The Chinese characters are all reducible to 214, which are called keys or radicals (in Chinese, poo), each of them representing one word, and each word an idea. By the analogy of those ideas the complex characters are formedan ingenious contrivance, which facilitates very much the acquisition of the knowledge of them. Thus all the words which express some manual labor or occupation are combined of the character which represents the word hand, with some other, expressive of the particular occupation intended to be designated, or of the material employed. This has induced many of the learned, and even the Chinese literati themselves, to maintain that the Chinese writing is ideographic, and represents ideas in a manner unconnected with the spoken language; but this supposition is disproved by the fact that no two Chinese can read aloud from the same book without using the same words, which are precisely those which the characters represent. If it were otherwise, every person in reading would use different words, and the written language, as it is called, would be translated, not read. It must be added, also, that the Chinese poetry is in rhyme, and therefore addressed to the ear, and not to the eye. This shows that it is impossible for those who are ignorant of the Chinese language to read the Chinese writing, unless their own idiom should be constructed exactly on the same model with the Chinese, have the same number of words, with the same meaning affixed to each, and the same grammatical forms. It has been repeatedly asserted that the Coreans, and other nations in the neighborhood of China, can all read the Chinese waiting, and understand it, without knowing a word of the spoken language; but this appears impossible. It is more reasonable to suppose, either that they have adapted the Chinese characters to their own idioms, or that the Chinese is among them, as Latin is with us, a learned language, which is generally acquired as a part of a liberal system of education. The Chinese characters are written from top to bottom and from right to left. The lines are not horizontal, but perpendicular, and parallel to each other. The Chinese literature is rich in works of every description, both in verse and in prose. They are fond of works of moral philosophy, but they have a great many books of history, geography, voyages, dramas, romances, tales and fictions of all kinds. Several of the latter works have been lately translated in England and France. The books called the Kings, ascribed to their great sage Confucius, are now in a course of translation. The works of his successor, MengTseu, have been lately published at Paris in the original, with an elegant Latin translation, in two octavo volumes, by M. Stanislas Julien. Other translations from the Chinese are in progress, both at London and Paris, under the patronage of the Asiatic societies of those capitals. The king of France has established a professorship of Chinese in the royal college at Paris. This chair is now filled by the learned Remusat, who has already formed several distinguished pu pils. The study of the Chinese language appears to be now pursued with great ardor in Europe, and with remarkable success. The reverend Mr. Morrison has published a Chinese grammar, and a dictionary of the same language, in 4 vols., 4to.; the former printed at Serampore, the latter at Macao, and both difficult to be procured. M. Remusat has published at Paris an excellent grammar of that language. The manuscript dictionary of father Basil de Glemona was translated into French, and published at Paris, by M. de Guignes, under the patronage of the emperor Napoleon, in the year 1813, in one thick folio volume, to which a valuable supplement has been since added by M. Klaproth. Auxiliary means are not now wanting for those who are desirous of learning this curious idiom.