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CATHEDRAL ; the Episcopal church of a diocese. The word is derived from the Greek KaOiSpa, a seat or bench. From the early times of the Christian church, the bishop presided in the presbytery, or the assembly of priests. He was seated on a chair, a little higher than that of the others. The whole meeting of priests was called cathedra; and, at a later period, when Christians were allowed to build churches, this name was applied to the Episcopal churches, and the name basilica to the particular churches erected in honor of a saint or a martyr. In the middle ages, the cathedral received the form of the cross. Several of the old churches are masterpieces of Gothic architecture. Among these are the cathedral at Oviedo, that at Milan [see Storia e Descrizione del Duomo di Milano (commenced in 1387, and not yet finished), by Gaet. Franchetti, with engravings, Milan, 1821, 4to.]; those at Toledo and Burgos ; those at Rouen, Rheims, Amiens, and the church of NotreDame, in Paris (see Cathedrales Frangaises, dessinees, lithogr. et publ. par Chapuy, avec un Atlas historique et descriptif, par Jolimont, 36 numbers, Paris, 1823 et seq. It contains views of 25 cathedrals). Those at Lund, Drontheim, Upsal, at York, Salisbury and Canterbury, also Westminster abbey, are celebrated (see J. Britton's Hist, and Antiquities of the Metropolitan Church of Canterbury, London, 1823, with engravings ; and Cathedratical Antiquities, by the same author). The cathedrals at Oppenheim, Ulm, Marburg, Meissen, Freiburg 'q. v.) in the Brisgau, are fine buildings (see doctor Moller's Denkmale der Deutschen Baukunst, Darmstadt, 1825; and F. W. Schwechten's Der Bom zu Meissen, Midi, dargest u. beschr., Berlin, 1826, 3 nos.). Respecting the cathedral of Cologne, see Boisseree. (For further information, see Wiebeking's work Die Kathedralen von Rheims und York, nebst den Grundrissen von 42 andern merkwiirdigen Kirchen, Munich, 1825, fob, with engravings.) In Rome there has appeared, since 1822, the Collection of the oldest Christian Churches, or Basilicas, of Rome, from the 4th to the 13th Centuiy ; drawn and published by J. G. Gutensohn and J. M. Knapp (architects); accompanied by an ArcliEeol. Histor. Description, by Anth. Nibby, professor of Archaeology in the University at Rome ; 7 numbers, each containing 7 plates. There is now in the course of publication at Milan, a splendid work, entitled Chiese princip.ali d'Europa, which will extend to 36 numbers; each of them being devoted to one particular edifice. From the numbers already published, we extract the subsequent measurements of celebrated buildings.St. Peter's, at Borne. English feet. Width of the cathedral, ...... 233 External diameter of the cupola, . 158 Total height,.........., . . 448 Cathedral at Milan. Feet. Width of the front,.........216 Width of the cross,......... 251 Total height,.............350 Pantheon at Rome. Pieds*. Length of the portico,.......103 Width of do., . . . . 4....... 61 Interior diameter,..........132 Height from the pavement to the simimit of the cupola,......132St. Stephen's, at Vienna. Feet Width of the facade, . .......148 Great tower, from the ground to the top of the cross,.......450 Greatest breadth between the two chief towers,............235 Santa Maria del More, Florence. Feet. Whole length,............517 Total height,.............386