CAMBRIDGE

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CAMBRIDGE ; a posttown in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, on the north side of Charles river, three miles W. N. W. of Boston. Population, in 1820, 3295. C. consists of three principal parts or divisions, namely, Old Cambridge, which contains the university, a state arsenal, a Congregational meetinghouse, an Episcopal church, &c.; CambridgePort, which is a considerable trading village, containing four houses of public worship, and is connected with Boston by West Boston bridge; East Cambridge, a flourishing manufacturing village, which is situated on Lechmere point, is connected with Boston by Craigie's or Canal bridge, and contains a courthouse, a jail, a large glass manufactory, and three houses of public worship. The university in C, the oldest in the U. States, was incorporated in 1638, and named Harvard college, from its prin cipal founder. Its endowments have been since greatly increased by donations from the state, as well as by numerous acts of private bounty ; and, with regard to funds, library, professorships, and literary advantages in general, it is the first institution of the kind in America. It comprises a department for undergraduates, and one for students preparing for each of the learned professions, theology, law and medicine. The principal college buildings are, University hall, an elegant edifice of granite, containing a chapel, lecture rooms, dining halls, &c.; Harvard hall, a brick edifice, containing the library, philosophical apparatus and mineralogical cabinet; four other brick edifices, called Massachusetts, Hollis, Stoughton and Holworthy halls, each four stories high, containing rooms for the accommodation of undergraduates; Divinity hall, a large brick edifice for the accommodation of the theological students; and Holden chapel, containing the anatomical museum, chemical laboratory and lecture rooms. The library is the largest in the union, and contains about 30,000 volumes. The philosophical apparatus is probably not surpassed by any in the country. The chemical laboratory, anatomical museum, and cabinet of minerals, are all valuable. The botanic garden comprises seven acres, laid out in an ornamental style, and is furnished with an interesting collection of trees, shrubs and plants, both native and foreign. The legislative government is intrusted to a corporation, consisting of the president of the university and six fellows, and to a board of overseers, composed of the president, the governor of the state, lieutenantgovernor, members of the council and senate, and the speaker of the house of representatives, ex qfficiis, together with 30 others, 15 clergymen and 15 laymen, elected for the purpose. The officers of the university, to whom the business of instruction is confided, are a president, 21 professors, 2 tutors, and several instructers. The president, a part of the professors and the tutors constitute the immediate government of the institution. The course of education requisite to obtain the first degree in arts in this university, as in American colleges generally, is completed in four years. In the theological school, the course of education is completed in three years, and the students are divided into three classes, junior, middle and senior. Tuition is afforded free of expense to all pupils in this school, and further assistance is given to such as are indigent. Graduates of any college, of good moral character, may be admitted to share in all the benefits of this institution. The law school was established in 1817. Candidates for admission must be graduates of some college, or qualified, according to the rules of court, to become students at law. Students in this department, who are graduates of a college, complete their education in three years. Those who are not graduates complete it in five years. The lectures for the medical students are delivered in Boston, at the Massachusetts medical college, which is a spacious edifice of brick, and contains a medical library of about 4000 volumes. They commence annually on the third Wednesday in November, and continue three months. In order to obtain a degree of M. D., it is necessary for a student to attend two courses of lectures, and to pass three years, including the time occupied in attending the lectures, under the direction of some regular practitioner. In 1829, the number of undergraduates was 252, theological students 42, law students 24, medical students 83; total, 401. Commencement is on the last Wednesday in August. The academical year is divided into three terms and three vacations. The first vacation is of two weeks, from the Wednesday preceding the 25th day of December, the second of two weeks, from the first Wednesday in April, and the third, the six weeks next preceding commencement.