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CAESAR was the family name of the five first Roman emperors. With Nero the imperial family became extinct (A.D.68), and Ccesar became merely a title of dignity. The emperor, who bore the title of Augustus, appointed his successor, with the title of Ccesar, On medals and monuments we find the title Ccesar preceding die name of the emperor, as. Imp. Caesar JYerva Trajanus Augustus, and following that of the designated successor, as, Marc. Aiurel. Antonin. Ccesar. In the lower Greek empire, a new dignity of Sebastocrator was conferred, and that of Ccesar became the third rank in the state.