BURGUNDIANS

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BURGUNDIANS. The Burgundians (called, by the ancients, BURGUNDI, Burgundiorces, Burngundi, Bugantce, Bunticcce, and sometimes Urugundi), one of the principal branches of the Vandals, can be traced back to the country between the Oder and the Vistula, in what is now the New Mark, and the southern part of West Prussia. They were distinguished from the other Germans by living together in villages, hurgen (v>hence, perhaps, they received the name of Burgundians). The others lived separately, and led a more wandering life. This is probably the reason' why they retained possession of their country much longer than the neighboring Goths and Vandals, till, at length, they were no longer able to withstand the Gepidse, who pressed in upon them from the mouths of the Vistula. In consequence of the loss of a great battle with the Gepidse, they emigrated to Germany, where they advanced to the region of the Upper Rhine, and settled near the Allemanni. From them they took a considerable tract of country, and lived in almost continual war with them. In the beginning of the 5th century, with other German nations, they passed over into Gaul. After a long struggle, and many losses, they succeeded in obtaining possession of the southeastern part of this country by a contract with the Romans. A part of Switzerland, Savoy, Dauphiny, Lionnais and FrancheComte belonged to their new kingdom, which, even in the year 470, was known by the name of Burgundy. The seat of government seems to have been sometimes Lyons, and sometimes Geneva.By their old constitution, they had kings, called hendinos, whom they chose and deposed at their pleasure. If any great calamity befell them, as a failure of the crops, a pestilence, or a defeat, the king was made responsible for it, and his throne was given to another, under whom they hoped for better times. Before their conversion to Christianity (which happened after their settlement in Gaul), they had a highpriest, called sinestus, whose person was sacred, and whose office was for life. The trial by combat even then existed among them, and was regarded as an appeal to the judgment of God. Continually endeavoring to extend their limits, they became 28* engaged in a war with the Franks, by whom they were finally wholly subdued, under the son of Clovis, after Clovis himself had taken Lyons. They still preserved their constitution, laws and customs for a time. But the dignity of king was soon abolished, and, under the Carlovingians, the kingdom was divided into provinces, which, from time to time, shook off their dependence. In 879, Boson, count of Autun, brotherinlaw of king Charles the Bald, and duke of Milan, with the assent of the Burgunclian nobles, succeeded in establishing again the royal dignity in this kingdom. He styled himself king of Provence. His residence was at Aries, and hence is derived the name kingdom of Aries. He was deprived of several provinces by Louis and Carloman ; but his son Louis added to his hereditary possessions the country lying beyond the Jura, and thus established the kingdom of Burgundy, CisJ urana, or Lower Burgundy, which included a part of Provence, with Aries, Dauphiny, Lionnais, Savoy, and a part of FrancheComte. A second kingdom of Burgundy arose when the Guelph Rodolph von Strettlingen (duke of Swiss Lorraine) gained possession of the rest of Lorraine, namely, Switzerland beyond the river Reuss, the Valais, and a part of Savoy, and, in short, all the provinces between the Jura and the Pennine Alps, and caused himself, in 888, to be crowned king of Upper Burgundy (regnum Burgundicum Transjuranum). Both Burgundian kingdoms were united about the year 930, and, after the race of Rodolph became extinct. (1032) were incorporated with Germany, under the emperor Conrad II. But & third state, which had its origin about the same time with Upper Burgundy, consisting, principally, of the French province Bourgogne (Burgundy, properly so called), and the founder of which is said to have been Richard, brother of Boson (first king of Lower Burgundy), maintained its independence. From Ludegardis, granddaughter of Richard, and her husband, Otho, a brother of Hugh Capet, sprang the ancient dukes of Burgundy (Bourgogne). They became extinct, in 1361, with the death of duke Philip, and Burgundy was immediately united, by king John of France, with the French crown, partly as a fiet of the kingdom, and partly because his mother was sister of the grandfather of the last duke. The dignity of duke of Burgundy was restored in 1363, by his grant of those domains, under the title ofa auKeaom, as an appanage to nis youngest and favorite son, Philip the Bold, Philip was the founder of the new line of the dukes of Burgundy. In 1368, he married Margaret, the widow of the last duke Philip of the old line, only daughter and heiress of Louis III, count of Flanders, whereby he greatly augmented his possessions. At that time, Flanders, Mechlin, Antwerp and FrancheComte fell to him. In 1402, he was made regent of France, on account of the sickness of Charles VI. Louis, duke of Orleans, brother of the king, being obliged to yield to him this dignity, conceived a bitter hatred against him. This was the occasion of the famous division of the French into the Orleans and Burgundian parties. In 1404, Philip died, and was succeeded by his son, John the Fearless. Orleans now became regent of France. But both cousins remained bitter enemies, till, under the walls of Montfaucon, at the commencement of a civil war (1405), they embraced each other in the sight of the whole army, and, as a pledge of entire reconciliation, slept in the same bed the following night. Nevertheless, Orleans was assassinated in the street in 1407, and duke John of Burgundy declared himself the author of the deed, which was the melancholy cause of the greatest disturbances in Paris. Indeed, John obtained a letter of pardon from the king; but justice overtook him as lie was about to repeat the farce of a public reconciliation with the dauphin, on the bridge of Montereau. While the first words of salutation were passing between them, he was stabbed by the companions of the dauphin (1419). His son and successor, Philip, surnamed the Good (previously fount of Charolais), in the peace which was concluded between England and France and Burgundy (1420), succeeded in effecting the exclusion of the dauphin, as a punishment for the murder of duke John. In the reign of Philip happened his memorable dispute with Jacqueline of Brabant, and her second husband, the duke of Gloucester, which was settled by a treaty, by virtue of which Philip was to become the heir of Jacqueline (if she died childless), and she was not to marry without his consent. But Jacqueline violated this last stipulation (1430), and Philip took possession of her territories, Hainault, Holland and Zealand, setting aside a small portion for her maintenance. The year before, Philip had purchased Namur, and, in 1431, Brabant and Limburg reverted to him, when the line of Anthony of Burgundy, secona son or auKe rnnip xne jDoia, ue~ came extinct. In the peace with France (Arras, 1435), it was stipulated . that king Charles VII should sue for pardon on account of the murder of John, and that Philip should receive from France the valuable districts of Macon, St. Gengou, Auxerre and Bar sur le Seine for himself and his lawful male and female heirs; Peronne, Mondidier and Itoye for his lawful male heirs; and, further, St. Quentin, Corby, Amiens, Abbeville, Ponthieu, Dourlens, St. Kiquier, Crevecceur, Arleux and Mortagne, and the county of Boulogne, for himself and his heirs. To these important possessions he added also, in 1441, the duchy of Luxemburg. In 1430, Philip had contracted a third marriage, as his two former wives had borne him no children. On his marriage with Isabella (Elisabeth), daughter of king John of Portugal, at Bruges (q. v.), in Flanders, he founded the order of the golden fleece. Three sons sprung from this marriage, of whom the two first soon died. The third, Charles count Charolais, after the death of Philip (at Bruges, July 1.6th, 1467), became duke of Burgundy. (See Charles the Bold.) He acquired Gueldres in 1475, and left behind him, in 1477, a daughter, Maria, the sole heiress of his states. Seven princes were her suitors, among whom were the dauphin of France and Maximilian of Austria. The last obtained her hand and the dukedom (the Netherlands and Upper Burgundy). The king of France received, of the Burgundian territory, nothing except the cities in Picardy and the dukedom of Bourgogne, which he assumed as being a male fief. Maria died in her 25th year, in consequence of a fall, leaving three children, Philip, Margaret and Francis (who died soon after). The Burgundian provinces would not all recognise Maximilian as the guardian of his children. He betrothed his daughter to the dauphin, Charles, with the county of Artois and Burgundy, together with the Maconnais, Auxerrois, Salins and Bar sur le Seine, as her dowry. But his object, which was wholly to pacify the provinces, was not attained. The people of Flanders were particularly obstinate, and they went so far that Maximilian, two years after his election as king of the Romans (1488), was retained a prisoner at Bruges for more than three months. Finally, the people of Flanders acknowledged him as guardian of his son Philip, and regent of the government. Burgundy was, as we have seen above, separated into two parts Burgundy Proper, and Upper Burgundy or FrancheComte. The former was transferred from Spain to France in the ladies1 peace, so called, of Cambray, 1529. (See Francis I.) The latter Louis XIV conquered, and retained at the peace of Nimeguen. Since that time, the Burgundies have never been separated from France. (See Netherlands, Kingdom of.) The baron Barante, peer of France, published at Paris, in 1824, in 10 volumes, a Histoire des Dues de Bourgogne de la Maison de Valois (1364-1477).